Kashmiri language

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Kashmiri
कॉशुर, كٲشُر, 𑆑𑆾𑆯𑆶𑆫
Koshur.png
Native toIndia, Pakistan
RegionJammu and Kashmir,[1] Azad Kashmir
EthnicityKashmiris
Native speakers
7 million (2011 census)[2]
Dialects
Perso-Arabic script (contemporary, official status),[3]
Devanagari (contemporary),[3]
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)[3]
Official status
Official language in
 India
Language codes
ISO 639-1ks
ISO 639-2kas
ISO 639-3kas
Glottologkash1277[6]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A Kashmiri speaker, recorded in India for Wikitongues.

Kashmiri (English: /kæʃˈmɪəri/)[7] or Koshur (कॉशुर, كٲشُر, /kəːʃur/)[8] is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris, primarily in the Indian territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

In 2020 the Parliament of India passed a bill to make Kashmiri official language of Jammu and Kashmir along with Dogri, Hindi, English and Urdu. Kashmiri is also among the 22 scheduled languages of India.

Kashmiri has split ergativity and the unusual verb-second word order.

Geographic distribution and status[edit]

There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India.[9] Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.[10]

Kashmiri is also spoken in Pakistan, primarily in the territory of Azad Kashmir, where the speakers are mostly concentrated in the Neelam and Leepa valleys and in the district of Haveli.[11] Their numbers are not known exactly, but published figures have ranged from 130,000 (according to a 2012 estimate)[12] to 350,000 (as of the 2017 census).[13]

The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.[14] It was a part of the eighth Schedule in the constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language is to be developed in the state.[15]

The majority of sources make mention of three dialects for Kashmiri. Poguli and Rambani predominate in the Ramban valley, while Kishtwari is a highly distinctive variety which is considered by some to be a separate language altogether

Most Kashmiri speakers use Urdu or English as a second language.[1] Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all government schools in the Valley up to secondary level.[16][17]

Phonology[edit]

Kashmiri has the following vowel phonemes:[18][19]

Vowels[edit]

  Front Central Back
High i ɨ ɨː u
Mid e ə əː o
Low a ɔ ɔː

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo
-palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop /
Affricate
plain p b t d t͡s ʈ ɖ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k ɡ
aspirated t͡sʰ ʈʰ t͡ʃʰ
Fricative s z ʃ h
Approximant w l j
Trill r

Archaisms[edit]

Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants s ṣ ś of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as dvi-, has developed into ba-/bi- in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but du- in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop d). Seventy-two is dusatath in Kashmiri, bahattar in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and dvisaptati in Sanskrit.[20]

Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (this tendency is even stronger in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word rahit in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to rost in Kashmiri. Similarly, sahit (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to sost in Kashmiri.[20]

Writing system[edit]

There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language: the Sharada script, the Devanagari script and the Perso-Arabic script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online.[3]

The Kashmiri language is traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D.[21] This script however, is not in common use today, except for religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits.[22]

Today it is written in Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts (with some modifications).[23] Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds.[24]

The Perso-Arabic script is recognised as the official script of Kashmiri language by the Jammu and Kashmir government and the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages.[25][26][27][28]

Nowadays, Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has come to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script has come to be associated with the Kashmiri Hindu community.[29][30]

Perso-Arabic script[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph
بے b /b/ ب
پے p /p/ پ
تے t /t/ ت
ٹے ṭē /ʈ/ ٹ
ثے s /s/ ث
جـیٖـم jīm j /d͡ʒ/ ج
چـیٖـم chīm ch /t͡ʃ/ چ
حے hai h /h/ ح
خے khai kh /x, kʰ/ خ
دال dāl d /d/ د
ڈال ḍāl /ɖ/ ڈ
ذال zāl z /z/ ذ
رے r /r/ ر
ڑے ṛē /ɽ/ ڑ
زے z /z/ ز
ژے tsē ts /t͡s/ ژ
سـیٖـن sīn s /s/ س
شـیٖـن shīn š /ʃ/ ش
صـۄاد sọ̄d s /s/ ص
ضـۄاد zọ̄d z /z/ ض
طـۄے tọy t /t/ ط
ظـۄے zọy z /z/ ظ
عٲن 'əːn ’, – /ʔ, ∅/ ع
غٲن gəːn g /g/ غ
فے f /f, pʰ/ ف
قاف kāf k /k/ ق
كـیٖـف kīf k /k/ ک
گاف gāf g /ɡ/ گ
لام lām l /l/ ل
مـیٖـم mīm m /m/ م
نـوٗن nūn n, ̃ /n, ̃/ ن
واو wāw v /w/ و
ہے h /h/ ہ
یے y /j/ ے
چھوٹی یے choṭī ye -y- /ʲ/ ؠ

The digraphs of Aspirated consonant are as follow.

