Kashmiri language

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Kashmiri
  • کٲشُر
  • कॉशुर
  • 𑆑𑆳𑆯𑆶𑆫𑇀
The word "Koshur" in Perso-Arabic script (contemporary, official status), Sharada script (ancient, liturgical) and Devanagari
Native toIndia and Pakistan
RegionKashmir (Kashmir division and parts of Chenab valley, Jammu and Kashmir,[1] parts of northern Azad Kashmir)
EthnicityKashmiris
Native speakers
7.1 million (2011)[1]
Indo-European
Dialects
Official: Perso-Arabic script (contemporary)[4]
Others: Devanagari[4] (informally used by some sections within the Kashmiri Pandit community after 1990),[5][6][7]
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)[4]
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-1ks
ISO 639-2kas
ISO 639-3kas
Glottologkash1277
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Kashmiri (English: /kæʃˈmɪəri/)[10] or Koshur (Kashmiri: کٲشُر (Perso-Arabic, Official Script) ; Kashmiri pronunciation: [kəːʃur])[1] is a Dardic Indo-Aryan language spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris of the Kashmir region,[11] primarily in the Kashmir Valley of the Indian-administrated union territory of Jammu and Kashmir.[12] Kashmiri has split ergativity and the unusual verb-second word order.

Since 2020, It has been made an official language of Jammu and Kashmir along with Dogri, Hindi, Urdu, and English.[13] Kashmiri is also among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Kashmiri is spoken by roughly five percent of Pakistan-Administrated Azad Kashmir's population.[14]

Geographic distribution and status[edit]

There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India.[15] Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and other areas of Jammu and Kashmir.[16] In the Kashmir valley, they form a majority.

Kashmiri is spoken by roughly five percent of Azad Kashmir's population.[17] According to the 1998 Pakistan Census, there were 132,450 Kashmiri speakers in Azad Kashmir.[18] Native speakers of the language were dispersed in "pockets" throughout Azad Kashmir,[19][20] particularly in the districts of Muzaffarabad (15%), Neelam (20%) and Hattian (15%), with very small minorities in Haveli (5%) and Bagh (2%).[18] The Kashmiri spoken in Muzaffarabad is distinct from, although still intelligible with, the Kashmiri of the Neelam Valley to the north.[20] In Neelam Valley, Kashmiri is the second most widely spoken language and the majority language in at least a dozen or so villages, where in about half of these, it is the sole mother tongue.[20] The Kashmiri dialect of Neelum is closer to the variety spoken in northern Kashmir Valley, particularly Kupwara.[20] At the 2017 Census of Pakistan, as many as 350,000 people declared their first language to be Kashmiri.[21][22]

A process of language shift is observable among Kashmiri-speakers in Azad Kashmir according to linguist Tariq Rahman, as they gradually adopt local dialects such as Pahari-Pothwari, Hindko or move towards the lingua franca Urdu.[23][19][24][20] This has resulted in these languages gaining ground at the expense of Kashmiri.[25][26] There have been calls for the promotion of Kashmiri at an official level; in 1983, a Kashmiri Language Committee was set up by the government to patronise Kashmiri and impart it in school-level education. However, the limited attempts at introducing the language have not been successful, and it is Urdu, rather than Kashmiri, that Kashmiri Muslims of Azad Kashmir have seen as their identity symbol.[27] Rahman notes that efforts to organise a Kashmiri language movement have been challenged by the scattered nature of the Kashmiri-speaking community in Azad Kashmir.[27]

The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.[28] It was a part of the eighth Schedule in the former constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language was to be developed in the state.[29] After Hindi, Kashmiri is the second fastest growing language of India, followed by Meitei (Manipuri) as well as Gujarati in the third place, and Bengali in the fourth place, according to the 2011 census of India.[30]

Persian began to be used as the court language in Kashmir during the 14th centuries, under the influence of Islam. It was replaced by Urdu in 1889 during the Dogra rule.[31][32] In 2020, Kashmiri became an official language in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir for the first time.[33][34][35]

Poguli and Kishtwari are closely related to Kashmiri, which are spoken in the mountains to the south of the Kashmir Valley and have sometimes been counted as dialects of Kashmiri.

The people in the Chenab region of Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir mainly speak Kashmiri, but the accent and various words differentiate it from the Kashmiri spoken in the Kashmir Valley. The Chenab Times, a news outlet known for promoting lesser-known languages, has termed this language as Chenabich Kashir, meaning the Kashmiri language spoken in Chenab Valley.[36]

Phonology[edit]

Kashmiri has the following phonemes.[37][38]

Vowels[edit]

The oral vowels are as follows:

  Front Central Back
High i ɨ ɨː u
Mid e ə əː o
Low a ɔ ɔː

The short high vowels are near-high, and the low vowels apart from /aː/ are near-low.

Nasalization is phonemic. All sixteen oral vowels have nasal counterparts.

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p t t͡s ʈ t͡ʃ k
aspirated t͡sʰ ʈʰ t͡ʃʰ
voiced b d ɖ d͡ʒ ɡ
Fricative voiceless s ʃ h
voiced z
Approximant w l j
Trill r

Palatalization is phonemic. All consonants apart from those in the post-alveolar/palatal column have palatalized counterparts.

Archaisms[edit]

Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants s ṣ ś of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as dvi-, has developed into ba-/bi- in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but du- in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop d). Seventy-two is dusatath in Kashmiri, bahattar in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and dvisaptati in Sanskrit.[39]

Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (This tendency was complete in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word rahit in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to rost in Kashmiri. Similarly, sahit (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to sost in Kashmiri.[39]

Writing system[edit]

There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language: the Perso-Arabic script, the Devanagari script and the Sharada script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online.[4]

Today Kashmiri is primarily written in Perso-Arabic (with some modifications).[40] Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds.[41]

The Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script is recognized as the official script of Kashmiri language by the Jammu and Kashmir government and the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages.[42][43][44][45] The Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has been derived from Persian alphabet. The consonant inventory and their corresponding pronunciations of Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script doesn't differ from Perso-Arabic script, with the exception of the letter ژ, which is pronounced as /t͡s/ instead of /ʒ/. However, the vowel inventory of Kashmiri is significantly larger than other Perso-Arabic derived or influenced South Asian Perso-Arabic scripts. There are 17 vowels in Kashmiri, shown with diacritics, letters (alif, waw, ye), or both. In Kashmiri, the convention is that most vowel diacritics are written at all times.

Despite Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script cutting across religious boundaries and being used by both the Kashmiri Hindus and the Kashmiri Muslims,[46] some attempts have been made to give a religious outlook regarding the script and make Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script to be associated with some sections of Kashmiri Hindu community.[47][48][49]

The Kashmiri language was traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D.[50] The script grew increasingly unsuitable for writing Kashmiri because it couldn't adequately represent Kashmiri peculiar sounds by the usage of its vowel signs.[51] Therefore, it is not in common use today and is restricted to religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits.[52]

Perso-Arabic script[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Name Forms IPA Transliteration[53] Unicode Example[54]
Kashmiri Isolated Final Medial Initial Kashmiri Word IPA Meaning
ألِف
ạlif
ا ـا ـا ا /∅/, silent[A] U+0627 اَفسانہٕ
afsānü
/afsaːnɨ/ Short Story
بے
ب ـب ـبـ بـ /b/ b U+0628 بِکھٲرؠ
bikhạ̄r'
/bikʰəːrʲ/ Beggar
پے
پ ـپ ـپـ پـ /p/ p U+067E پَمپوش
pampōsh
/pampoːʃ/ Lotus flower
پھَ
pha
پھ ـپھ ـپھـ پھـ /pʰ/ ph U+067E
and
U+06BE
پھَل
phal
/pʰal/ Fruit
تے
ت ـت ـتـ تـ /t̪/ t U+062A تَجويٖز
tajvīz
/t̪ad͡ʒwiːz/ Proposal
تھَ
tha
تھ ـتھ ـتھـ تھـ /t̪ʰ/ th U+062A
and
U+06BE
تھٲلؠ
thạ̄l'
/t̪ʰəːlʲ/ Plate
ٹے
ṭē
ٹ ـٹ ـٹـ ٹـ /ʈ/ U+0679 ٹوٗپؠ
ṭūp'
/ʈuːpʲ/ Cap
ٹھَ
ṭha
ٹھ ـٹھ ـٹھـ ٹھـ /ʈʰ/ ṭh U+0679
and
U+06BE
ٹھوٗل
ṭhūl
/ʈʰuːl/ Egg
ثے
ث ـث ـثـ ثـ /s/ s U+062B ثۆبوٗتھ
sobūth
/sobuːt̪ʰ/ Proof
جیٖم
jīm
ج ـج ـجـ جـ /d͡ʒ/ j U+062C جاے
jāy
/d͡ʒaːj/ Place
چیٖم
chīm
چ ـچ ـچـ چـ /t͡ʃ/ ch , č U+0686 چٲنٛدؠ
chạ̄n̂d'
/t͡ʃə̃ːd̪ʲ/ Silver
چھَ
chha
چھ ـچھ ـچھـ چھـ /t͡ʃʰ/ chh, čh U+0686
and
U+06BE
چھان
chhān
/t͡ʃʰaːn/ Carpenter
حَے
hay
ح ـح ـحـ حـ /h/ h U+062D حاجَتھ
ḥājath
/haːd͡ʒat̪ʰ/ Need
خَے
khay
خ ـخ ـخـ خـ /x/~/kʰ/ kh U+062E خَطَرناكھ
khatarnākh
/xatarnaːkʰ/ Dangerous
دال
dāl
د ـد ـد د /d̪/ d U+062F دُكان
dukān
/d̪ukaːn/ Shop
ڈال
ḍāl
ڈ ـڈ ـڈ ڈ /ɖ/ U+0688 ڈۄڈ
ḍọḍ
/ɖɔɖ/ One and a half
ذال
zāl
ذ ـذ ـذ ذ /z/ z U+0630 ذیٚہَن
zehan
/zehan/ Mind
رے
ر ـر ـر ر /r/ r U+0631 رٕكھ
rükh
کھرٛۄکھ
khrọkh
/rɨkʰ/

