Kashibo language

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Native toPerú
EthnicityCashibo people
Native speakers
1,200 (2007)[1]
  • Mainline Panoan
    • Cashibo
  • Cashibo
  • Cacataibo
  • Rubo / Isunbo
  • Nocaman
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
cbr – Kashibo
nom – Nocaman

Cashibo (Caxibo, Cacibo, Cachibo, Cahivo), Cacataibo, Cashibo-Cacataibo, Managua, or Hagueti is an indigenous language of Peru in the region of the Aguaytía, San Alejandro, and Súngaro rivers. It belongs to the Panoan language family.

Dialects are Kashibo (Kaschinõ), Rubo/Isunbo, Kakataibo, and Nokaman, which until recently had been thought to be extinct.



Bilabial Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
plain lab.
Plosive p t k ʔ
Nasal m n ɲ
Tap/Flap ɾ
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Fricative s ʂ ʃ
Approximant β̞ j w

The consonant inventory includes both a bilabial approximant, realized as [β̞], and a labial-velar approximant /w/.


Front Central Back
Close i ɨ u
Mid e o
Open a

Back vowels /o/ and /u/ are phonetically realized as less rounded; [], [].[3]


The language is official along the Aguaytía, San Alejandro, and Súngaro rivers in Perú where it is most widely spoken. It is used in schools until third grade. There are not many monolinguals, although some women over the age of fifty are.

There is five to ten percent literacy compared to fifteen to twenty-five percent literacy in Spanish as a second language. A Cashibo-Cacataibo dictionary has been compiled, and there is a body of literature, especially poetry.


  1. ^ Kashibo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Nocaman at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cashibo-Cacataibo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Biondi, Roberto Zariquiey (2011). A Grammar of Kashibo-Kakataibo. Melbourne, Australia: La Trobe University.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.

External links[edit]