Digraph Transcription IPA
پھ ph [pʰ]
تھ th [tʰ]
ٹھ ṭh [ʈʰ]
چھ čh [t͡ʃʰ]
ژھ ch [t͡sʰ]
کھ kh [kʰ]

Vowels[edit]

Transliteration IPA Vowel combined with consonant ب (be) Final vowel glyph Medial vowel glyph Initial vowel glyph Isolated vowel glyph Unicode diacritic glyph details
a /a/ بَ –َ –َ اَ اَ U+064E ARABIC FATHA
ā /aː/ با ا ا آ آ (آ) U+0622 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH MADDA ABOV (Initial & Isolate)

(ا) U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF (Medial & Final)

ạ (ö) /ə/ بٔ –ٔ –ٔ أ أ U+0654 ARABIC HAMZA ABOVE
ạ̄ (ȫ) /əː/ بٲ ٲ ٲ ٲ ٲ (ٲ) U+0672 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA ABOVE
i /i/ بِ –ِ –ِ اِ اِ U+0650 ARABIC KASRA
ī /iː/ بيٖ ی ـیٖـ ایٖـ ايٖ (ايٖ) U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH & U+0656 ARABIC SUBSCRIPT ALEF (Initial & Medial)

U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH (Final & Isolate)

u',ü /ɨ/ بٕ –ٕ –ٕ إ إ U+0655 ARABIC HAMZA BELOW
ū',ǖ /ɨː/ بٟ –ٟ –ٟ ٳ ٳ (ٳ) U+0673 ARABIC LETTER ALEF WITH WAVY HAMZA BELOW
u /u/ بُ –ُ –ُ اُ اُ U+064F ARABIC DAMMA
ū /uː/ بوٗ ـوٗ ـوٗ اوٗ اوٗ (وٗ) U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW & U+0657 ARABIC INVERTED DAMMA
o /o/ بۆ ـۆ ـۆ اۆ اۆ (ۆ) U+06C6 ARABIC LETTER OE
ō /oː/ بو ـو ـو او او (و) U+0648 ARABIC LETTER WAW
/ɔ/ بۄ ـۄ ۄ اۄ اۄ (ۄ) U+06C4 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING
ọ̄ /ɔː/ بۄا ـۄا - - اۄا (ۄ + ا) U+06C4 ARABIC LETTER WAW WITH RING & U+0627 ARABIC LETTER ALEF
e /e/ بـٚے ـٚے ـێـ ێـ اٚے

( ٚ) U+065A ARABIC VOWEL SIGN SMALL V ABOVE combined with (ے) U+06D2 ARABIC LETTER YEH BARREE

ē /eː/ بے ے ـیـ یـ اے (ی) U+06CC ARABIC LETTER FARSI YEH

Devanagari[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Letter च़ छ़ ज़
IPA [k] [kʰ] [g] [t͡ʃ] [t͡ʃʰ] [d͡ʒ] [t͡s] [t͡sʰ] [z] [ʈ] [ʈʰ] [ɖ] [t] [tʰ] [d] [n] [p] [pʰ] [b] [m] [j] [r] [l] [w] [ʃ] [s] [h]
Transliteration k kh g č čh j c ch z ṭh t th d n p ph b m y r l w š s h

Vowels[edit]

Tabulated below is one version of the proposal to spell the Kashmiri vowels with Devanagari:[31][32]

Letter
IPA [a] [aː] [ɔ] [ɔː] [e] [eː] [ə] [əː] [i] [iː] [ɨ] [ɨː] [u] [uː] [o] [oː] [◌̃]
Transliteration[33] a ā ọ̄ e ē ö ȫ i ī ü ǖ u ū o ō ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कॅ कॉ कॆ के कऺ कऻ कि की कॖ कॗ कु कू कॊ को कं

The other version of the proposal is shown below:[34]

Letter -व
IPA [a] [aː] [ə] [əː] [ɨ] [ɨː] [i] [iː] [u] [uː] [e] [eː] [əi] [o] [oː] [əu] [ɔ] [◌̃]
Transliteration a ā ö ȫ ü ǖ i ī u ū e ē ai o ō au ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कॅ कॉ कॖ कॗ कि की कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ क्व or कव कं

Grammar[edit]

Kashmiri is a fusional language[35] with verb-second (V2) word order.[36] Several of Kashmiri's grammatical features distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan languages.[37]

Nouns[edit]

Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or "generic" noun qualities.[35]

Gender[edit]

The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun.[35] TA relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms.[38] The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms:[39]

Process Masculine Feminine Meaning
Adding of affixe /ʃur/

شُر

/ʃurʲ/

شُرؠ

child
vowel change /gagur/

گَگُر

/gagɨr/

گَگٕر

Rat
consonant change /hokʰ/

ہۆکھ

/hot͡ʃʰ/

ہۆچھ

dry
vowel/consonant change /tot/

تۆت

/tət͡s/

تٔژ

hot
suppletive form /marɨd/

مَرٕد

/zanaːn/

زَنان

man/woman
masculine only /kaːw/

کاو

--- crow
feminine only --- /mət͡ʃʰ/

مٔچھ

fly

Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.[38]

Case[edit]

There are five cases in Kashmiri: nominative, dative, ergative, ablative and vocative.[40] Case is expressed via suffixation of the noun.

Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense.[40] Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked.[40][41][42] However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case.[43]

Other case distinctions, such as locative, instrumental, genitive, comitative and allative, are marked by postpositions rather than suffixation.[44]

Noun morphology[edit]

The following table illustrates Kashmiri noun declension according to gender, number and case.[43][45]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
Nom.
Erg. -/an/

اَن

-/aw/

اَو

-/i/

اِ

-/aw/

اَو

Dat. -/as/ - /is/

اَس or اِس

-/an/

اَن

-/i/

اِ

-/an/

اَن

Abl. -/i/ -/ɨ/

اِ or إ

-/aw/

اَو

-/i/

اِ

-/aw/

اَو

Voc. -/aː/

ا

-/aw/

اَو

-/ij/

اِے

-/aw/

اَو

Verbs[edit]

Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending - /un/), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries.[46] Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.[47]

Tense[edit]

Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -/aːn/ added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb /jun/ (to come):[48]

Present
Masculine Feminine
1st Person Sing. /t͡ʃʰus jiwaːn/

چھُس یِوان

/t͡ʃʰas jiwaːn/

چھَس یِوان

2nd Person Sing. /t͡ʃʰukʰ jiwaːn/

چھُکھ یِوان

/t͡ʃʰakʰ jiwaːn/

چھَکھ یِوان

3rd Person Sing. /t͡ʃʰu jiwaːn/

چھُ یِوان

/t͡ʃʰe jiwaːn/

چھےٚ یِوان

1st Person Pl. /t͡ʃʰi jiwaːn/

چھِ یِوان

/t͡ʃʰa jiwaːn/

چھَ یِوان

2nd Person Pl. /t͡ʃʰiw jiwaːn/

چھِو یِوان

/t͡ʃʰaw jiwaːn/

چھَو یِوان

3rd Person Pl. /t͡ʃʰi jiwaːn/

چھِ یِوان

/t͡ʃʰe jiwaːn/

چھےٚ یِوان

Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions.[49] The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts.[50]

As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative.[50] Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb.[50][51]

Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb /parun/ ("to read"):[52]

Simple Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person /por/
پۆر
/pərʲ/

پٔرؠ

/pər/

پٔر

/pari/

پَرِ

2nd Person

(Non-honorific)

/porutʰ/

پۆرُتھ

/pəritʰ/

پٔرِتھ

/pərɨtʰ/

پٔرٕتھ

/parʲatʰ/

پَرؠتھ

2nd Person (Honorific) /porwɨ/

پۆروٕ

/pəriwɨ/

پٔرِوٕ

/pərwɨ/

پٔروٕ

/pariwɨ/

پَرِوٕ

3rd Person /por/

پۆر

/pərʲ/

پٔرؠ

/pər/

پٔر

/pari/

پَرِ

A group of irregular intransitive verbs (special intransitives), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.[53]

Simple Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/us/

اُس

-/ʲ/

ؠ

-/as/

اَس

-/i/

اِ

2nd Person -/kʰ/

کھ

-/wɨ/

وٕ

-/kʰ/

کھ

-/wɨ/

وٕ

3rd Person -/t͡ʃʰ/

چھ

-/i/

اِ

Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.[54]

Simple Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/jas/

یَس

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-/jeːjas/

یے یَس

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

2nd Person -/jaːkʰ/

یاکھ

-/jeːjiwɨ/

یے یِوٕ

-/jeːjakʰ/

یے یَکھ

-/jeːjiwɨ/

یے یِوٕ

3rd Person -/joːw/

یوو

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-jeːji

یے یِہ

In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change.[55] Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:[56]

Indefinite Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -/joːw/

یوو

-/eːji/

ے یِہ

-/eːji/

ے یِہ

-/eːji/

ے یِہ

2nd Person -/joːtʰ/

یوتھ

-/eːjatʰ/

ے یَتھ

-/eːjatʰ/

ے یَتھ

-/eːjatʰ/

ے یَتھ

Remote Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -/eːjoːw/

ے یوو

-/eːjaːji/

ے یایِہ

-/eːjaːji/

ے یایِہ

-/eːjaːji/

ے یایِہ

2nd Person -/eːjoːtʰ/

ے یوتھ

-/eːjeːjatʰ/

ے یے یَتھ

-/eːjeːjatʰ/

ے یے یَتھ

-/eːjeːjatʰ/

ے یے یَتھ

As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:[57]

Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/aːs/

اس

-/aːjas/

ایَس

-/aːjas/

ایَس

-/aːji/

ایِہ

2nd Person -/kʰ/

کھ

-/kʰ/

کھ

-/aːjakʰ/

ایَکھ

-/aːjiwɨ/

ایِوٕ

3rd Person -/aw/

اَو

-/aːji/

ایِہ

-/aːji/

ایِہ

-aːji

ایِہ

Remote Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/aːjaːs/

ایاس

-/eːjaːji/

ے یایِہ

-/eːjeːjas/

ے یے یَس

-/eːjeːji/

ے یے یِہ

2nd Person -/aːkʰ/

اکھ

-/eːjiwɨ/

ے یِوٕ

-/aːjakʰ/

ایَکھ

-/aːjiwɨ/

ایِوٕ

3rd Person -/eːjoːw/

ے یوو

-/eːjeːji/

ے یے یِہ

-/eːjaːjɨ/

ے یایٕہ

-/eːjaːjɨ/

ے یایٕہ

Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:[58]