/kʰrɔkʰ/
Line

Snore
ڑے
ṛē
ڑ ـڑ ـڑ ڑ /ɽ/ U+0691 لٔڑکہٕ
lạṛkü
/ləɽkɨ/ Boy
زے
ز ـز ـز ز /z/ z U+0632 زامَن
zāman
/zaːman/ Yawn
ژے
tsē
ژ ـژ ـژ ژ /t͡s/ ts U+0698 ژٔر
tsạr
/t͡sər/ House sparrow
ژھَ
tsha
ژھ ـژھ ـژھـ ژھـ /t͡sʰ/ tsh U+0698
and
U+06BE
ژھاے
tshāy
/t͡sʰaːj/ Shadow
سیٖن
sīn
س ـس ـسـ سـ /s/ s U+0633 سَنٛگُر
sangur
/sãɡur/ Mountain
شـیٖـن
shīn
ش ـش ـشـ شـ /ʃ/ sh, š U+0634 شۆد
shod
/ʃod̪/ Pure, Genuine
صۄاد
sọ̄d
ص ـص ـصـ صـ /s/ s U+0635 صَدقہٕ
sadqü
/sad̪qɨ/ Charity
ضۄاد
zọ̄d
ض ـض ـضـ ضـ /z/ z U+0636 ضٲمیٖن
ẓạ̄mīn
/zəːmiːn/ Responsible, Guarantor
طۄے
tọy
ط ـط ـطـ طـ /t̪/ t U+0637 طوطہٕ
tōtü
/t̪oːt̪ɨ/ Parrot
ظۄے
zọy
ظ ـظ ـظـ ظـ /z/ z U+0638 ظٲلِم
zạ̄lim
/zəːlim/ Cruel
عٲن
ạ̄n
ع ـع ـعـ عـ /∅/, silent
[B]
U+0639 عَقٕل
aqül
/aqɨl/ Wisdom
غٲن
gạ̄n
غ ـغ ـغـ غـ /ɣ/~/ɡ/ g, ğ U+063A غۄصہٕ
gọsü
/ɣɔsɨ/ Anger
فے
ف ـف ـفـ فـ /f/~/pʰ/ f U+0641 فِرِنـؠ
firin'
/firinʲ/ Sweet pudding
قاف
qāf
ق ـق ـقـ قـ /q/~/k/ q U+0642 قاشوٕ
qāshwü
/qaːʃwɨ/ Spoon
كیٖف
kīf
ک ـک ـكـ كـ /k/ k U+0643 کۄکُر
kọkur
/kɔkur/ Chicken
کھَ
kha
کھ ـکھ ـکھـ کھـ /kʰ/ kh U+0643
and
U+06BE
کھۄر
khọr
/kʰɔr/ Foot
گاف
gāf
گ ـگ ـگـ گـ /ɡ/ g U+06AF گاش
gāsh
/ɡaːʃ/ Light
لام
lām
ل ـل ـلـ لـ /l/ l U+0644 لۄکچار
lọkchār
/lɔkt͡ʃaːr/ Childhood
میٖم
mim
م ـم ـمـ مـ /m/ m U+0645 مَرٕگ
marüg
/marɨɡ/ Meadow
نوٗن
nūn
ن ـن ـنـ نـ /n/, /◌̃/ n U+0646 نَب
nab
/nab/ Sky
نوٗن غۄنَہ
nūn gọna
ں ـں /◌̃/ ñ U+06BA داں زٔمیٖن
dāñ zạmīn
/d̪ãː zəmiːn/ Paddy field
واو
wāw
و ـو ـو و /w/
[C]
v, w U+0648 وَن
van
/wan/ Forest
ہے
ہ ـہ ـہـ ہـ /h/
[D][E]
h U+06C1 ہۄپہٕ
họpü
ؤہمہٕ
wạhmü
پَگاہ
pagāh
/hɔpɨ/

/wəhmɨ/

/paɡaːh/
Chubby

Fear, Anxiety

Tomorrow
یے
ی - ـیـ یـ /j/
[F]
y U+06CC یال
yāl
پیٛالہٕ
pyālü
/jaːl/

/pʲaːlɨ/
Hair of horse

Cup
لۄکُٹ یے
Lọkuṭ yē
بۆڈ یے
boḍ yē
ے ـے - - /j/

[G]
y U+06D2 ڈاے
ḍāy
/ɖaːj/ Two and a half
تالٕرؠ
tālür'
ؠ ـؠ ـؠ - /◌ʲ/ ', U+0620 سٟتؠ
sǖt'
/sɨːt̪ʲ/ With

Vowels[edit]

Name Final vowel glyph
(Vowel and
letters ب
and ر)
Medial vowel glyph
(Vowel and
letters ب
and ر)
Initial vowel glyph IPA Transliteration[55] Unicode Example[54]
Kashmiri Kashmiri Word IPA Meaning
زَبَر
zabar
ہ، ـہ
بَہ / ـبَہ / رَ
–َ
بَـ / ـبَـ / رَ
اَ [a] a U+64E اَپُز
apuz
پَلَو
palav
/apuz/

/palaw/
Lie

Garments, Clothes
مَد
mad
ا
با / ـبا / را
ا
با / ـبا / را
آ [aː] ā U+0622
U+0627
آب
āb
پان
pān
/aːb/

/paːn/
Lie

Body
اَمالہٕ
amālü
–ٔ / ـٔہ
بٔہ / ـبٔہ / رٔ
–ٔ
بٔـ / ـبٔـ / رٔ
أ [ə] , ö , ȧ U+0623
U+0654
أچھ
ạchh
گٔر
gạr
/ət͡ʃʰ/

/ɡər/
Eye

Clock, Watch
اَمالہٕ مَد
amālü mad
ٲ
بٲ / ـبٲ / رٲ
ٲ
بٲ / ـبٲ / رٲ
ٲ [əː] ạ̄, ȫ, ä U+0672 ٲس
ạ̄s
دٲن
dạ̄n
/əːs/

/d̪əːn/
Mouth

Pomegranate
زیر
zēr
–ِ / ـہِ
بہِ / ـبہِ / رِ
–ِ
بِـ / ـبِـ / رِ
اِ [i] i, í U+0650 اِنسان
insān
سِر
sir
/insaːn/

/sir/
Human Being

Secret
کَشہِ زیر
kashi zēr
ی
بی / ـبی / ری
ـیٖـ / یٖـ
بیٖـ / ـبیٖـ / ریٖـ
ایٖـ / ای [iː] ī Initial and Medial:
U+06CC
and
U+0656
Final:
U+06CC
ایٖمان
īmān
سیٖر
sīr
وَردی
wardī
/iːmaːn/

/siːr/

/ward̪iː/
Faith

Brick

Uniform
سایہِ
sāyi
–ٕ / ـہٕ
بہٕ / ـبہٕ / رٕ
–ٕ
بٕـ / ـبٕـ / رٕ
إ [ɨ] ü , , u', ι Initial:
U+0625
Medial and Final:
U+0655
بہٕ

کٔدٕل
kạdül
/bɨ/

/kəd̪ɨl/
I

Bridge
سایہِ مَد
sāyi mad
–ٟ / ـہٟ
بہٟ / ـبہٟ / رٟ
–ٟ
بٟـ / ـبٟـ / رٟ
ٳ [ɨː] ǖ , ụ̄, ū' Initial:
U+0673
Medial and Final:
U+065F
تٟر
tǖr
خٟمہٕ
khǖmü
/t̪ɨːr/

/xɨːmɨ/
Cold

Tent
پیش
pēsh
–ُ / ـُہ
بُہ / ـبُہ / رُ
–ُ
بُـ / ـبُـ / رُ
اُ [u] u U+064F پُج
puj
/pud͡ʒ/ Butcher
کَشہِ واوُک
kashi wāwuk
ـوٗ / وٗ
بوٗ / ـبوٗ / روٗ
ـوٗ / وٗ
بوٗ / ـبوٗ / روٗ
اوٗ [uː] ū U+0648
and
U+0657
پوٗت‎
pūt
/puːt̪/ Chick
نیٖمہٕ واوُک
nīmü wāwuk
ـۆ / ۆ
بۆ / ـبۆ / رۆ
ـۆ / ۆ
بۆ / ـبۆ / رۆ
اۆ [o] o, ó U+06C6 دۆب
dob
/d̪ob/ Washerman
واوُک
wāwuk
ـو / و
بو / ـبو / رو
ـو / و
بو / ـبو / رو
او [oː] ō U+0648 مور‎
mōr
/moːr/ Peacock
لٔٹؠ واوُک
lạṭ' wāwuk
ـۄ / ۄ
بۄ / ـبۄ / رۄ
ـۄ / ۄ
بۄ / ـبۄ / رۄ
اۄ [ɔ] , ŏ U+06C4 گۄلاب
gọlāb
/ɡɔlaːb/ Rose
لٔٹؠ واوُک مَد
lạṭ' wāwuk mad
ـۄا / ۄا
بۄا / ـبۄا / رۄا
ـۄا / ۄا
بۄا / ـبۄا / رۄا
اۄا [ɔː] ọ̄, ŏa U+06C4
and
U+0627
سۄاد
sọ̄d
/sɔːd̪/ One and a quarter
نیٖمہٕ یایُک
nīmü yāyuk
ـےٚ / ـےٚ
بےٚ / ـبےٚ / رےٚ
ـێـ / ێـ
بیٚـ / ـبیٚـ / ریٚـ
ایٚـ / اےٚ [e] e, ë Initial and Medial:
U+06CC
and
U+065A
Final:
U+06D2
and
U+065A
بیٚنہِ
beni
مےٚ‎
me
/beni/

