Kashinawa language

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Kashinawa
Kashinawa of the Ibuaçu River
Native to Peru, Brazil
Ethnicity Kaxinawá people
Native speakers
1,200 (2003–2007)[1]
Panoan
  • Mainline Panoan
    • Nawa
      • Headwaters
        • Kashinawa
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cbs
Glottolog cash1254[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Kashinawa (also spelled Kaxinawá, Kashinawa, Kaxynawa, Caxinawa, Caxinawá, and Cashinahua), or Hantxa Kuin, Huni Kui, is an indigenous American language of western South America which belongs to the Panoan language family. It is spoken by about 1,600 Kaxinawá in Peru, along the Curanja and the Purus Rivers, and in Brazil by 400 Kaxinawá in the state of Acre.

About five to ten percent of speakers have some Spanish language proficiency,[3] while forty percent are literate and twenty to thirty percent are literate in Spanish as a second language.

Dialects are Brazilian Kashinawa, Peruvian Kashinawa, and the extinct Juruá Kapanawa (Capanahua of the Juruá River) and Paranawa.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close
(high)
Oral i /i/ e /ɨ/ u /u~ʊ~o/
Nasal ĩ /ĩ/ /ɨ̃/ ũ /ũ~õ/
Open
(low)
Oral a /ɑ/
Nasal ã /ã/
  • Although nasalization is generally marked by placing a tilde over the vowel, some authors choose to mark it with a following ⟨n⟩ to denote that the previous vowel or contiguous vowels are nasalised.

Consonants[edit]

Consonants  Labial  Alveolar  Retroflex  Palatal  Velar  Glottal 
Stop  p /p/
b /b/
t /t/
d /d/
    k /k/ /ʔ/
Fricative    s /s/ x/shr /ʂ/ x/sh /ʃ/   j/h /h/
Affricates    ts /t͡s/   ch/t͡ʃ/    
Nasal  m /m/ n /n/      
Approximant  v/w /w~β/     y /j/    

Dictionary[edit]

A dictionary has been compiled and published since 1980.

Orthography[edit]

The Roman alphabet is used. Generatives come before nouns. There is an interrogative punctuation mark different from the question mark.

Morphology[edit]

Articles and adjectives are placed after nouns. There are seven prefixes and five suffixes.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kashinawa at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cashinahua". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ "Kashinawa." Ethnologue. Retrieved 8 Dec 2011.

Sources[edit]