Indefinite Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/jas/

یَس

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-/jeːjas/

یے یَس

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

2nd Person -/jaːkʰ/

یاکھ

-/jeːjiwɨ/

یے یِوٕ

-/jeːjakʰ/

یے یَکھ

-/jeːjiwɨ/

یے یِوٕ

3rd Person -/joːw/

یوو

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

Remote Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -/jeːjaːs/

یے یاس

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-/jeːjaːs/

یے یاس

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

2nd Person -/jeːjakʰ/

یے یَکھ

-/jeːjiwɨ/

یے یِوٕ

-/jeːjakʰ/

یے یَکھ

-/jeːjiwɨ/

یے یِوٕ

3rd Person -/jeːjoːw/

یے یوو

-/jeːji/

یے یِہ

-/jeːjaːjɨ/

یے یایٕہ

-/jeːjɨ/

یے یٕہ

Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:[59]

Future (Intransitive)
Singular Plural
1st Person -/mɨ/

مٕہ

-/maw/

مَو

2nd Person -/akʰ/

اَکھ

-/jiw/

یِو

3rd Person -/ji/

یِہ

-/an/

اَن

The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:[60]

Future (Transitive)
Singular Object Plural Object
1st Person Sing. -/an/

اَن

-/akʰ/

اَکھ

1st Person Pl. -/ɨhoːn/

إہون

-/ɨhoːkʰ/

إہوکھ

2nd Person Sing. -/ɨhǝn/

إۂن

-/ɨhǝkʰ/

إۂکھ

2nd Person Pl. -/ɨhuːn/

إہوٗن

-/ɨhuːkʰ/

إہوٗکھ

3rd Person Sing. -/jas/

یَس

-/jakʰ/

یَکھ

3rd Person Pl. -/ɨnas/

إنَس

-/ɨnakʰ/

إنَکھ

Aspect[edit]

There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary /aːsun/ ("to be")—which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).[61]

Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:[61]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
-/mut/

مُت

-/mɨtʲ/

مٕتؠ

-/mɨt͡s/

مٕژ

-/mat͡sɨ/

مَژٕ

The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -/aːn/ in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement.[62] A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.[63]

Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.[64]

Nominative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /bɨ/

بٕہ

/ǝsʲ/

أسؠ

/bɨ/

بٕہ

/ǝsʲ/

أسؠ

2nd t͡sɨ

ژٕ

/tɔhʲ/

تۄہؠ

/t͡sɨ/

ژٕ

/tɔhʲ/

تۄہؠ

3rd prox. /ji/

یِہ

/jim/

یِم

/ji/

یِہ

/jimɨ/

یِمٕہ

3rd R I /hu/

ہُہ

/hum/

ہُم

/hɔ/

ہۄ

/humɨ/

ہُمٕہ

3rd R II /su/

سُہ

/tim/

تِم

/sɔ/

سۄ

/timɨ/

تِمٕہ

Ergative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /me/

مےٚ

/asi/

اَسِہ

/me/

مےٚ

/asi/

اَسِہ

2nd /t͡se/

ژےٚ

/tɔhi/

تۄہِہ

/t͡se/

ژےٚ

/tɔhi/

تۄہِہ

3rd prox. /jemʲ/

یێمؠ

/jimaw/

یِمَو

/jemi/

یێمِہ

/jimaw/

یِمَو

3rd R I /humʲ/

ہُمؠ

/humaw/

ہُمَو

/humi/

ہُمِہ

/humaw/

ہُمَو

3rd R II /tǝmʲ/

تٔمؠ

/timaw/

تِمَو

/tami/

تَمِہ

/timaw/

تِمَو

Dative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /me/

مےٚ

/asi/

اَسِہ

/me/

مےٚ

/asi/

اَسِہ

2nd /t͡se/

ژےٚ

/tɔhi/

تۄہِہ

/t͡se/

ژےٚ

/tɔhi/

تۄہِہ

3rd prox. /jemis/

یێمِس

/jiman/

یِمن

/jemis/

یێمِس

/jiman/

یِمن

3rd R I /humis/

ہُمِس

/human/

ہُمن

/humis/

ہُمِس

/human/

ہُمن

3rd R II /tǝmis/

تٔمِس

/timan/

تِمن

/tǝmis/

تٔمِس

/timan/

تِمن

Ablative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st /me/

مےٚ

/asi/

اَسِہ

/me/

مےٚ

/asi/

اَسِہ

2nd /t͡se/

ژےٚ

/tɔhi/

تۄہِہ

/t͡se/

ژےٚ

/tɔhi/

تۄہِہ

3rd prox. /jemi/

یێمِہ

/jimaw/

یِمَو

/jemi/

یێمِہ

/jimaw/

یِمَو

3rd R I /humi/

ہُمِہ

/humaw/

ہُمَو

/humi/

ہُمِہ

/humaw/

ہُمَو

3rd R II /tǝmi/

تٔمِہ

/timaw/

تِمَو

/tǝmi/

تٔمِہ

/timaw/

تِمَو

There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.[65]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Sing. /mjoːn/

