Karoline (Hebrew: Chaile) Kaulla née Raphael, known foremost under the name Madame Kaulla or "Kiefe" Auerbacher (1739 in Buchau am Federsee- 18 March 1809 in Hechingen), was one of the most famous Court Jews of her time, and reputed to have been the richest woman in Germany.
Kaulla was born in 1739 to Yitzchak (Isaak) Raphael and Rifka (née Wasserman). In 1757 she married Akiva Auerbach.
In 1768 she was appointed court factor in the Fürstenberg residence of Donaueschingen, selling horses, silver, jewellery and other expensive goods to this court. In 1770 she became court factor for the Duke of Wuerttemberg in Stuttgart.
To speak in modern terms, she can be characterized as a charismatic economic leader, who came to be a treasurer at the Royal Württemberg Court, and leader of the Trading House Kaulla in Stuttgart. She later was a co-founder of the Royal Württemberg Court Bank, which, after many fusions, resulted in the Deutsche Bank in the 1920s.
Kaulla received great honors, amongst them the Civil-Verdienst-Medaille with golden chain presented to her by Emperor Franz I. The golden chain is now displayed at Yad Vashem Historic museum in Jerusalem.
She is reputed to have been a beautiful, impressive woman, praised for the welfare, her care for the poor (regardless of religion) and her works for the Jewish community in Hechingen.
- Karoline Kaulla, Banker (German)
- Karoline-Kaulla-Weg, a street in Stuttgart
- Guide to the Papers of the Kaulla Family
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