Karwar

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Karwar
City/Taluk
Heading for a new journey at Tagore Beach.JPG
Bridge, Sadashivghad (1496158).jpg
Arabian sea from Sadashivgarh fort.JPG
Majali Beach, Devabhaga, Karwar.jpg
Clockwise from the Top:
Tagore Beach, Arabian sea from Sadashivgad fort, Majali Beach, Bridge over Kali River
Karwar is located in Karnataka
Karwar
Karwar
Karwar is located in India
Karwar
Karwar
Coordinates: 14°48′N 74°08′E / 14.80°N 74.13°E / 14.80; 74.13Coordinates: 14°48′N 74°08′E / 14.80°N 74.13°E / 14.80; 74.13
CountryIndia
StateKarnataka
DistrictUttara Kannada
Government
 • MLARoopali S Naik, BJP
Area
 • Urban
27.9 km2 (10.8 sq mi)
 • Rural
704.2 km2 (271.9 sq mi)
 • Total732.1 km2 (282.7 sq mi)
Elevation
6 m (20 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • City/Taluk154,509(Entire Taluk)
 • Density5,563.18/km2 (14,408.6/sq mi)
 • CMC only
81,542
 • Excluding CMC area
72,967
Demonym(s)Karwarkar
Languages:
 • LocalKannada (Official) and Konkani
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
581301
Telephone code91-8382-XXX XXX
Vehicle registrationKA-30
HDI (2014)Increase 0.900 (Very High)[2]
Literacy (2014)89.91[2]
Sex ratio (2014)989 /1000 [2]
Websitehttp://www.karwarcity.mrc.gov.in/en http://www.zpkarwar.kar.nic.in/indexEnglish.html

Karwar (formerly Carwar) is a city, taluk and administrative center of Uttara Kannada district in the Indian state of Karnataka, which lies on the west coast of Southern India at the mouth of the Kali river.

Karwar is a popular tourist destination and with a City Urban area of 27.9 km (17.3 mi), it is the largest city in Uttara Kannada. The city and its surrounding regions are known for their beaches and green tourism destinations.

Etymology[edit]

Karwar derived its name from the nearby village of kadewada. Kade means last and wada means precinct or area in Konkani. Before Indian independence, the name Karwar was spelt Carwar.[3] The name Baithkhol, is an Arabic term Bait-e-kol, meaning the bay of safety. This is in the Indian History for maritime trade wherein pepper, cardamom and muslin were exported from this Kadewad port and after the war with Veer Henja Naik (1803), the port activities were shifted to Baithkol. Thereafter the port of Kadwad was isolated and Kurmagad Fort was activated by the Portuguese.

History[edit]

Kali River and Sadashivgad fort as seen from Nandangadda village
Kali river bridge, Karwar, Karnataka
Leisure boats on Kali River

Karwar Town was built by the British in the year 1857 after the Mutiny. Kawar is also known as 'Kashmir of Karnataka'. Earlier to 1857 there was no existence of Karwar as a city. Honnavar was the District Head of Canara District consisting up to Mangalore to Kodibag Karwar, till Kali river and Karwar existed as settlements of villages like Habbuwada, Kajubag, Kodibag, Kone village, Baad Village, Kathinkon, Sunkeri village, Shirwad village and Binaga village. After that the bank towards the north was under the rule of Sadhashiv Nayak and Maratha province. After the mutiny of 1857, the British made division of Canara District into two parts as South Kanara [Dakshin Kannada] with headquarters at Mangalore attached to Madras Province and North Kanara [Uttar Kannada] with headquarters at the newly built town Karwar, which was attached to Bombay province. It is a planned city like Panji, Mumbai, Dharwad, Bangalore. After the rule of Indian Government from 1947, Karwar is more or less neglected politically and kept without major developments.

Ancient History[edit]

Portuguese traders knew Karwar as Cintacora, Chitrakul, Chittakula or Sindpur. In 1510, the Portuguese captured and burnt a fort at Karwar. They called it Fort Pir, Forte de Piro or Pito due to the presence of a Muslim Dargah (tomb of a Sufi saint, Shahkaramuddin).