میون

/mjəːnʲ/

میٲنؠ

/mjəːnʲ/

میٲنؠ

/mjaːni/

میانِہ

1st Pl. /soːn/

سون

/səːnʲ/

سٲنؠ

/səːnʲ/

سٲنؠ

/saːni/

سانِہ

2nd Sing. /t͡ʃoːn/

چون

/t͡ʃəːnʲ/

چٲنؠ

/t͡ʃəːnʲ/

چٲنؠ

/t͡ʃaːni/

چانِہ

2nd Pl. /tuhund/

تُہُنٛد

/tuhɨndʲ/

تُہٕنٛدؠ

/tuhɨnz/

تُہٕنٛز

/tuhɨnzɨ/

تُہٕنٛزٕ

3rd Sing. Prox. /jemʲ sund/

یێمؠ سُنٛد

/jemʲ sɨndʲ/

یێمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

/jemʲ sɨnz/

یێمؠ سٕنٛز

/jemʲ sɨnzɨ/

یێمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. Prox. /jihund/

یِہُنٛد

/jihɨndʲ/

یِہٕنٛدؠ

/jihɨnz/

یِہٕنٛز

/jihɨnzɨ/

یِہٕنٛزٕ

3rd Sing. R I /humʲ sund/

ہُمؠ سُنٛد

/humʲ sɨndʲ/

ہُمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

/humʲ sɨnz/

ہُمؠ سٕنٛز

/humʲ sɨnzɨ/

ہُمؠ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. R I /huhund/

ہُہُنٛد

/huhɨndʲ/

ہُہٕنٛدؠ

/huhɨnz/

ہُہٕنٛز

/huhɨnzɨ/

ہُہٕنٛزٕ

3rd Sing. R II /tǝmʲ sund/

تٔمؠ سُنٛد

/tǝmʲ sɨndʲ/

تٔمؠ سٕنٛدؠ

/tǝmʲ sɨnz/

تٔمؠ سٕنٛز

/tǝmʲ sɨnzɨ/

تٔمۍ سٕنٛزٕ

3rd Pl. R II /tihɨnd/

تِہٕنٛد

/tihɨndʲ/

تِہٕنٛدؠ

/tihɨnz /

تِہٕنٛز

/tihɨnzɨ/

تِہٕنٛزٕ

Adjectives[edit]

There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all.[66] Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns.[67] The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective /wɔzul/ ("red"):[68][69]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
Nom. /wɔzul/

وۄزُل

/wɔzɨlʲ/

وۄزٕلؠ

/wɔzɨd͡ʒ/

وۄزٕج

/wɔzɨd͡ʒi/

وۄزٕجِہ

Erg. /wɔzɨlɨ/

وۄزٕلٕہ

/wɔzɨlʲaw/

وۄزٕلؠو

/wɔzɨd͡ʒi/

وۄزٕجِہ

/wɔzɨd͡ʒaw/

وۄزٕجَو

Dat. /wɔzɨlis/

وۄزٕلِس

/wɔzɨlʲan/

وۄزٕلؠن

/wɔzɨd͡ʒi/

وۄزٕجِہ

/wɔzɨd͡ʒan/

وۄزٕجَن

Abl. /wɔzɨli/

وۄزٕلِہ

/wɔzɨlʲaw/

وۄزٕلؠو

/wɔzɨd͡ʒi/

وۄزٕجِہ

/wɔzɨd͡ʒaw/

وۄزٕجَو

Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.[68]

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words tsor ("more") and sitha ("most"), respectively.[70]

Numerals[edit]

Within the Kashmir language, numerals are separated into cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers.[71] These numeral forms, as well as their aggregative (both, all the five, etc.), multiplicative (two times, four times, etc.), and emphatic forms (only one, only three, etc.) are provided by the table below.[71]

Cardinal Ordinal Aggregative Multiplicative Emphatic
Suffix   -/jum/ for masculine

