Kashima is located about 60 kilometers southwest of Saga City. It borders the Ariake Sea to the east and Nagasaki Prefecture to the southwest. The southern area contains the Tara Mountains and the northern area consists of open plains along the coast, and the city proper.
Mountains: Mount Kyōga (1076 m), Mount Jōdo (501 m), Mount Kotoji (501 m), Mount Gibi (198 m)
Rivers: Shiota River, Kashima River, Hama River, Naka River
1889-04-01 - The modern municipal system was established. The current city region consists of six villages (Minami-Kashima, Kita-Kashima, Hachihongi, Fureda, Nogomi and Nanaura; all from Fujitsu District).
1912-12-01 - Minami-Kashima Village becames Minami-Kashima Town, and Kita-Kashima Village was renamed Kashima Village.
1918-08-03 - Hachihongi Village become Hama Town.
1954-04-01 - Kashima Town absorbed Hama Town, Kashima Village, Furueda Village and Nogomi Village to create Kashima City.
1955-03-01 - Part of Nanaura Village was incorporated into Kashima City, while the remaining portion was incorporated into Tara Town.