In 1638 the English trading Courteen Association established a factory at Kadwad village, 6 km east of Karwar and traded with merchants from Arabia and Africa. The common commodities were muslin, black pepper, cardamom, cassier and coarse blue cotton cloth. In 1649 the Courteen Association merged with the British East India Company, and Karwar became a company town. The East India Company built fighting ships in the Karwar harbour. For example, the Britannia (1715) which had 18 guns was built to defend Bombay from attacks by Maratha Koli[4] admiral Kanhoji Angre.[5]

In the 1700s, Karwar was a part of the Maratha Empire. Having marched from Bednore in the south, visiting on his way the sacred temple at Gokarna, Shivaji seized Ankola and the next day came to Karwar (then known as Kadwad). Both the East India Company and Sher Shah, the sardar of Bijapur, were very much alarmed at this sudden development. They collected huge amount and offering it to Shivaji, praying that they may be spared. Satisfied at the recognition of his authority, Shivaji crossed the Kali River and conquered Sadashivgad on 21 February 1665.

In 1784, at the time of the Treaty of Mangalore between Tipu Sultan and the East India Company, Karwar and Sadashivgad were spelt Carwar and Sadasewgude respectively.[6] After the defeat of the Marathas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, Karwar was captured by the British. Kot Siveshvar, another fortress, was built near Karwar (in Siveshvar village) by the Sultan of Bijapur to counterattacks from the north.

At the ruins of Fort Siveshvar are a Muslim graveyard and a tunnel at the eastern gate. The Bengali poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, who visited Karwar in 1882, dedicated a chapter of his memoirs to this town.[7] At 22 years, Tagore stayed with his second brother, Satyendranath Tagore, who was a district judge in Karwar.

From 1862 until the re-organization of the Indian states after Independence, Uttara Kannada district was a part of the Bombay Presidency. During this time, major public works carried out included improvement of roads, building of a wharf, wharf road and a sea wall at the Karwar port as well as the construction of a multi-floor storage building, staff housing, a post office, kutcheri (kutcherries or zamindar's offices) and a Christian burial ground.[8] At the same time, the local Konkani-speaking people had close connections with Mumbai and Goa. Many Marathi middle schools were established in the Karwar and Joida taluks. Many Konkani people in Goa still have close connections to Maharashtra and Goa.

During World War II Karwar was an Indian Naval training site.[9]:172

Post-Independence[edit]

Post-Independence Karwar was made a part of newly formed Mysore state following requests by the people of Karwar. Karwar during the 1950-60s played import role against the Konkani language agitation, helping cement Konkani as an independent language during Konkani conferences held in Karwar. The city played an important role in Konkan culture and Konkani culture hosting many Konkani conferences to promote the language. There have been demographic shifts since the state reorganizations act, and Karwar is no longer the stronghold for Konkani culture and has been overtaken by Panji, Goa (after Goa achieved statehood) and by Mangalore[10] The city is also neglected by the state government and devoid of development. Spots of attractions are usually underfunded, relatively little money is allowed for development and people have to constantly rely on the neighboring state of Goa to carry out their needs.[11]

Geography[edit]

Map of Karwar Taluk

Karwar is a seaside city on the west coast of the Indian peninsula. To the east are the Western Ghats. Karwar is situated on the banks of the Kali river (Kali nadi) which flows west to the Arabian sea from its headwaters at Bidi village in the Western Ghats. The Kali river has a length of about 153 km and is the main source of irrigation in the region. Karwar is 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of the KarnatakaGoa border, 65 kilometres (40 mi)South of Margao , 519 kilometres (322 mi) north-west of Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka, and 272 kilometres (169 mi) north of Karnataka's chief port city Mangalore.

Baitkhol port at Karwar is a natural harbour with land side hills and ocean side islands protecting it from cyclonic weather. The four fathom mark lies close to the shore. The tidal range is 1.2 to 2.5 metres (3 ft 11 in to 8 ft 2 in).[9]:172

Biodiversity[edit]

Local bird, Sturnia blythii. Karwar is rich in flora and fauna

Several small mangrove covered islands lie off the Kali river estuary including Anjadip Island and Devagadaguda Islands. The sub-tidal regions of the islands have a high biodiversity, although the waters off Karwar have recorded higher than normal faecal coliform counts.[12]:248

Climate[edit]

Karwar lies on a coastal strip known as the Monsoon Coast.[13] Karwar has hot summers from March to May where the temperature may reach 37 °C. The Arabian Sea is warm throughout the year. Winters from December to February are very mild (24 °C and 32 °C). The windy monsoon period from June to September has an average rainfall of over 400 centimetres (160 in).