-/im/ for feminine

-/vaj/ -/gun/ or /gon/ for masculine

-/gɨn/ for feminine

-/j/
0. /sifar/ or /notʰ/

صِفَر or نۆتھ

1. /akʰ/

اَکھ

/ǝkjum/ or /ǝkim/

أکیُٛم or أکِم

   /ogun/ or /ogɨn/

اۆگُن or اۆگٕن

/akuj/

اَکُے

2. /zɨ/

زٕ

/dojum/ or /dojim/

دۆیُم or دۆیِم

/dɔʃvaj/

دۄشوَے

/dogun/ or /dogɨn/

دۆگُن or دۆگٕن

/zɨj/

زٕے

3. /tre/

ترٛےٚ

/trejum/ or /trejim/

ترٛێیُم or ترٛێیِم

/treʃvaj/

ترٛێشوَے

/trogun/ or /trogɨn/

ترٛۆگُن or ترٛۆگٕن

/trej/

ترٛێے

4. /t͡soːr/

ژور

/t͡suːrjum/ or /t͡suːrim/

ژوٗریُٛم or ژوٗرِم

/t͡sɔʃvaj/

ژۄشوَے

/t͡sogun/ or /t͡sogɨn/

ژۆگُن or ژۆگٕن

/t͡soːraj/

ژورَے

5. /pãːt͡sʰ/ or /pə̃ːt͡sʰ/

پانٛژھ or پٲنٛژھ

/pɨ:t͡sjum/ or /pɨ:t͡sim/

پٟنٛژیُٛم or پٟنژِم

/pãːt͡sɨvaj/

پانٛژٕوَے

/pãːt͡sɨgun/ or /pãːt͡sɨgɨn/

پانٛژٕگُن or پانٛژٕگٕن

/pãːt͡saj/

پانٛژَے

6. /ʃe/

شےٚ

/ʃejum/ or /ʃejim/

شێیُم or شێیِم

/ʃenɨvaj/

شێنٕہ وَے

/ʃugun/ or /ʃugɨn/

شُگُن or شُگٕن

/ʃej/

شێے

7. /satʰ/

سَتھ

/sətjum/ or /sətim/

سٔتیُٛم or سٔتِم

/satɨvaj/

سَتٕہ وَے

/satɨgun/ or /satɨgɨn/

سَتٕگُن or سَتٕگٕن

/sataj/

سَتَے

8. /əːʈʰ/

ٲٹھ

/ɨːʈʰjum/ or /uːʈʰjum/

اٟٹھیُٛم or اوٗٹھیُٛم

/ɨːʈʰim/ or /uːʈʰim/

اٟٹھِم or اوٗٹھِم

/əːʈʰɨvaj/

ٲٹھٕ وَے

/əːʈʰɨgun/ or /əːʈʰɨgɨn/

ٲٹھٕ گُن or ٲٹھٕ گٕن

/əːʈʰaj/

ٲٹھَے

9. /naw/

نَو

/nəwjum/ or /nəwim/

نٔویُٛم or نٔوِم

/nawɨwaj/

نَوٕوَے

/nawɨgun/ or /nawɨgɨn/

نَوٕگُن or نَوٕگٕن

/nawaj/

نَوَے

10. /dəh/ or /daːh/

دٔہ or داہ

/dəhjum/ or /dəhim/

دٔہیُٛم or دٔہِم

/dəhɨwaj/

دٔہٕہ وَے

/dəhɨgon/ or /dəhɨgɨn/

دٔہٕہ گۆن or دٔہٕہ گٕن

/dəhaj/

دٔہَے

11. /kah/ or /kaːh/

کَہہ or کاہ

/kəhjum/ or /kəhim/

کٔہیُٛم or کٔہِم

12. /bah/ or /baːh/

بَہہ or باہ

/bəhjum/ or /bəhim/

بٔہیُٛم or بٔہِم

13. /truwaːh/

ترُٛواہ

/truwəːhjum/ or /truwəːhim/

ترُٛوٲہیُٛم or ترُٛوٲہِم

14. /t͡sɔdaːh/

ژۄداہ

/t͡sɔdəːhjum/ or /t͡sɔdəːhim/

ژۄدٲہیُٛم or ژۄدٲہِم

15. /pandaːh/

پَنٛداہ

/pandəːhjum/ or /pandəːhim/

پَنٛدٲہیُٛم or پَنٛدٲہِم

16. /ʃuraːh/

شُراہ

/ʃurəːhjum/ or /ʃurəːhim/

شُرٲہیُٛم or شُرٲہِم

17. /sadaːh/

سَداہ

/sadəːhjum/ or /sadəːhim/

سَدٲہیُٛم or سَدٲہِم

18. /arɨdaːh/

اَرٕداہ

/arɨdəːhjum/ or /arɨdəːhim/

اَرٕدٲہیُٛم or اَرٕدٲہِم

19. /kunɨwuh/

کُنہٕ وُہ

/kunɨwuhjum/ or /kunɨwuhim/

کُنہٕ وُہیُٛم or کُنہٕ وُہِم

20. /wuh/

وُہ

/wuhjum/ or /wuhim/

وُہیُٛم or وُہِم

21. /akɨwuh/

اَکہٕ وُہ

/akɨwuhjum/ or /akɨwuhim/

اَکہٕ وُہیُٛم or اَکہٕ وُہِم

22. /zɨtoːwuh/

زٕتووُہ

/zɨtoːwuhjum/ or /zɨtoːwuhim/

زٕتووُہیُٛم or زٕتووُہِم

23. /trowuh/

ترٛۆوُہ

/trowuhjum/ or /trowuhim/

ترٛۆوُہیُٛم or ترٛۆوُہِم

24. /t͡sowuh/

ژۆوُہ

/t͡sowuhjum/ or /t͡sowuhim/

ژۆوُہیُٛم or ژۆوُہِم

25. /pɨnt͡sɨh/

پٕنٛژٕہ

/pɨnt͡sɨhjum/ or /pɨnt͡sɨhim/

پٕنٛژٕہیُٛم or پٕنٛژٕہِم

26. /ʃatɨwuh/

شَتٕہ وُہ

/ʃatɨwuhjum/ or /ʃatɨwuhim/

شَتٕہ وُہیُٛم or شَتٕہ وُہِم

27. /satoːwuh/

سَتووُہ

/satoːwuhjum/ or /satoːwuhim/

سَتووُہیُٛم or سَتووُہِم

28. /aʈʰoːwuh/

اَٹھووُہ

/aʈʰoːwuhjum/ or /aʈʰoːwuhim/

اَٹھووُہیُٛم or اَٹھووُہِم

29. /kunɨtrɨh/

کُنہٕ ترٕٛہ

/kunɨtrɨhjum/ or /kunɨtrɨhim/

کُنہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or کُنہٕ ترٕٛہِم

30. /trɨh/

ترٕٛہ

/trɨhjum/ or /trɨhim/

ترٕٛہیُٛم or ترٕٛہِم

31. /akɨtrɨh/

اَکہٕ ترٕٛہ

/akɨtrɨhjum/ or /akɨtrɨhim/

اَکہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or اَکہٕ ترٕٛہِم

32. /dɔjitrɨh/

دۄیِہ ترٕٛہ

/dɔjitrɨhjum/ or /dɔjitrɨhjim/

دۄیِہ ترٕٛہیُٛم or دۄیِہ ترٕٛہِم

33. /tejitrɨh/

تێیِہ ترٕٛہ

/tejitrɨhjum/ or /tejitrɨhim/

تێیِہ ترٕٛہیُٛم or تێیِہ ترٕٛہِم

34. /t͡sɔjitrɨh/

ژۄیِہ ترٕٛہ

/t͡sɔjitrɨhjum/ or /t͡sɔjitrɨhim/

ژۄیِہ ترٕٛہیُٛم or ژۄیِہ ترٕٛہِم

35. /pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨh/ or /pãːt͡sɨtrɨh/

پٲنٛژٕترٕٛہ or پانٛژٕترٕٛہ

/pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhjum/ or /pãːt͡sɨtrɨhjum/

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم

/pə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhim/ or /pãːt͡sɨtrɨhim/

پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم

36. /ʃejitrɨh/

شێیِہ ترٕٛہ

/ʃejitrɨhjum/ or /ʃejitrɨhim/

شێیِہ ترٕٛہیُٛم or شێیِہ ترٕٛہِم

37. /satɨtrɨh/

سَتہٕ ترٕٛہ

/satɨtrɨhjum/ or /satɨtrɨhim/

سَتہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or سَتہٕ ترٕٛہِم

38. /arɨtrɨh/

اَرٕترٕٛہ

/arɨtrɨhjum/ or /arɨtrɨhim/

اَرٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or اَرٕ ترٕٛہِم

39. /kunɨtəːd͡ʒih/ or /kunɨtəːd͡ʒiː/

کُنہٕ تٲجِہہ or کُنہٕ تٲجی

/kunɨtəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /kunɨtəːd͡ʒihim/

کُنہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or کُنہٕ تٲجِہِم

40. /t͡satd͡ʒih/ or /t͡satd͡ʒiː/

ژَتجِہہ or ژَتجی

/t͡satd͡ʒihjum/ or /t͡satd͡ʒihim/

ژَتجِہیُٛم or ژَتجِہِم

41. /akɨtəːd͡ʒih/ or /akɨtəːd͡ʒiː/

اَکہٕ تٲجِہہ or اَکہٕ تٲجی

/akɨtəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /akɨtəːd͡ʒihim/

اَکہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or اَکہٕ تٲجِہِم

42. /dɔjitəːd͡ʒih/ or /dɔjitəːd͡ʒiː/

دۄیِہ تٲجِہہ or دۄیِہ تٲجی

/dɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /dɔjitəːd͡ʒihim/

دۄیِہ تٲجِہیُٛم or دۄیِہ تٲجِہِم

43. /tejitəːd͡ʒih/ or /tejitəːd͡ʒiː/

تێیِہ تٲجِہہ or تێیِہ تٲجی

/tejitəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /tejitəːd͡ʒihim/

تێیِہ تٲجِہیُٛم or تێیِہ تٲجِہِم

44. /t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒih/ or /t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒiː/

ژۄیِہ تٲجِہہ or ژۄیِہ تٲجی

/t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /t͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihim/

ژۄیِہ تٲجِہیُٛم or ژۄیِہ تٲجِہِم

45. /pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih/ or /pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih/ or /pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː/ or /pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː/

پٲنٛژٕتٲجِہہ or پانٛژٕتٲجِہہ or پٲنٛژٕتٲجی or پانٛژٕتٲجی

/pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim/

پٲنٛژٕتٲجِہیُٛم or پانٛژٕتٲجِہیُٛم

/pə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim/ or /pãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim/

