Karnali Pradesh

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Karnali Pradesh

कर्णाली प्रदेश
Phucksumdo lake.jpg
Kanjiroba Mountain.JPG
Narakot Sinja Valley.JPG
Simikot N.jpg
RARA Lake Mugu.jpg
From top going clockwise:Phoksundo lake, Sinja Valley, Simikot, Rara lake, and Kanjiroba
Location of Karnali Pradesh
Location of Karnali Pradesh
Country   Nepal
Formation20 September 2015
Largest cityBirendranagar
 • BodyGovernment of Karnali Pradesh
 • GovernorDurga Keshar Khanal
 • Chief MinisterMahendra Bahadur Shahi (NCP)
 • High CourtSurkhet High Court
 • Provincial AssemblyUnicameral (40 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituencyPratinidhi Sabha 12
Rastriya Sabha 8
 • Total27,984 km2 (10,805 sq mi)
Area rank1st
 • Total1,570,418
 • Rank7th
 • Density56/km2 (150/sq mi)
 • Density rank7th
Time zoneUTC+5:45 (NST)
Official LanguageNepali
Other Languages
HDI0.469 (low)
Sex ratio95.78 /100 (2011)

Karnali Pradesh (Nepali: कर्णाली प्रदेश) is one of the seven federal provinces of Nepal formed by the new constitution which was adopted on 20 September 2015.[1] The total area of the province is 27,984 square kilometres (10,805 sq mi), making it the largest province in Nepal. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population of the province was 1,570,418, making it the least populous province in Nepal. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Gandaki Pradesh to the east, Sudurpashchim Pradesh to the west, and Province No. 5 to the south.[2] Birendranagar with a population of 47,914 is both the province's capital and largest city.[3]


The province's name is derived from the Karnali River, which flows through the province.[4][5]


Karnali is an old civilization of Nepal and it is connected with Karnali River [6] The archaeological sites found in Jumla, Surkhet and Dailekh refers that this area was part of Khasa kingdom which was established during 11th century. The capital of the Khas Kingdom was Sinja. The kingdom was expanded to a great extent in 13th and 14th century. This kingdom was expanded to Garhwal in the west, Mansarowar and Guge regions of Tibet in the north, Gorkha-Nuwakot regions in the east and with Kapilvastu with large areas Terai in the South. After late 14th century the Khas empire collapsed and divided into Baise Rajya (22 principalities) in Karnali-Bheri region.[7]

Before unification of modern Nepal, the part of Karnali (from Karnali River to Bheri River) was an Sanghiya Baise Rajya (United 22 principalities state). The Baise were sovereign, but intermittently allied among themselves until they were annexed during the unification of modern Nepal from 1744 to 1810.


Karnali is the largest province of Nepal with an area of 24,453 km2 (9,441 sq mi).

The province is surrounded by Gandaki Pradesh in east, Province No. 5 in south-east and south, Sudurpaschim Pradesh in the west and Tibet Autonomous Region of China in north.

The province has occupied higher mountains land of north and mid-hills of Nepal. It contains Kubi Gangri, Changla and Kanjiroba mountains in north. The Shey Phoksundo National Park with Phoksundo lake is the largest national park of Nepal and Rara lake is the largest lake of Nepal which are located in Karnali Pradesh. Karnali River is the biggest river of the province which is thought to be longest river of Nepal. Seti River and Bheri River are tributaries of Karnali.

Average temperatures and precipitation for selected communities in Karnali[8]
Location August









Precipitation (mm/in)

Kharpunath 48 8.9 9.5 -12.5 209.5/8.2
Simikot 54.9 12.7 17.6 -8 304.2/12
Chandannnath 60.8 16 29.7 -1.3 728.9/28.7
Narayan 71.8 22.1 45.3 7.4 1252.3/49.3
Birendranagar 78.4 25.8 53.2 11.8 1651/65

Government and administration[edit]

The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Surkhet High Court is the head of the judiciary.[9] The present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Durga Keshar Khanal, Mahendra Bahadur Shahi and Hari Kumar Pokharel respectively.[10][11] The province has 40 provincial assembly constituencies,12 House of Representative constituencies and eight National Assembly seats.[12]

Karnali has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years. The Provincial Assembly of Karnali Pradesh is temporarily housed at the Irrigation Division Office in Birendranagar.[13]

Administrative subdivisions[edit]

Districts of Karnali

Karnali is divided into ten districts.

  1. Dailekh District
  2. Dolpa District
  3. Humla District
  4. Jajarkot District
  5. Jumla District
  6. Kalikot District
  7. Mugu District
  8. Salyan District
  9. Surkhet District
  10. Western Rukum District

A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer. The districts are further dived to municipalities or rural municipalities which are further divided into wards. There are 25 municipalities and 54 rural municipalities in the province.[14] The capital and largest city of the province is Birendranagar. It is only city in the province with a population of over 50,000.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Nepal Provinces". statoids.com. Retrieved 2016-03-21.
  2. ^ "Prov 6 named as Karnali, permanent capital in Birendranagar". www.myrepublica.com. 24 February 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
  3. ^ "Government finalises provinces' governors and temporary headquarters". nepalekhabar.com. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  4. ^ "Province 6 named Karnali; Surkhet capital". kathmandupost.ekantipur.com. Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  5. ^ Times, Nepali. "Naming new provinces". Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  6. ^ "कर्णाली प्रदेश एक चिनारी". www.ocmcm.karnali.gov.np. The office of chief minister and cabinet of Karnali Pradesh. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  7. ^ "Nepal in the Medieval Period". www.telegraphnepal.com. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  8. ^ "Nepal Travel Weather Averages (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
  9. ^ "High Courts get their chief judges". Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  10. ^ "Mahendra Bahadur Shahi set to be Province 6 CM | Setopati - Nepal's Digital Newspaper". setopati.net. Retrieved 2018-04-28.
  11. ^ "President of Nepal administers oath to Chiefs of seven provinces | DD News". ddnews.gov.in. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  12. ^ "CDC creates 495 constituencies". The Himalayan Times. 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  13. ^ "First Provincial Assembly meeting begins in 4 provinces". Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  14. ^ "स्थानिय तह". Retrieved 2018-04-27.

Coordinates: 29°30′N 82°25′E / 29.500°N 82.417°E / 29.500; 82.417