/me/
Sister

Me, I
یایُک
yāyuk
ـے / ے
بے / ـبے / رے
ـیـ / یـ
بیـ / ـبیـ / ریـ
ایـ / اے [eː] ē Initial and Medial:
U+06CC
Final:
U+06D2
ریش
rēsh
/reːʃ/ Beard
گول یایُک
gōl yāyuk
- ـؠـ / ؠـ
بؠـ / ـبؠـ / رؠـ
اؠـ / اؠے [ʲa] ĕ, ya Initial and Medial:
U+0620
مؠقراض
mĕqrāz
/mʲaqraːz/ Scissors

Devanagari[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Letter च़ छ़ ज़
IPA [k] [kʰ] [g] [t͡ʃ] [t͡ʃʰ] [d͡ʒ] [t͡s] [t͡sʰ] [z] [ʈ] [ʈʰ] [ɖ] [t] [tʰ] [d] [n] [p] [pʰ] [b] [m] [j] [r] [l] [w] [ʃ] [s] [h]
Transliteration k kh g ch chh j ts tsh z ṭh t th d n p ph b m y r l w sh s h

Vowels[edit]

There have been a few versions of the Devanagari script for Kashmiri.[56] The 2002 version of the proposal is shown below.[57] This version has readers and more content available on the Internet, even though this is an older proposal.[58][59] This version makes use of the vowels ॲ/ऑ and vowel signs कॅ/कॉ for the schwa-like vowel [ə] and elongated schwa-like vowel [əː] that also exist in other Devanagari-based scripts such as Marathi and Hindi but are used for the sound of other vowels.

Letter -व
IPA [a] [aː] [ə] [əː] [i] [iː] [ɨ] [ɨː] [u] [uː] [e] [eː] [əi] [o] [oː] [ɔː] [ɔ] [◌̃]
Transliteration a ā ạ̄ i ī ü ǖ u ū e ē ai o ō ọ̄ ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कॅ कॉ कि की कॖ कॗ कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ क्व or कव कं

Tabulated below is the latest (2009) version of the proposal to spell the Kashmiri vowels with Devanagari.[60][61] The primary change in this version is the changed stand alone characters ॳ / ॴ and vowel signs कऺ / कऻ for the schwa-like vowel [ə] & elongated schwa-like vowel [əː] and a new stand alone vowel and vowel sign कॏ for the open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔ] which can be used instead of the consonant व standing-in for this vowel.

Letter
IPA [a] [aː] [ə] [əː] [i] [iː] [ɨ] [ɨː] [u] [uː] [e] [eː] [əi] [o] [oː] [ɔː] [ɔ] [◌̃]
Transliteration[62] a ā ạ̄ i ī ü ǖ u ū e ē ai o ō ọ̄ ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कऺ कऻ कि की कॖ कॗ कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ कॏ कं

Sharada script[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph Remarks[63][64]
𑆑𑆾𑆮𑇀 𑆑 kōv kạ ka [ka] 𑆑
𑆒𑇀𑆮𑆤𑆴 𑆒 khvani khạ kha [kʰa] 𑆒
𑆓𑆓𑆫𑇀 𑆓 gagar gạ ga [ɡa] 𑆓
𑆓𑆳𑆱𑆴 𑆔 gāsi ghạ gha [ɡʰa] 𑆔 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆤𑆳𑆫𑆶𑆓𑇀 𑆕 nārug ṅạ ṅa [ŋa] 𑆕 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆖𑆳𑆛𑆶𑆮𑇀 𑆖 tsāṭuv chạ cha [t͡ʃa] 𑆖
𑆗𑇀𑆮𑆛𑆴𑆚𑇀 𑆗 tshvaṭiñ chhạ chha [t͡ʃʰa] 𑆗
𑆘𑆪𑆴 𑆘 zayi jạ ja [d͡ʒa] 𑆘
𑆘𑆳𑆯𑆴𑆚𑇀 𑆙 zashiñ jhạ jha [d͡ʒʰa] 𑆙 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆒𑇀𑆮𑆤 𑆦𑆶𑆛𑆴 𑆚 khvana phuṭi ñạ ña [ɲa] 𑆚 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆃𑆫𑇀-𑆩𑆳𑆀𑆛 ar mām̐ṭa ṭa [ʈa] 𑆛
𑆱𑆫𑇀-𑆩𑆳𑆀𑆜 sar mām̐ṭha ṭha [ʈʰa] 𑆜
𑆝𑆶𑆝𑇀 𑆝 ḍuḍ ḍạ ḍa [ɖa] 𑆝
𑆝𑆑 𑆞 ḍaka ḍhạ ḍha [ɖʰa] 𑆞 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆤𑆳𑆤𑆓𑆶𑆫𑆴 𑆟 nānaguri ṇạ ṇa [ɳa] 𑆟 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆠𑆾𑆮𑇀 𑆠 tov tạ ta [ta] 𑆠
𑆡𑆳𑆯𑆴 𑆡 thāshi thạ tha [tʰa] 𑆡
𑆢𑆢𑆮𑇀 𑆢 dadav dạ da [da] 𑆢
𑆢𑆷𑆚𑇀 𑆣 dūñ dhạ dha [dʰa] 𑆣 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆤𑆱𑇀𑆠𑆶𑆮𑇀 𑆤 nastūv nạ na [na] 𑆤
𑆥𑆝𑆶𑆫𑆴 𑆥 paḍuri pạ pa [pa] 𑆥
𑆦𑆫𑆴𑆚𑇀 𑆦 phariñ phạ pha [pʰa] 𑆦
𑆧𑆶𑆧𑇀 𑆧 bub bạ ba [ba] 𑆧
𑆧𑆳𑆪𑆴 𑆨 bāyi bhạ bha [bʰa] 𑆨 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆩𑆾𑆮𑇀 𑆩 mōv mạ ma [ma] 𑆩
𑆪𑆳𑆮 𑆪 yāva yạ ya [ja] 𑆪
𑆫𑆑 𑆫 raka rạ ra [ra] 𑆫
𑆬𑆳𑆮 𑆬 lāva lạ la [la] 𑆬
𑆧𑆝𑆶 𑆝𑆶𑆝𑇀 𑆝 boḍu ḍuḍ ḍạ ḷa [ɭa] 𑆭 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆮𑆯𑆴 𑆮 vashi vạ va [wa] 𑆮
𑆯𑆑𑆫𑇀 𑆯 shakar shạ sha [ʃa] 𑆯
𑆦𑆳𑆫𑆴 𑆰 phāri ṣạ ṣa [ʂa] 𑆰 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this consonant.
𑆱𑆶𑆱𑇀 𑆱 sus sạ sa [sa] 𑆱
𑆲𑆳𑆬 𑆲 hala hạ ha [ha] 𑆲

Vowels[edit]

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph Remarks[63]
𑆄𑆢𑆿 𑆃 ādau a a [a] 𑆃
𑆎𑆠𑆮𑇀 𑆄 aitav ā ā [aː] 𑆄
𑆪𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆪𑆼 yeyev yē i [i] 𑆅
𑆅𑆯𑆫𑆮𑇀 𑆆 yisherav yī ī [iː] 𑆆
𑆮𑇀𑆮𑆥𑆬𑇀 𑆮𑆾 vọpal vō u [u] 𑆇
𑆮𑇀𑆮𑆥𑆬𑇀 𑆧𑆳 𑆈 vọpal bā ū ū [uː] 𑆈
𑆉𑆤𑆮𑇀 𑆉 r̥enav [r̩] 𑆉 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆫𑆒𑆮𑇀 𑆊 rakhav r̥̄ [r̩ː] 𑆊 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆬𑇀𑆪𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆋 leyev [l̩] 𑆋 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆬𑆵𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆌 līsav l̥̄ [l̩ː] 𑆌 The Kashmiri Language does not possess this vowel.
𑆠𑆬𑆮𑇀𑆪𑇀 𑆍 talavya yē ē [eː] 𑆍
𑆠𑆳𑆬𑆵 𑆎 tolī ai ai [əi] 𑆎
𑆮𑆶𑆜𑆾 𑆏 vuṭhō ō ō [oː] 𑆏
𑆃𑆯𑆴𑆢𑆵 𑆐 ashidī au au [ɔː] 𑆐
𑆃𑆝𑆴 𑆖𑆤𑆢𑇀𑆫 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆶 aḍi tsandra phyor am̐ [◌̃] 𑆃𑆀
𑆩𑆱𑇀 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆁 mas phyori aṃ aṃ [n],[m] 𑆃𑆁
𑆢𑆾 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆂 dō phyori aḥ aḥ [h] 𑆃𑆂

Vowel mark

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated vowel mark Vowel mark indicated on consonant pa Distinct ways of indicating vowel marks on special consonants
𑆮𑆲𑆳𑆪𑇀 vahāy [aː] 𑆳 𑆥𑆳 𑆕 = 𑆕𑆳

𑆘 = 𑆘𑆳

𑆛 = 𑆛𑆳

𑆟 = 𑆟𑆳

𑆩𑆷𑆤𑇀𑆡𑆫𑇀 mūnthar -i [i] 𑆴 𑆥𑆴
𑆃𑆫𑇀 𑆩𑆷𑆤𑇀𑆡𑆫𑇀 ar mūnthar [iː] 𑆵 𑆥𑆵
𑆒𑆶𑆫𑆶 khuru -u [u] 𑆶 𑆥𑆶 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆶

𑆓 = 𑆓𑆶

𑆙 = 𑆙𑆶

𑆚 = 𑆚𑆶

𑆝 = 𑆝𑆶

𑆠 = 𑆠𑆶

𑆨 = 𑆨𑆶

𑆫 = 𑆫𑆶

𑆯 = 𑆯𑆶

𑆃𑆫𑇀 𑆒𑆷𑆫𑆷 ar khūrū [uː] 𑆷 𑆥𑆷 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆷

𑆓 = 𑆓𑆷

𑆙 = 𑆙𑆷

𑆚 = 𑆚𑆷

𑆝 = 𑆝𑆷

𑆠 = 𑆠𑆷

𑆨 = 𑆨𑆷

𑆫 = 𑆫𑆷

𑆯 = 𑆯𑆷

𑆉𑆤𑆮𑇀 𑆉 r̥enav r̥a -r̥ [r̩] 𑆸 𑆥𑆸 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆸
𑆫𑆒𑆮𑇀 𑆊 rakhav ru -r̥̄ [r̩ː] 𑆹 𑆥𑆹 𑆑 = 𑆑𑆹
𑆬𑇀𑆪𑆪𑆮𑇀 𑆋 leyev l̥a -l̥ [l̩] 𑆺 𑆥𑆺
𑆬𑆵𑆱𑆮𑇀 𑆌 līsav l̥̄a -l̥̄ [l̩ː] 𑆻 𑆥𑆻
𑆲𑇀𑆮𑆁𑆝𑆷 hvanḍū [eː] 𑆼 𑆥𑆼
𑆲𑇀𑆮𑆁𑆘𑆾𑆫𑇀 hvanjōr -ai [əi] 𑆽 𑆥𑆽
𑆃𑆑𑆶 𑆯𑇀𑆪𑆷𑆫𑆶 oku shyūr [oː] 𑆾 𑆥𑆾
𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆯𑆴 𑆮𑆲𑆳𑆪𑇀 okushi vahāy -au [ɔː] 𑆿 𑆥𑆿
𑆃𑆝𑆴 𑆖𑆤𑇀𑆢𑇀𑆫 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆶 aḍi tsandra phyor -am̐ [◌̃] 𑆀 𑆥𑆀
𑆩𑆱𑇀 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆁 mas phyori aṃ -aṃ [n],[m] 𑆁 𑆥𑆁
𑆢𑆾 𑆦𑇀𑆪𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆂 dō phyori aḥ -aḥ [h] 𑆂 𑆥𑆂

Grammar[edit]

Kashmiri is a fusional language[65] with verb-second (V2) word order.[66] Several of Kashmiri's grammatical features distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan languages.[67]

Nouns[edit]

Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or "generic" noun qualities.[65]

Gender[edit]

The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun.[65] A relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms.[68] The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms:[69]

Process Masculine Feminine Meaning
Adding of affix [huːn]

ہوٗن

[huːnʲ]

ہوٗنؠ

dog/bitch
vowel change [gagur]

گَگُر

[gagɨr]

گَگٕر

rat
consonant change [hokʰ]

ہۆکھ

[hot͡ʃʰ]

ہۆچھ

dry
vowel/consonant change [t̪ot̪]

تۆت

[t̪ət͡s]

تٔژ

hot
suppletive form [marɨd̪]

مَرٕد

[zanaːn]

زَنان

man/woman
masculine only [nuːl]

نوٗل

--- mongoose
feminine only --- [mət͡ʃʰ]

مٔچھ

housefly

Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.[68]

Case[edit]

There are five cases in Kashmiri: nominative, dative, ergative, ablative and vocative.[70] Case is expressed via suffixation of the noun.

Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense.[70] Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked.[70][71][72] However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case.[73]

Other case distinctions, such as locative, instrumental, genitive, comitative and allative, are marked by postpositions rather than suffixation.[74]

Noun morphology[edit]

The following table illustrates Kashmiri noun declension according to gender, number and case.[73][75]

Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
Nom.
Erg. -[an]
اَن
-[aw]
اَو
-[i]
اِ
-[aw]
اَو
Dat. -[as] or -[is]
اَس or اِس
-[an]
اَن
-[i]
اِ
-[an]
اَن
Abl. -[i] or -[ɨ]
اِ or إ
-[aw]
اَو
-[i]
اِ
-[aw]
اَو
Voc. -[aː]
ا
-[aw]
اَو
-[ij]
اِے
-[aw]
اَو

Verbs[edit]

Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending - /un/), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries.[76] Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.[77]

Tense[edit]

Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -/aːn/ added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb /jun/ (to come):[78]

Present
Masculine Feminine
1st Person Sing. [t͡ʃʰus jiwaːn]
چھُس یِوان
[t͡ʃʰas jiwaːn]
چھَس یِوان
2nd Person Sing. [t͡ʃʰukʰ jiwaːn]
چھُکھ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰakʰ jiwaːn]
چھَکھ یِوان
3rd Person Sing. [t͡ʃʰu jiwaːn]
چھُ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰe jiwaːn]
چھےٚ یِوان
1st Person Pl. [t͡ʃʰi jiwaːn]
چھِ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰa jiwaːn]
چھَ یِوان
2nd Person Pl. [t͡ʃʰiw jiwaːn]
چھِو یِوان
[t͡ʃʰaw jiwaːn]
چھَو یِوان
3rd Person Pl. [t͡ʃʰi jiwaːn]
چھِ یِوان
[t͡ʃʰe jiwaːn]
چھےٚ یِوان

Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions.[79] The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts.[80]

As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative.[80] Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb.[80][81]

Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb /parun/ ("to read"):[82]

Simple Past (Transitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person [por]
پۆر
[pərʲ]
پٔرؠ
[pər]
پٔر
[pari]
پَرِ
2nd Person Non-honorific [porut̪ʰ]
پۆرُتھ
[pərit̪ʰ]
پٔرِتھ
[pərɨt̪ʰ]
پٔرٕتھ
[parʲat̪ʰ]
پَرؠتھ
Honorific [porwɨ]
پۆروٕ
[pəriwɨ]
پٔرِوٕ
[pərwɨ]
پٔروٕ
[pariwɨ]
پَرِوٕ
3rd Person [por]
پۆر
[pərʲ]
پٔرؠ
[pər]
پٔر
[pari]
پَرِ

A group of irregular intransitive verbs (special intransitives), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.[83]

Simple Past (Special Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person -[us]
اُس
-[ʲ]
ؠ
-[as]
اَس
-[i]
اِ
2nd Person -[kʰ]
کھ
-[wɨ]
وٕ
-[kʰ]
کھ
-[wɨ]
وٕ
3rd Person -[t͡ʃʰ]
چھ
-[i]
اِ

Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.[84]

Simple Past (Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person -[jas]
یَس
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːjas]
یے یَس
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
2nd Person -[jaːkʰ]
یاکھ
-[jeːjiwɨ]
یے یِوٕ
-[jeːjakʰ]
یے یَکھ
-[jeːjiwɨ]
یے یِوٕ
3rd Person -[joːw]
یوو
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ

In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change.[85] Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:[86]

Indefinite Past (Transitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st/3rd Person -[joːw]
یوو
-[eːji]
ے یہِ
-[eːji]
ے یہِ
-[eːji]
ے یہِ
2nd Person -[joːt̪ʰ]
یوتھ
-[eːjat̪ʰ]
ے یَتھ
-[eːjat̪ʰ]
ے یَتھ
-[eːjat̪ʰ]
ے یَتھ
Remote Past (Transitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st/3rd Person -[eːjoːw]
ے یوو
-[eːjaːji]
ے یایہِ
-[eːjaːji]
ے یایہِ
-[eːjaːji]
ے یایہِ
2nd Person -[eːjoːt̪ʰ]
ے یوتھ
-[eːjeːjat̪ʰ]
ے یے یَتھ
-[eːjeːjat̪ʰ]
ے یے یَتھ
-[eːjeːjat̪ʰ]
ے یے یَتھ

As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:[87]

Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person -[aːs]
اس
-[aːjas]
ایَس
-[aːjas]
ایَس
-[aːji]
ایہِ
2nd Person -[kʰ]
کھ
-[kʰ]
کھ
-[aːjakʰ]
ایَکھ
-[aːjiwɨ]
ایِوٕ
3rd Person -[aw]
اَو
-[aːji]
ایہِ
-[aːji]
ایہِ
-[aːji]
ایہِ
Remote Past (Special Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Perso -[aːjaːs]
ایاس
-[eːjaːji]
ے یایہِ
-[eːjeːjas]
ے یے یَس
-[eːjeːji]
ے یے یہِ
2nd Person -[aːkʰ]
اکھ
-[eːjiwɨ]
ے یِوٕ
-[aːjakʰ]
ایَکھ
-[aːjiwɨ]
ایِوٕ
3rd Person -[eːjoːw]
ے یوو
-[eːjeːji]
ے یے یہِ
-[eːjaːjɨ]
ے یایہٕ
-[eːjaːjɨ]
ے یایہٕ

Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:[88]

Indefinite Past (Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person -[jas]
یَس
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːjas]
یے یَس
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
2nd Person -[jaːkʰ]
یاکھ
-[jeːjiwɨ]
یے یِوٕ
-[jeːjakʰ]
یے یَکھ
-[jeːjiwɨ]
یے یِوٕ
3rd Person -[joːw]
یوو
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
Remote Past (Intransitive)
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person -[jeːjaːs]
یے یاس
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːjaːs]
یے یاس
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
2nd Person -[jeːjakʰ]
یے یَکھ
-[jeːjiwɨ]
یے یِوٕ
-[jeːjakʰ]
یے یَکھ
-[jeːjiwɨ]
یے یِوٕ
3rd Person -[jeːjoːw]
یے یوو
-[jeːji]
یے یہِ
-[jeːjaːjɨ]
یے یایہٕ
-[jeːjɨ]
یے یہٕ

Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:[89]