Climate data for Karwar (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38.2
(100.8)
39.1
(102.4)
39.6
(103.3)
38.9
(102.0)
37.4
(99.3)
36.6
(97.9)
32.8
(91.0)
33.3
(91.9)
34.0
(93.2)
39.4
(102.9)
37.8
(100.0)
37.2
(99.0)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F) 32.8
(91.0)
32.4
(90.3)
32.7
(90.9)
33.5
(92.3)
33.5
(92.3)
30.9
(87.6)
29.6
(85.3)
29.5
(85.1)
30.2
(86.4)
31.9
(89.4)
33.5
(92.3)
33.4
(92.1)
32.0
(89.6)
Average low °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
19.7
(67.5)
22.7
(72.9)
25.3
(77.5)
26.7
(80.1)
25.1
(77.2)
24.5
(76.1)
24.3
(75.7)
24.2
(75.6)
23.9
(75.0)
22.2
(72.0)
20.4
(68.7)
23.2
(73.8)
Record low °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
11.6
(52.9)
15.6
(60.1)
17.2
(63.0)
20.3
(68.5)
18.3
(64.9)
18.3
(64.9)
20.3
(68.5)
20.5
(68.9)
16.8
(62.2)
13.7
(56.7)
12.5
(54.5)
11.6
(52.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.1
(0.00)
0.1
(0.00)
0.2
(0.01)
8.9
(0.35)
123.1
(4.85)
964.8
(37.98)
965.0
(37.99)
684.8
(26.96)
305.6
(12.03)
194.5
(7.66)
31.4
(1.24)
7.0
(0.28)
3,285.6
(129.35)
Average rainy days 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.6 4.5 22.6 26.5 24.3 13.6 7.3 2.1 0.5 102.2
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 60 63 68 68 71 82 85 85 81 76 65 59 72
Source: India Meteorological Department[14][15]

Demographics[edit]

The total population in Karwar is 157,739 as of 2014 by Indian Government. As of 2014, Karwar had an average literacy rate of 89%, higher than the national average of 74%: male literacy was 94%, and female literacy was 84.85%.[2] In Karwar, 10% of the population were children under 6 years of age.

Language[edit]

Languages spoken as of 2011.[16]

  Konkani (53.9%)
  Kannda (30.4%)
  Urdu (6.4%)
  Others (9.3%)

Though Kannada is the official language of the state of Karnataka, Konkani is the native language of majority of the population in Karwar and is widely spoken among the locals and in general is closer to South Goan Konkani than Canarese Konkani. The city features many dialects of the language. Bhandari (mix of Konkani and Marathi) is spoken by locals. Contrary to popular belief Konkani has existed in Karwar taluk prior to the Portuguese invasion of Goa. While Marathi holds a sizable diaspora in the taluk (township), the advent of Kannada traders from nearby places of Hubli and Dharwad created a spur in spoken Kannada. With English and Hindi also being part of the curriculum in many schools and colleges, influx of people from outside the state for business or career, and exposure of the local population to movies, TV and media, these languages are also widely understood or spoken by sizable number of locals in Karwar.

Border issues[edit]

Karwar taluk is majorly Konkani by ethnicity, however it was historically ruled by the Kannada and Marathi kings of Karnataka and Maharashtra respectively. It was part of the Bombay Presidency during the British rule, before the reorganization of states. The native Konkani speakers had close connections with Bombay which extended to matrimonial relations too. Many Marathi-medium schools were also established in Karwar and Joida taluks. Marathi films were often released in Karwar. The visit of Marathi drama troupes from Bombay and Pune was an annual feature. However, Konkani-speaking people were disenchanted when Marathis began to claim that Konkani as a dialect of Marathi. They disputed it and asserted that Konkani had independent status as a language. It was the native Konkani-speaking people led by late P.S. Kamat who argued before Mahajan Commission that Karwar was an integral part of Karnataka. Goa which would have been a natural fit, was not a part of India yet at that time.[17]

There have been recent assertions by both Maharashtra and Goa that Karwar should belong to their states[18][19]

Religion[edit]

Karwar at dusk

Most people in Karwar are Hindu. Christianity was introduced to Karwar by the British and by the Portuguese in Goa in the 17th and 18th centuries. Muslim seafaring traders migrated to Karwar from the Deccan (Bahamani) kingdoms. Karwar was called Baithkol meaning the house of safety or "Bait-e-kol" meaning place of safety in Arabic. Muslim villages in Karwar include: Shiveshvar, Chittakula, Sawar Pai and Hotegali. Islamic tradition holds that two brothers, descendants of Ali, the son in law of Mohammad, settled in Shiveshvar and made the village a place of Islamic learning. In Shiveshvar, there are three shrines dedicated to Muslim saints: Gaiby Pir, Nizam Pir and Shamshuddin pir-in Kot. Christianity was introduced to Karwar by the British and by the Portuguese when ruling Goa in the 17th and 18th centuries. Portuguese also visited Karwar in those Days.

