The present-day JR East station opened on December 25, 1896. The Tobu station opened on May 9, 1911. The station was absorbed into the JR East network upon the privatization of JNR on April 1, 1987. In July 1998, the platforms for the Jōban Line were lengthened by three meters. The South Exit to the station was opened on April 8, 1999.
From 17 March 2012, station numbering was introduced on all Tobu lines, with Kashiwa Station becoming "TD-24".
In fiscal 2013, the JR East station was used by 121,061 passengers daily (boarding passengers only), making it the 26th-busiest station operated by JR East. In fiscal 2012, the Tobu station was used by an average of 138,686 passengers daily (entering and exiting passengers). The average daily passenger figures for each operator in previous years are as shown below.