Future (Intransitive)
Singular Plural
1st Person -[mɨ]
مہٕ
-[maw]
مَو
2nd Person -[akʰ]
اَکھ
-[jiw]
یِو
3rd Person -[ji]
یِہ
-[an]
اَن

The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:[90]

Future (Transitive)
Singular Object Plural Object
1st Person Sing. -[an]
اَن
-[akʰ]
اَکھ
1st Person Pl. -[ɨhoːn]
إہون
-[ɨhoːkʰ]
إہوکھ
2nd Person Sing. -[ɨhǝn]
إۂن
-[ɨhǝkʰ]
إۂکھ
2nd Person Pl. -[ɨhuːn]
إہوٗن
-[ɨhuːkʰ]
إہوٗکھ
3rd Person Sing. -[jas]
یَس
-[jakʰ]
یَکھ
3rd Person Pl. -[ɨnas]
إنَس
-[ɨnakʰ]
إنَکھ

Aspect[edit]

There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary /aːsun/ ("to be")—which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).[91]

Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:[91]

Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
-[mut̪]
مُت
-[mɨt̪ʲ]
مٕتؠ
-[mɨt͡s]
مٕژ
-[mat͡sɨ]
مَژٕ

The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -/aːn/ in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement.[92] A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.[93]

Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.[94]

Nominative
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person [bɨ]
بہٕ
[ǝsʲ]
أسؠ
[bɨ]
بہٕ
[ǝsʲ]
أسؠ
2nd Person [t͡sɨ]
ژٕ
[t̪ohʲ] or [t̪uhʲ]
تۆہؠ or تُہؠ
[t͡sɨ]
ژٕ
[t̪ohʲ] or [t̪uhʲ]
تۆہؠ or تُہؠ
3rd Person proximate [ji]
یہِ
[jim]
یِم
[ji]
یہِ
[jimɨ]
یِمہٕ
remote I [hu]
ہُہ
[hum]
ہُم
[hɔ]
ہۄ
[humɨ]
ہُمہٕ
remote II [su]
سُہ
[t̪im]
تِم
[sɔ]
سۄ
[t̪imɨ]
تِمہٕ
Ergative
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person [me]
مےٚ
[asi]
اَسہِ
[me]
مےٚ
[asi]
اَسہِ
2nd Person [t͡se]
ژےٚ
[t̪ɔhi]
تۄہِہ
[t͡se]
ژےٚ
[t̪ɔhi]
تۄہِہ
3rd Person proximate [jemʲ]
ییٚمؠ
[jimaw]
یِمَو
[jemi]
ییٚمِہ
[jimaw]
یِمَو
remote I [humʲ]
ہُمؠ
[humaw]
ہُمَو
[humi]
ہُمہِ
[humaw]
ہُمَو
remote II [t̪ǝmʲ]
تٔمؠ
[t̪imaw]
تِمَو
[t̪ami]
تَمہِ
[t̪imaw]
تِمَو
Dative
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person [me]
مےٚ
[asi]
اَسہِ
[me]
مےٚ
[asi]
اَسہِ
2nd Person [t͡se]
ژےٚ
[t̪ɔhi]
تۄہہِ
[t͡se]
ژےٚ
[t̪ɔhi]
تۄہہِ
3rd Person proximate [jemis]
ییٚمِس
[jiman]
یِمَن
[jemis]
ییٚمِس
[jiman]
یِمَن
remote I [humis]
ہُمِس
[human]
ہُمَن
[humis]
ہُمِس
[human]
ہُمَن
remote II [t̪ǝmis]
تٔمِس
[t̪iman]
تِمَن
[t̪ǝmis]
تٔمِس
[t̪iman]
تِمَن
Ablative
Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Person [me]
مےٚ
[asi]
اَسہِ
[me]
مےٚ
[asi]
اَسہِ
2nd Person [t͡se]
ژےٚ
[t̪ɔhi]
تۄہہِ
[t͡se]
ژےٚ
[t̪ɔhi]
تۄہہِ
3rd Person proximate [jemi]
ییٚمہِ
[jimaw]
یِمَو
[jemi]
ییٚمہِ
[jimaw]
یِمَو
remote I [humi]
ہُمہِ
[humaw]
ہُمَو
[humi]
ہُمہِ
[humaw]
ہُمَو
remote II [t̪ǝmi]
تٔمہِ
[t̪imaw]
تِمَو
[t̪ǝmi]
تٔمہِ
[t̪imaw]
تِمَو

There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.[95]

Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
1st Sing. [mʲoːn]

میٛون

[mʲəːnʲ]

میٛٲنؠ

[mʲəːnʲ]

میٛٲنؠ

[mʲaːni]

میٛانہِ

1st Pl. [soːn]

سون

[səːnʲ]

سٲنؠ

[səːnʲ]

سٲنؠ

[saːni]

سانہِ

2nd Sing. [t͡ʃoːn]

چون

[t͡ʃəːnʲ]

چٲنؠ

[t͡ʃəːnʲ]

چٲنؠ

[t͡ʃaːni]

چانہِ

2nd Pl. [t̪uhund̪]

تُہُنٛد

[t̪uhɨnd̪ʲ]

تُہٕنٛدؠ

[t̪uhɨnz]

تُہٕنٛز

[t̪uhnzɨ]

تُہنٛزٕ

3rd Sing. Prox. [jemʲ sund̪]

ییٚمؠ سُنٛد

[jemʲ sɨnd̪ʲ]

ییٚمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

[jemʲ sɨnz]

ییٚمؠ سٕنٛز

[jemʲ sɨnzɨ]

ییٚمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. Prox. [jihund̪]

یِہُنٛد

[jihɨnd̪ʲ]

یِہٕنٛدؠ

[jihɨnz]

یِہٕنٛز

[jihnzɨ]

یِہنٛزٕ

3rd Sing. R I [humʲ sund]

ہُمؠ سُنٛد

[humʲ sɨnd̪ʲ]

ہُمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

[humʲ sɨnz]

ہُمؠ سٕنٛز

[humʲ sɨnzɨ]

ہُمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. R I [huhund̪]

ہُہُنٛد

[huhɨnd̪ʲ]

ہُہٕنٛدؠ

[huhɨnz]

ہُہٕنٛز

[huhnzɨ]

ہُہنٛزٕ

3rd Sing. R II [t̪ǝmʲ sund̪]

تٔمؠ سُنٛد

[t̪ǝmʲ sɨnd̪ʲ]

تٔمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

[t̪ǝmʲ sɨnz]

تٔمؠ سٕنٛز

[t̪ǝmʲ sɨnzɨ]

تٔمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. R II [t̪ihɨnd̪]

تِہٕنٛد

[t̪ihɨnd̪ʲ]

تِہٕنٛدؠ

[t̪ihɨnz]

تِہٕنٛز

[t̪ihnzɨ]

تِہنٛزٕ

Adjectives[edit]

There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all.[96] Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns.[97] The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective /wɔzul/ ("red"):[98][99]

Masculine Feminine
singular plural singular plural
Nom. [wɔzul]
وۄزُل
[wɔzɨlʲ]
وۄزٕلؠ
[wɔzɨd͡ʒ]
وۄزٕج
[wɔzd͡ʒi]
وۄزجہِ
Erg. [wɔzlɨ]
وۄزلہٕ
[wɔzlʲaw]
وۄزلؠو
[wɔzd͡ʒi]
وۄزجہِ
[wɔzd͡ʒaw]
وۄزجَو
Dat. [wɔzlis]
وۄزلِس
[wɔzlʲan]
وۄزلؠن
[wɔzd͡ʒi]
وۄزجہِ
[wɔzd͡ʒan]
وۄزجَن
Abl. [wɔzlɨ]
وۄزلہٕ
[wɔzlʲaw]
وۄزلؠو
[wɔzd͡ʒi]
وۄزجہِ
[wɔzd͡ʒaw]
وۄزجَو

Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.[98]

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words tsor ("more") and sitha ("most"), respectively.[100]

Numerals[edit]

Within the Kashmir language, numerals are separated into cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers.[101] These numeral forms, as well as their aggregative (both, all the five, etc.), multiplicative (two times, four times, etc.), and emphatic forms (only one, only three, etc.) are provided by the table below.[101]

Cardinal Ordinal Aggregative Multiplicative Emphatic
Suffix   -[jum] for masculine

-[im] for feminine

-[waj] -[ɡun] or -[ɡon] for masculine

-[ɡɨn] for feminine

-[j]
0. [sifar]

صِفَر

1. [akʰ]

اَکھ

[ǝkʲum] or [ǝkim]

أکیُٛم or أکِم

   [oɡun] or [oɡɨn]

اۆگُن or اۆگٕن

[akuj]

اَکُے

2. [zɨ]

زٕ

[dojum] or [dojim]

دۆیُم or دۆیِم

[dɔʃwaj]

دۄشوَے

[doɡun] or [doɡɨn]

دۆگُن or دۆگٕن

[zɨj]

زٕے

3. [tre]

ترٛےٚ

[trejum] or [trejim]

ترٛیٚیُم or ترٛیٚیِم

[treʃwaj]

ترٛیٚشوَے

[troɡun] or [troɡɨn]

ترٛۆگُن or ترٛۆگٕن

[trej]

ترٛیٚے

4. [t͡soːr]

ژور

[t͡suːrʲum] or [t͡suːrim]

ژوٗریُٛم or ژوٗرِم

[t͡sɔʃwaj]

ژۄشوَے

[t͡soɡun] or [t͡soɡɨn]

ژۆگُن or ژۆگٕن

[t͡soːraj]

ژورَے

5. [pãːt͡sʰ] or [pə̃ːt͡sʰ]

پانٛژھ or پٲنٛژھ

[pɨ̃:t͡sjum] or [pɨ̃:t͡sim]

پٟنٛژیُٛم or پٟنٛژِم

[pãːt͡sɨwaj]