Economy[edit]

Karwar is an economic hub in Uttara Kannada and accounts for the largest part of the districts economic output.[20] The city is the largest in the district and its economy has been increasingly diversifying and growing.

Primary industry[edit]

Fishermen returning home at sunset, Devbagh, Karwar

Karwar is an agricultural region. The common crops are rice, groundnuts, green vegetables, onions, watermelons and flowers. Other primary industries include animal husbandry, sericulture, horticulture, beekeeping, gathering and lumbering and the growing of homeopathic medicinal plants.

The coastal location of Karwar lends to fishing and fisheries which are concentrated in Harikanth, Konkan Kharvis, Gabiths and Ambigas. The common types of fish are mackerel, sardines, hardheads and prawns. Fishing is done from land with nets or from boats such as pandy (motor launch) and dhoni (dug out canoes). There is also mechanised trawling. The brackish water of the Kali estuary is suitable for prawn farming.[21]

Secondary industry[edit]

Muslin used in dress making

Members of the Daivadnya Brahmin caste are engaged in jewellery design, manufacturing and goldsmithing. Leather works are common. Since 1638 when William Counten opened a mill, Karwar town has been a producer of fine muslin.[citation needed] In 1660s the factory was prosperous, exporting the finest muslins in Western India; the weaving country was inland to the east, at Hubli and other centres, where as many as 50,000 weavers were employed. Besides the great export of muslin, Karwar provided pepper, cardamoms, cassia, and coarse blue cotton cloth (dungan). I[22][citation needed]

In Binaga township, a chemical company Aditya Birla Chemicals (earlier owned by Ballarpur Industries Ltd / Solaris Chemtech), manufactures caustic soda lye and flakes, chlorine, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, kestra pipes and bromine.[12]:246

Tertiary industry[edit]

At Kaiga, 50 kilometres (31 mi) away, the Nuclear Power Corporation of India operates an 880 MW nuclear power plant. The Karnataka Power Corporation Ltd. operates a dam and 150 MW power house between Kadra and Mallapur townships, approximately 33 kilometres (21 mi) from Karwar town.

INS Kadamba[edit]

The Indian Navy operates a naval base at a bay near Binaga township. It is the navy's third largest base. The base was founded as part of Project Seabird. Casurina beach near Binaga (now called Kamat Bay) and Arga beach were incorporated into naval property. The public has access to the base during Navy Week in December and in visiting educational groups. The naval base includes a civilian support community at Amadalli, a ship lift and an hospital. INS Kadamba is the homeport of India's largest aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya.

INS Vajrakosh[edit]

INS Vajrakosh, commissioned on 9 September 2015, is the latest establishment of the Indian Navy at Karwar which will serve as special storage facility for specialised armaments and missiles. INS Vajrakosh will have all the required infrastructure and will be manned by specialists to provide specialised servicing facilities for these sophisticated missiles and ammunition.[23]

Aditya Birla Chemicals[edit]

Aditya Birla Chemicals (India) (ABCIL) is a unit of the Aditya Birla Group.

ABCIL has also acquired chlor-alkali and phosphoric acid division of Ballarpur Industries Ltd / Solaris Chemtech Industries Limited, based in Karwar, Karnataka.

Transport[edit]

Karwar Airport[edit]

The proposed Karwar Airport will be built by the Indian Navy at Alageri village[24] near Ankola, in Karnataka. The Airports Authority of India (AAI) will operate a civil enclave at the naval air base which is part of the Navy's Rs 100 billion Phase 2 of Project Seabird. After the construction Karwar will be the second city in Karantaka to have all 3 major modes of transport(Air, Sea, Land)

Konkan railway[edit]

The Konkan railway connects Karwar to most major towns and cities. Karwar has three railway stations: Karwar, Asnoti and Harwada. The nearest Goan station is Canacona, 36 km away. Madgaon station lies 68 km to the north.[25] and Mangalore station 253 km to the south.