پانٛژٕوَے

[pãːt͡sɨɡun] or [pãːt͡sɨɡɨn]

پانٛژٕگُن or پانٛژٕگٕن

[pãːt͡saj]

پانٛژَے

6. [ʃe]

شےٚ

[ʃejum] or [ʃejim]

شیٚیُم or شیٚیِم

[ʃenɨwaj]

شیٚنہٕ وَے

[ʃuɡun] or [ʃuɡɨn]

شُگُن or شُگٕن

[ʃej]

شیٚے

7. [satʰ]

سَتھ

[sətjum] or [sətim]

سٔتیُٛم or سٔتِم

[satɨwaj]

سَتہٕ وَے

[satɨɡun] or [satɨɡɨn]

سَتہٕ گُن or سَتہٕ گٕن

[sataj]

سَتَے

8. [əːʈʰ]

ٲٹھ

[ɨːʈʰjum] or [uːʈʰjum]

اٟٹھیُٛم or اوٗٹھیُٛم

[ɨːʈʰim] or [uːʈʰim]

اٟٹھِم or اوٗٹھِم

[əːʈʰɨwaj]

ٲٹھٕ وَے

[əːʈʰɨɡun] or [əːʈʰɨɡɨn]

ٲٹھٕ گُن or ٲٹھٕ گٕن

[əːʈʰaj]

ٲٹھَے

9. [naw]

نَو

[nəwjum] or [nəwim]

نٔویُٛم or نٔوِم

[nawɨwaj]

نَوٕوَے

[nawɨɡun] or [nawɨɡɨn]

نَوٕگُن or نَوٕگٕن

[nawaj]

نَوَے

10. [dəh] or [daːh]

دٔہ or داہ

[dəhjum] or [dəhim]

دٔہیُٛم or دٔہِم

[dəhɨwaj]

دٔہہٕ وَے

[dəhɨɡon] or [dəhɨɡɨn]

دٔہہٕ گۆن or دٔہہٕ گٕن

[dəhaj]

دٔہَے

11. [kah] or [kaːh]

کَہہ or کاہ

[kəhjum] or [kəhim]

کٔہیُٛم or کٔہِم

12. [bah] or [baːh]

بَہہ or باہ

[bəhjum] or [bəhim]

بٔہیُٛم or بٔہِم

13. [truwaːh]

ترُٛواہ

[truwəːhjum] or [truwəːhim]

ترُٛوٲہیُٛم or ترُٛوٲہِم

14. [t͡sɔdaːh]

ژۄداہ

[t͡sɔdəːhjum] or [t͡sɔdəːhim]

ژۄدٲہیُٛم or ژۄدٲہِم

15. [pandaːh]

پَنٛداہ

[pandəːhjum] or [pandəːhim]

پَنٛدٲہیُٛم or پَنٛدٲہِم

16. [ʃuraːh]

شُراہ

[ʃurəːhjum] or [ʃurəːhim]

شُرٲہیُٛم or شُرٲہِم

17. [sadaːh]

سَداہ

[sadəːhjum] or [sadəːhim]

سَدٲہیُٛم or سَدٲہِم

18. [arɨdaːh]

اَرٕداہ

[arɨdəːhjum] or [arɨdəːhim]

اَرٕدٲہیُٛم or اَرٕدٲہِم

19. [kunɨwuh]

کُنہٕ وُہ

[kunɨwuhjum] or [kunɨwuhim]

کُنہٕ وُہیُٛم or کُنہٕ وُہِم

20. [wuh]

وُہ

[wuhjum] or [wuhim]

وُہیُٛم or وُہِم

21. [akɨwuh]

اَکہٕ وُہ

[akɨwuhjum] or [akɨwuhim]

اَکہٕ وُہیُٛم or اَکہٕ وُہِم

22. [zɨtoːwuh]

زٕتووُہ

[zɨtoːwuhjum] or [zɨtoːwuhim]

زٕتووُہیُٛم or زٕتووُہِم

23. [trowuh]

ترٛۆوُہ

[trowuhjum] or [trowuhim]

ترٛۆوُہیُٛم or ترٛۆوُہِم

24. [t͡sowuh]

ژۆوُہ

[t͡sowuhjum] or [t͡sowuhim]

ژۆوُہیُٛم or ژۆوُہِم

25. [pɨnt͡sɨh]

پٕنٛژٕہ

[pɨnt͡sɨhjum] or [pɨnt͡sɨhim]

پٕنٛژٕہیُٛم or پٕنٛژٕہِم

26. [ʃatɨwuh]

شَتہٕ وُہ

[ʃatɨwuhjum] or [ʃatɨwuhim]

شَتہٕ وُہیُٛم or شَتہٕ وُہِم

27. [satoːwuh]

سَتووُہ

[satoːwuhjum] or [satoːwuhim]

سَتووُہیُٛم or سَتووُہِم

28. [aʈʰoːwuh]

اَٹھووُہ

[aʈʰoːwuhjum] or [aʈʰoːwuhim]

اَٹھووُہیُٛم or اَٹھووُہِم

29. [kunɨtrɨh]

کُنہٕ ترٕٛہ

[kunɨtrɨhjum] or [kunɨtrɨhim]

کُنہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or کُنہٕ ترٕٛہِم

30. [trɨh]

ترٕٛہ

[trɨhjum] or [trɨhim]

ترٕٛہیُٛم or ترٕٛہِم

31. [akɨtrɨh]

اَکہٕ ترٕٛہ

[akɨtrɨhjum] or [akɨtrɨhim]

اَکہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or اَکہٕ ترٕٛہِم

32. [dɔjitrɨh]

دۄیہِ ترٕٛہ

[dɔjitrɨhjum] or [dɔjitrɨhjim]

دۄیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or دۄیہِ ترٕٛہِم

33. [tejitrɨh]

تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہ

[tejitrɨhjum] or [tejitrɨhim]

تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہِم

34. [t͡sɔjitrɨh]

ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہ

[t͡sɔjitrɨhjum] or [t͡sɔjitrɨhim]

ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہِم

35. [pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨh] or [pãːt͡sɨtrɨh]

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہ or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhjum] or [pãːt͡sɨtrɨhjum]

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhim] or [pãːt͡sɨtrɨhim]

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم

36. [ʃejitrɨh]

شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہ

[ʃejitrɨhjum] or [ʃejitrɨhim]

شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہِم

37. [satɨtrɨh]

سَتہٕ ترٕٛہ

[satɨtrɨhjum] or [satɨtrɨhim]

سَتہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or سَتہٕ ترٕٛہِم

38. [arɨtrɨh]

اَرٕترٕٛہ

[arɨtrɨhjum] or [arɨtrɨhim]

اَرٕترٕٛہیُٛم or اَرٕترٕٛہِم

39. [kunɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [kunɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

کُنہٕ تٲجِہہ or کُنہٕ تٲجی

[kunɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [kunɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

کُنہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or کُنہٕ تٲجِہِم

40. [t͡satd͡ʒih] or [t͡satd͡ʒiː]

ژَتجِہہ or ژَتجی

[t͡satd͡ʒihjum] or [t͡satd͡ʒihim]

ژَتجِہیُٛم or ژَتجِہِم

41. [akɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [akɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

اَکہٕ تٲجِہہ or اَکہٕ تٲجی

[akɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [akɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

اَکہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or اَکہٕ تٲجِہِم

42. [dɔjitəːd͡ʒih] or [dɔjitəːd͡ʒiː]

دۄیہِ تٲجِہہ or دۄیہِ تٲجی

[dɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [dɔjitəːd͡ʒihim]

دۄیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or دۄیہِ تٲجِہِم

43. [tejitəːd͡ʒih] or [tejitəːd͡ʒiː]

تیٚیہِ تٲجِہہ or تیٚیہِ تٲجی

[tejitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [tejitəːd͡ʒihim]

تیٚیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or تیٚیہِ تٲجِہِم

44. [t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒih] or [t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒiː]

ژۄیہِ تٲجِہہ or ژۄیہِ تٲجی

[t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihim]

ژۄیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or ژۄیہِ تٲجِہِم

45. [pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہہ or پانٛژٕ تٲجِہہ or پٲنٛژٕ تٲجی or پانٛژٕ تٲجی

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ تٲجِہیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim] or [pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہِم or پانٛژٕ تٲجِہِم

46. [ʃejitəːd͡ʒih] or [ʃejitəːd͡ʒiː]

شیٚیہِ تٲجِہہ or شیٚیہِ تٲجی

[ʃejitəːd͡ʒihjum] or [ʃejitəːd͡ʒihim]

شیٚیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or شیٚیہِ تٲجِہِم

47. [satɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [satɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

سَتہٕ تٲجِہہ or سَتہٕ تٲجی

[satɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [satɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

سَتہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or سَتہٕ تٲجِہِم

48. [arɨtəːd͡ʒih] or [arɨtəːd͡ʒiː]

اَرٕتٲجِہہ or اَرٕتٲجی

[arɨtəːd͡ʒihjum] or [arɨtəːd͡ʒihim]

اَرٕتٲجِہیُٛم or اَرٕتٲجِہِم

49. [kunɨwanzaːh]

کُنہٕ وَنٛزاہ

[kunɨwanzəːhjum] or [kunɨwanzəːhim]

کُنہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or کُنہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

50. [pant͡saːh]

پَنٛژاہ

[pant͡səːhjum] or [pant͡səːhim]

پَنٛژٲہیُٛم or پَنٛژٲہِم

51. [akɨwanzaːh]

اَکہٕ وَنٛزاہ

[akɨwanzəːhjum] or [akɨwanzəːhim]

اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

52. [duwanzaːh]