Port[edit]

Karwar beach looking towards Madlimgadh and Kurumgad Islands

Karwar port is located at Baithkol, Karwar Bay. Hills and coastal islands make the port a natural harbour, sheltered from the Arabian sea. The port which is operated by the Government of Karnataka, services the hinterland of northern Karnataka, Goa and southern Maharashtra.

The length of the port is 355 metres (388 yd). The quay has two berths, with a draft capacity of 9.25 metres (30.3 ft). Karwar port also berths coastal vessels and there is a jetty for fishing vessels.[26] The Government of Karnataka has planned to develop Karwar port on a Public Private Partnership (PPP) basis to provide six additional berths, a container terminal, and a rail link to Shirwad railway station.

The port is able to handle all types of commodities, including "B" and "C" class petroleum products. There port has liquid storage tanks for bitumen, furnace oil, molasses, and HSD. A ban of iron ore mining and export in Karnataka state reduced congestion at the port. The port has arrangements for berthing coastal vessels, and a jetty for fishing boats.

In 2012 the Government of Karnataka carried out maintenance dredging in the port, the approach channel and the nearby anchorage. The port may be closed from 16 May to 15 September (the monsoon season).[26] Part of the 2008 Hindi film Golmaal Returns was filmed at Karwar port.

Tourism[edit]

Rabindranath Tagore beach[edit]

Rabindranath Tagore Statue at the Beach
Glazing Rays on Rabindranath Tagore Beach
Tagore beach
"The sea beach of Karwar is certainly a fit place in which to realize that the beauty of Nature is not a mirage of the imagination, but reflects the joy of the Infinite and thus draws us to lose ourselves in it. Where the universe is expressing itself in the magic of its laws it may not be strange if we miss its infinitude; but where the heart gets into immediate touch with immensity in the beauty of the meanest of things, is any room left for argument?" – Rabindranath Tagore[7]

Places of interest[edit]

Maritime museum at Tagore beach, Rabindranath
Sadashivgad Fort from the Kali River Bridge

Seaside[edit]

  • Kali River Garden, Kodibag
  • Rock Garden, Karwar
  • Binaga Beach
  • Devbagh Beach
  • Kali Bridge
  • Karwar Beach
  • Kurumgad Island
  • Majali Beach
  • Oyster Rock Lighthouse, a round white masonry construction with red trim protects ships from the rocks of Devgad Island, the largest off the Kali Estuary.[26]
  • Tilmatti beach, A black sand beach

Hinterland[edit]

  • Anshi National Park
  • Kadra & Kodsalli dam
  • Chaitanya Park
  • Chendia and Nagarmadi falls (a small waterfall which passes under a large rock)
  • Devkar Falls
  • Guddahalli Peak
  • Habbu Mountain
  • Hyder Ghat Pass
  • Mudgeri Dam
  • Shirve Ghat
  • Makkeri

Historic sites[edit]

  • Kot Shiveshvar
  • Shri Narasimha temple, Siddar
  • Sadashivgad Fort
  • Shahkaramuddin dargah, Sadashivgad (tomb of a Sufi saint)
  • Maritime museum

Culture[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Karwar is known for its seafood cuisine. Fish curry, with cashews, coconut and rice is a staple dish. Karwar curries use ginger and turmeric but not always garlic.[27]

Kurle Ambat (crab masala), a local dish

Local festivals[edit]

  • Kurumgad jatra
  • São João where garlands of freshly picked fruits leaves and flowers are worn and people jump into wells, ponds, rivers, and lakes.
  • Anjedweep island festival
  • Karavali Utsav, an annual three of four-day festival at Tagore beach, Rabindranath. It is organised by the Uttara Kannada District Administration as a cultural and social event. Many shops and stalls are installed at Tagore beach. People from all parts of the district and from all over the state and neighboring Goa state attend. Many cultural events are held in the evenings where regional, national and international artists including Bollywood stars, Kannada film stars, Goan artists and local artists perform.
  • Karwar utsav in summer season where local artistes and celebrities come and perform.

Media[edit]

Media outlets include:

  • Karwar eNews, online local newspaper.[28]
  • Karavali Munjavu, Kannada language daily newspaper.[29]
  • Zilla Varta Kendra media centre.
  • District Library, near the district court and next to Mitra Samaj.
  • All India Radio (Akashwani Kendra), Gurumath Road, Kajubag.