دُوَنٛزاہ

[duwanzəːhjum] or [duwanzəːhim]

دُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or دُوَنٛزٲہِم

53. [truwanzaːh] or [trɨwanzaːh]

ترُٛوَنٛزاہ or ترٕٛوَنٛزاہ

[truwanzəːhjum] or [truwanzəːhim]

ترُٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ترُٛوَنٛزٲہِم

[trɨwanzəːhjum] or [trɨwanzəːhim]

ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہِم

54. [t͡suwanzaːh]

ژُوَنٛزاہ

[t͡suwanzəːhjum] or [t͡suwanzəːhim]

ژُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ژُوَنٛزٲہِم

55. [pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzaːh] or [pãːt͡sɨwanzaːh]

پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزاہ or پانٛژٕ وَنٛزاہ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum] or [pãːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum]

پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhim] or [pãːt͡sɨwanzəːhim]

پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہِم or پانٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

56. [ʃuwanzaːh]

شُوَنٛزاہ

[ʃuwanzəːhjum] or [ʃuwanzəːhim]

شُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or شُوَنٛزٲہِم

57. [satɨwanzaːh]

سَتہٕ وَنٛزاہ

[satɨwanzəːhjum] or [satɨwanzəːhim]

سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

58. [arɨwanzaːh]

اَرٕوَنٛزاہ

[arɨwanzəːhjum] or [arɨwanzəːhim]

اَرٕوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or اَرٕوَنٛزٲہِم

59. [kunɨhəːʈʰ]

کُنہٕ ہٲٹھ

[kunɨhəːʈʰjum] or [kunɨhəːʈʰim]

کُنہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or کُنہٕ ہٲٹھِم

60. [ʃeːʈʰ]

شیٹھ

[ʃeːʈʰjum] or [ʃeːʈʰim]

شیٹھیُٛم or شیٹھِم

61. [akɨhəːʈʰ]

اَکہٕ ہٲٹھ

[akɨhəːʈʰjum] or [akɨhəːʈʰim]

اَکہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or اَکہٕ ہٲٹھِم

62. [duhəːʈʰ]

دُ ہٲٹھ

[duhəːʈʰjum] or [duhəːʈʰim]

دُ ہٲٹھیُٛم or دُ ہٲٹھِم

63. [truhəːʈʰ] or [trɨhəːʈʰ]

ترُٛہٲٹھ or ترٕٛہٲٹھ

[truhəːʈʰjum] or [truhəːʈʰim]

ترُٛہٲٹھیُٛم or ترُٛہٲٹھِم

[trɨhəːʈʰjum] or [trɨhəːʈʰim]

ترٕٛہٲٹھیُٛم or ترٕٛہٲٹھِم

64. [t͡suhəːʈʰ]

ژُہٲٹھ

[t͡suhəːʈʰjum] or [t͡suhəːʈʰim]

ژُہٲٹھیُٛم or ژُہٲٹھِم

65. [pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھ or پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum] or [pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum]

پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim] or [pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim]

پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھِم or پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھِم

66. [ʃuhəːʈʰ]

شُہٲٹھ

[ʃuhəːʈʰjum] or [ʃuhəːʈʰim]

شُہٲٹھیُٛم or شُہٲٹھِم

67. [satɨhəːʈʰ]

سَتہٕ ہٲٹھ

[satɨhəːʈʰjum] or [satɨhəːʈʰim]

سَتہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or سَتہٕ ہٲٹھِم

68. [arɨhəːʈʰ]

اَرٕہٲٹھ

[arɨhəːʈʰjum] or [arɨhəːʈʰim]

اَرٕہٲٹھیُٛم or اَرٕہٲٹھِم

69. [kunɨsatatʰ]

کُنہٕ سَتَتھ

[kunɨsatatyum] or [kunɨsatatim]

کُنہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or کُنہٕ سَتَتِم

70. [satatʰ]

سَتَتھ

[satatjum] or [satatim]

سَتَتیُٛم or سَتَتِم

71. [akɨsatatʰ]

اَکہٕ سَتَتھ

[akɨsatatjum] or [akɨsatatim]

اَکہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or اَکہٕ سَتَتِم

72. [dusatatʰ]

دُسَتَتھ

[dusatatjum] or [dusatatim]

دُسَتَتیُٛم or دُسَتَتِم

73. [trusatatʰ] or [trɨsatatʰ]

ترُٛسَتَتھ or ترٕٛسَتَتھ

[trusatatjum] or [trusatatim]

ترُٛسَتَتیُٛم or ترُٛسَتَتِم

[trɨsatatjum] or [trɨsatatim]

ترٕٛسَتَتیُٛم or ترٕٛسَتَتِم

74. [t͡susatatʰ]

ژُسَتَتھ

[t͡susatatjum] or [t͡susatatim]

ژُسَتَتیُٛم or ژُسَتَتِم

75. [pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨsatatʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتھ or پانٛژٕ سَتَتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatjum] or [pãːt͡sɨsatatjum]

پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ سَتَتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatim] or [pãːt͡sɨsatatim]

پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتِم or پانٛژٕ سَتَتِم

76. [ʃusatatʰ]

شُسَتَتھ

[ʃusatatjum] or [ʃusatatim]

شُسَتَتیُٛم or شُسَتَتِم

77. [satɨsatatʰ]

سَتہٕ سَتَتھ

[satɨsatatjum] or [satɨsatatim]

سَتہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ سَتَتِم

78. [arɨsatatʰ]

اَرٕسَتَتھ

[arɨsatatjum] or [arɨsatatim]

اَرٕسَتَتیُٛم or اَرٕسَتَتِم

79. [kunɨʃiːtʰ]

کُنہٕ شيٖتھ

[kunɨʃiːtjum] or [kunɨʃiːtim]

کُنہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or کُنہٕ شيٖتِم

80. [ʃiːtʰ]

شيٖتھ

[ʃiːtjum] or [ʃiːtjim]

شيٖتیُٛم or شيٖتِم

81. [akɨʃiːtʰ]

اَکہٕ شيٖتھ

[akɨʃiːtjum] or [akɨʃiːtim]

اَکہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or اَکہٕ شيٖتِم

82. [dɔjiʃiːtʰ]

دۄیہِ شيٖتھ

[dɔjiʃiːtjum] or [dɔjiʃiːtjum]

دۄیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or دۄیہِ شيٖتِم

83. [trejiʃiːtʰ]

ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتھ

[trejiʃiːtjum] or [trejiʃiːtim]

ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتِم

84. [t͡sɔjiʃiːtʰ]

ژۄیہِ شيٖتھ

[t͡sɔjiʃiːtjum] or [t͡sɔjiʃiːtim]

ژۄیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or ژۄیہِ شيٖتِم

85. [pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتھ or پانٛژٕ شيٖتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtjum] or [pãːt͡sɨʃiːtjum]

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtim] or [pãːt͡sɨʃiːtim]

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتِم or پانٛژٕ شيٖتِم

86. [ʃejiʃiːtʰ]

شیٚیہِ شيٖتھ

[ʃejiʃiːtjum] or [ʃejiʃiːtim]

شیٚیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or شیٚیہِ شيٖتِم

87. [satɨʃiːtʰ]

سَتہٕ شيٖتھ

[satɨʃiːtjum] or [satɨʃiːtim]

سَتہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or سَتہٕ شيٖتِم

88. [arɨʃiːtʰ]

اَرٕشيٖتھ

[arɨʃiːtjum] or [arɨʃiːtim]

اَرٕشيٖتیُٛم or اَرٕشيٖتِم

89. [kunɨnamatʰ]

کُنہٕ نَمَتھ

[kunɨnamatjum] or [kunɨnamatim]

کُنہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or کُنہٕ نَمَتِم

90. [namatʰ]

نَمَتھ

[namatjum] or [namatim]

نَمَتیُٛم or نَمَتِم

91. [akɨnamatʰ]

اَکہٕ نَمَتھ

[akɨnamatjum] or [akɨnamatim]

اَکہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or اَکہٕ نَمَتِم

92. [dunamatʰ]

دُنَمَتھ

[dunamatjum] or [dunamatim]

دُنَمَتیُٛم or دُنَمَتِم

93. [trunamatʰ] or [trɨnamatʰ]

ترُٛنَمَتھ or ترٕٛنَمَتھ

[trunamatjum] or [trunamatim]

ترُٛنَمَتیُٛم or ترُٛنَمَتِم

[trɨnamatjum] or [trɨnamatim]

ترٕٛنَمَتیُٛم or ترٕٛنَمَتِم

94. [t͡sunamatʰ]

ژُنَمَتھ

[t͡sunamatjum] or [t͡sunamatim]

ژُنَمَتیُٛم or ژُنَمَتِم

95. [pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatʰ] or [pãːt͡sɨnamatʰ]

پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتھ or پانٛژٕ نَمَتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatjum] or [pãːt͡sɨnamatjum]

پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ نَمَتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatim] or [pãːt͡sɨnamatim]

پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتِم or پانٛژٕ نَمَتِم

96. [ʃunamatʰ]

شُنَمَتھ

[ʃunamatjum] or [ʃunamatim]

شُنَمَتیُٛم or شُنَمَتِم

97. [satɨnamatʰ]

سَتہٕ نَمَتھ

[satɨnamatjum] or [satɨnamatim]

سَتہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ نَمَتِم

98. [arɨnamatʰ]

اَرٕنَمَتھ

[arɨnamatjum] or [arɨnamatjim]

اَرٕنَمَتیُٛم or اَرٕنَمَتِم

99. [namɨnamatʰ]

نَمہٕ نَمَتھ

[namɨnamatjum] or [namɨnamatim]

نَمہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or نَمہٕ نَمَتِم

100. [hatʰ]

ہَتھ

[hatyum] or [hatim]

ہَتیُٛم or ہَتِم

101. [akʰ hatʰ akʰ]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ اَکھ

[akʰ hatʰ ǝkjum] or [akʰ hatʰ ǝkim]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ أکیُٛم or اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ أکِم

102. [akʰ hatʰ zɨ]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ زٕ

[akʰ hatʰ dojum] or [akʰ hatʰ dojim]

اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ دۆیُم or اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ دۆیِم

200. [zɨ hatʰ]

زٕ ہَتھ

[du hatyum] or [duhatim]

دُہَتیُٛم or دُہَتِم

300. [tre hatʰ]

ترٛےٚ ہَتھ

[trɨ hatyum] or [trɨ hatim]

ترٕٛہَتیُٛم or ترٕٛہَتِم

400. [t͡soːr hatʰ]

ژور ہَتھ

[t͡su hatyum] or [t͡su hatim]

ژُہَتیُٛم or ژُہَتِم

500. [pə̃ːt͡sʰ hatʰ] or [pãːt͡sʰ hatʰ]

پٲنٛژھ ہَتھ or پانٛژھ ہَتھ

[pə̃ːt͡sɨ hatyum] or [pãːt͡sɨ hatyum]

پٲنٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم

[pə̃ːt͡sɨ hatim] or [pãːt͡sɨ hatim]

پٲنٛژٕ ہَتِم or پانٛژٕ ہَتِم

600. [ʃe hatʰ]

شےٚ ہَتھ

[ʃe hatyum] or [ʃe hatim]

شےٚ ہَتیُٛم or شےٚ ہَتِم

700. [satʰ hatʰ]

سَتھ ہَتھ

[ʃatɨ hatyum] or [ʃatɨ hatim]

سَتہٕ ہَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ ہَتِم

800. [əːʈʰ ʃatʰ]

ٲٹھ شَتھ

[əːʈʰ ʃatjum] or [əːʈʰ ʃatim]

ٲٹھ شَتیُٛم or ٲٹھ شَتِم

900. [naw ʃatʰ]

نَو شَتھ

[naw ʃatjum] or [naw ʃatim]

نَو شَتیُٛم or نَو شَتِم

1000. [saːs]

ساس

[səːsjum] or [səːsim]

سٲسیُٛم or سٲسِم

1001. [akʰ saːs akʰ]

اَکھ ساس اَکھ

[akʰ saːs ǝkjum] or [akʰ saːs ǝkim]

اَکھ ساس أکیُٛم or اَکھ ساس أکِم

1002. [akʰ saːs zɨ]

اَکھ ساس زٕ

[akʰ saːs dojum] or [akʰ saːs dojim]

اَکھ ساس دۆیُم or اَکھ ساس دۆیِم

1100. [akʰ saːs hatʰ]

اَکھ ساس ہَتھ

or

[kah ʃatʰ] or [kaːh ʃatʰ]

کَہہ شَتھ or کاہ شَتھ

[akʰ saːs hatjum] or [akʰ saːs hatim]

اَکھ ساس ہَتیُٛم or اَکھ ساس ہَتِم

or

[kah ʃatjum] or [kaːh ʃatjum]

کَہہ شَتیُٛم or کاہ شَتیُٛم

[kah ʃatim] or [kaːh ʃatim]

کَہہ شَتِم or کاہ شَتِم

1500. [akʰ saːs pãːt͡sʰ hatʰ]

اَکھ ساس پانٛژھ ہَتھ

or

[pandaːh ʃatʰ]

پَنٛداہ شَتھ

[akʰ saːs pãːt͡sɨ hatjum] or [akʰ saːs pãːt͡sɨ hatim]

اَکھ ساس پانٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم or اَکھ ساس پانٛژٕ ہَتِم

or

[pandaːh ʃatjum] or [pandaːh ʃatim]

پَنٛداہ شَتیُٛم or پَنٛداہ شَتِم

10,000. [dəh saːs] or [daːh saːs]

دٔہ ساس or داہ ساس

[dəh səːsjum] or [daːh səːsjum]

دٔہ سٲسیُٛم or داہ سٲسیُٛم

[dəh səːsim] or [daːh səːsim]

دٔہ سٲسِم or داہ سٲسِم

Hundred thousand [lat͡ʃʰ]

لَچھ

[lat͡ʃʰjum] or [lat͡ʃʰim]

لَچھیُٛم or لَچھِم

Million [dəh lat͡ʃʰ] or [daːh lat͡ʃʰ]

دٔہ لَچھ or داہ لَچھ

[dəh lat͡ʃʰjum] or [daːh lat͡ʃʰjum]

دٔہ لَچھیُٛم or داہ لَچھیُٛم

[dəh lat͡ʃʰim] or [daːh lat͡ʃʰim]

دٔہ لَچھِم or داہ لَچھِم

Ten million [kɔroːr] or [karoːr]

کۄرور or کَرور

[kɔroːrjum] or [karoːrjum]

کۄروریُٛم or کَروریُٛم

[kɔroːrim] or [karoːrim]

کۄرورِم or کَرورِم

Billion [arab]

اَرَب

[arabjum] or [arabim]

اَرَبیُٛم or اَرَبِم

Hundred billion [kʰarab]

کھَرَب

[kʰarabjum] or [kʰarabim]

کھَرَبیُٛم or کھَرَبِم

The ordinal number "1st" which is [ǝkʲum] أکیُٛم for its masculine gender and [ǝkim] أکِم for its feminine gender is also known as [ɡɔɖnʲuk] گۄڈنیُٛک and [ɡɔɖnit͡ʃ] گۄڈنِچ respectively.[102]

Vocabulary[edit]

Kashmiri is an Indo-Aryan language and was heavily influenced by Sanskrit, especially early on.[103][104][105] After the arrival of Islamic administrative rule in India, Kashmiri acquired many Persian loanwords.[105] In modern times, Kashmiri vocabulary has imported words from English, Hindustani and Punjabi.[106]

Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary[edit]

Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.[39] Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form yodvai (meaning if), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use the word yadi instead.[39]

First person pronoun[edit]

Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *eǵHom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as aham and in Avestan Persian as azam. This contrasts with the m- form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ma(-m). However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with m- in words such as ma-n and mai. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is ba/bi/bo in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other me terms. 'Mine' is myon in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (aun vs me-), Gujarati (hu-n vs ma-ri), Konkani (hā̃v vs mhazo), and Braj (hau-M vs mai-M). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (za vs. maa), as well as Nuristani languages, such as Askunu (âi vs ).[107]

Variations[edit]

There are very minor differences between the Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims.[108] For 'fire', a traditional Hindu uses the word اۆگُن [oɡun] while a Muslim more often uses the Arabic word نار [naːr].[109]

Sample text[edit]

Perso-Arabic script[edit]

Art. 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

سٲری اِنسان چھِ آزاد زامٕتؠ۔ وؠقار تہٕ حۆقوٗق چھِ ہِوی۔ تِمَن چھُ سوچ سَمَج عَطا کَرنہٕ آمُت تہٕ تِمَن پَزِ بٲے بَرادٔری ہٕنٛدِس جَذباتَس تَحَت اَکھ أکِس اَکار بَکار یُن ۔ [110]

[səːriː insaːn t͡ʃʰi aːzaːd zaːmɨtʲ . wʲakaːr hokuːk t͡ʃʰi hiwiː . timan t͡ʃʰu soːt͡ʃ samad͡ʒ ataː karnɨ aːmut timan pazi bəːj baraːdəriː hɨndis d͡ʒazbaːtas tahat akʰ əkis akaːr bakaːr jun]

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."

Sharada script[edit]

Verses by Lalleshwari:[111]

𑆏𑆩𑆶𑆅 𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆪 𑆃𑆗𑆶𑆫 𑆥𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆱𑆶𑆪𑆲𑆳 𑆩𑆳𑆬𑆴 𑆫𑆾𑆛𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆮𑆶𑆤𑇀𑆢𑆱𑇀 𑆩𑆁𑆘 𑆱𑆶𑆅 𑆩𑆳𑆬𑆴 𑆑𑆤𑆴 𑆥𑇀𑆪𑆜 𑆓𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆠 𑆖𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆃𑆱𑆱𑇀 𑆱𑆳𑆱 𑆠 𑆱𑆥𑆤𑇀𑆪𑆱 𑆱𑆾𑆤𑇆

[oːmuj akuj at͡ʃʰur porum, suj maːli roʈum wɔndas manz, suj maːli kani pʲaʈʰ gorum t͡sorum, əːsɨs saːs sapnis sɔn.]

"I kept reciting the unique divine word "Om" and kept it safe in my heart through my resolute dedication and love. I was simply ash and by its divine grace got metamorphosed into gold."

𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆪 𑆏𑆀𑆑𑆳𑆫 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆤𑆳𑆨𑆴 𑆣𑆫𑆼 𑆑𑆶𑆩𑇀𑆮𑆪 𑆧𑇀𑆫𑆲𑇀𑆩𑆳𑆟𑇀𑆝𑆱 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆓𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆒 𑆩𑆶𑆪 𑆩𑆁𑆠𑇀𑆫 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆖𑇀𑆪𑆠𑆱 𑆑𑆫𑆼 𑆠𑆱 𑆱𑆳𑆱 𑆩𑆁𑆠𑇀𑆫 𑆑𑇀𑆪𑆳 𑆑𑆫𑆼𑇆

[akuj omkaːr jus naːbi dareː, kumbeː brahmaːnɖas sum gareː, akʰ suj mantʰɨr t͡sʲatas kareː, tas saːs mantʰɨr kjaː kareː.]

One who recites the divine word "Omkār" by devotion is capable to build a bridge between his own and the cosmic consciousness. By staying committed to this sacred word, one doesn't require any other mantra out of thousands others.

See also[edit]