Education[edit]

Karwar has Government and private engineering college and Government medical college. The city has private and Government schools and institutions for PU, diploma and ITI courses.

Notable residents[edit]

Villages of Karwar[edit]

Karwar comprises the following blocks or villages:[citation needed]

* Ambrai
  • Amdalli
  • Angadi
  • Arga
  • Asnoti
  • Baad
  • Baitkol
  • Balni
  • Bhaire
  • Bhagatwada
  • bargadda
  • Bhandishitta
  • Binaga
  • Birtulbag
  • Bore
  • Chendia
  • Chittakulla
  • Devalmakki
  • Devabag
  • Dhol
  • Gopashitta
  • Goyar
  • Gotegali
  • Halebag
  • Halekote
  • Halga
  • Hankon
  • Hapkarni
  • Harwada
  • Hosali
  • Hotegali
  • Kadra
  • Kadwad
  • Kaiga
  • Kajubag
  • Kalaswada
  • Kanasgiri
  • Karkal
  • Kathinkon
  • Kerwadi
  • Kharga
  • Kinner
  • Kodibag
  • Kolage
  • Kurnipet
  • Lower Makeri
  • Majali
  • Maingini
  • Mallapur
  • Mudgeri
  • Nandangadda
  • Nargeri
  • Sadashivgad
  • Sakalbalni
  • Sanmudageri
  • Shejebag
  • Shejwad
  • Shirwad
  • Siddar
  • Sunkeri
  • Thoralebag
  • Todur
  • Ulga
  • Umlijug

Geographical orientation from Karwar[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sub-District Details". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d Zilla Panchayat Uttara Kannada District Overview 2014 http://www.zpkarwar.kar.nic.in/docs/publication/English/EnglishPart2.pdf
  3. ^ History Of Gingee and its rulers
  4. ^ LT GEN K. J., SINGH. "As NDA cadet, I was witness to Vice Admiral Awati's kindness". ThePrint.In. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  5. ^ Biddulph, Colonel John (1907). The Pirates of Malabar And an Englishwoman in India Two Hundred Years Ago (Reprint 2005 ed.). London: Smith, Elder & co. p. 40.
  6. ^ "Treaty of Mangelore" Archived 20 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine Project South Asia.
  7. ^ a b Karwar in Tagore's memoirs. online-literature.com
  8. ^ "Report of proceedings at the conference held at Poona, 1865." Department of Public Works, Bombay Presidency, 1866 p. 251 (Original held at Oxford University). Accessed at Google books, 5 April 2014.
  9. ^ a b Hiranandani G. M. "Transition to Eminence: The Indian Navy 1976–1990." Lancer Publishers, 2005. ISBN 8170622662, 9788170622666.
  10. ^ https://www.deccanherald.com/spectrum/a-bridge-between-languages-906284.html
  11. ^ https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/301118/no-jobs-in-karwar-youth-going-to-goa-daily-for-work.html
  12. ^ a b Sahoo D. and Pandey P. C. "Advances in Marine and Antarctic Science." APH publishing 2002 ISBN 8176483478, 9788176483476.
  13. ^ Outlook Traveller Outlook Publishing July 2008 8(7)
  14. ^ "Station: Karwar Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 397–398. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  15. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M98. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  16. ^ "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue".
  17. ^ CHAPTER II NORTH KANAKA DISTRICT http://14.139.60.114:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/957/8/NORTH%20KANAKA%20DISTRICT%20%28121-133%29.pdf
  18. ^ "Maharashtra-Karnataka border row: Ajit Pawar's remarks trigger fresh row; don't incite fire, cautions BSY". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  19. ^ Feb 17, TNN /; 2013; Ist, 02:30. "Konkani-speaking areas in Karwar yearn for Goa | Goa News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 December 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  20. ^ Karnataka Directorate of Economics and Statistics https://des.kar.nic.in/sites/Conference%20Files/3%20Consolidated%20-%20All%20Articles%20-%20GDDP.pdf
  21. ^ Qasim S. Z. "Indian Estuaries." Allied Publishers 2003 p270 ISBN 817764369X, 9788177643695.
  22. ^ http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs20/The_Imperial_Gazetteer_Of_India-Vol.15-tu-red.pdf
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  28. ^ [1] Archived 4 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Karwar e news online newspaper
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