پٲنٛژٕتٲجِہِم or پانٛژٕتٲجِہِم

46. /ʃejitəːd͡ʒih/ or /ʃejitəːd͡ʒiː/

شێیِہ تٲجِہہ or شێیِہ تٲجی

/ʃejitəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /ʃejitəːd͡ʒihim/

شێیِہ تٲجِہیُٛم or شێیِہ تٲجِہِم

47. /satɨtəːd͡ʒih/ or /satɨtəːd͡ʒiː/

سَتہٕ تٲجِہہ or سَتہٕ تٲجی

/satɨtəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /satɨtəːd͡ʒihim/

سَتہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or سَتہٕ تٲجِہِم

48. /arɨtəːd͡ʒih/ or /arɨtəːd͡ʒiː/

اَرٕتٲجِہہ or اَرٕتٲجی

/arɨtəːd͡ʒihjum/ or /arɨtəːd͡ʒihim/

اَرٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or اَرٕ تٲجِہِم

49. /kunɨwanzaːh/

کُنہٕ وَنزاہ

/kunɨwanzəːhjum/ or /kunɨwanzəːhim/

کُنہٕ وَنزٲہیُٛم or کُنہٕ وَنزٲہِم

50. /pant͡saːh/

پَنٛژاہ

/pant͡səːhjum/ or /pant͡səːhim/

پَنٛژٲہیُٛم or پَنٛژٲہِم

51. /akɨwanzaːh/

اَکہٕ وَنٛزاہ

/akɨwanzəːhjum/ or /akɨwanzəːhim/

اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

52. /duwanzaːh/

دُوَنٛزاہ

/duwanzəːhjum/ or /duwanzəːhim/

دُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or دُوَنٛزٲہِم

53. /truwanzaːh/ or /trɨwanzaːh/

ترُٛوَنٛزاہ or ترٕٛوَنٛزاہ

/truwanzəːhjum/ or /truwanzəːhim/

ترُٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ترُٛوَنٛزٲہِم

/trɨwanzəːhjum/ or /trɨwanzəːhim/

ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہِم

54. /t͡suwanzaːh/

ژُوَنٛزاہ

/t͡suwanzəːhjum/ or /t͡suwanzəːhim/

ژُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or ژُوَنٛزٲہِم

55. /pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzaːh/ or /pãːt͡sɨwanzaːh/

پٲنٛژٕوَنٛزاہ or پانٛژٕوَنٛزاہ

/pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum/ or /pãːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum/

پٲنٛژٕوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or پانٛژٕوَنٛزٲہیُٛم

/pə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhim/ or /pãːt͡sɨwanzəːhim/

پٲنٛژٕوَنٛزٲہِم or پانٛژٕوَنٛزٲہِم

56. /ʃuwanzaːh/

شُوَنٛزاہ

/ʃuwanzəːhjum/ or /ʃuwanzəːhim/

شُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or شُوَنٛزٲہِم

57. /satɨwanzaːh/

سَتہٕ وَنٛزاہ

/satɨwanzəːhjum/ or /satɨwanzəːhim/

سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم

58. /arɨwanzaːh/

اَرٕوَنٛزاہ

/arɨwanzəːhjum/ or /arɨwanzəːhim/

اَرٕوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or اَرٕوَنٛزٲہِم

59. /kunɨhəːʈʰ/

کُنہٕ ہٲٹھ

/kunɨhəːʈʰjum/ or /kunɨhəːʈʰim/

کُنہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or کُنہٕ ہٲٹھِم

60. /ʃeːʈʰ/

شیٹھ

/ʃeːʈʰjum/ or /ʃeːʈʰim/

شیٹھیُٛم or شیٹھِم

61. /akɨhəːʈʰ/

اَکہٕ ہٲٹھ

/akɨhəːʈʰjum/ or /akɨhəːʈʰim/

اَکہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or اَکہٕ ہٲٹھِم

62. /duhəːʈʰ/

دُ ہٲٹھ

/duhəːʈʰjum/ or /duhəːʈʰim/

دُ ہٲٹھیُٛم or دُ ہٲٹھِم

63. /truhəːʈʰ/ or /trɨhəːʈʰ/

ترُٛہٲٹھ or ترٕٛہٲٹھ

/truhəːʈʰjum/ or /truhəːʈʰim/

ترُٛہٲٹھیُٛم or ترُٛہٲٹھِم

/trɨhəːʈʰjum/ or /trɨhəːʈʰim/

ترٕٛہٲٹھیُٛم or ترٕٛہٲٹھِم

64. /t͡suhəːʈʰ/

ژُہٲٹھ

/t͡suhəːʈʰjum/ or /t͡suhəːʈʰim/

ژُہٲٹھیُٛم or ژُہٲٹھِم

65. /pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ/ or /pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ/

پٲنٛژٕہٲٹھ or پانٛژٕہٲٹھ

/pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum/ or /pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum/

پٲنٛژٕہٲٹھیُٛم or پانٛژٕہٲٹھیُٛم

/pə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim/ or /pãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim/

پٲنٛژٕہٲٹھیُٛم or پانٛژٕہٲٹھِم

66. /ʃuhəːʈʰ/

شُہٲٹھ

/ʃuhəːʈʰjum/ or /ʃuhəːʈʰim/

شُہٲٹھیُٛم or شُہٲٹھِم

67. /satɨhəːʈʰ/

سَتہٕ ہٲٹھ

/satɨhəːʈʰjum/ or /satɨhəːʈʰim/

سَتہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or سَتہٕ ہٲٹھِم

68. /arɨhəːʈʰ/

اَرٕہٲٹھ

/arɨhəːʈʰjum/ or /arɨhəːʈʰim/

اَرٕہٲٹھیُٛم or اَرٕہٲٹھِم

69. /kunɨsatatʰ/

کُنہٕ سَتَتھ

/kunɨsatatyum/ or /kunɨsatatim/

کُنہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or کُنہٕ سَتَتِم

70. /satatʰ/

سَتَتھ

/satatjum/ or /satatim/

سَتَتیُٛم or سَتَتِم

71. /akɨsatatʰ/

اَکہٕ سَتَتھ

/akɨsatatjum/ or /akɨsatatim/

اَکہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or اَکہٕ سَتَتِم

72. /dusatatʰ/

دُسَتَتھ

/dusatatjum/ or /dusatatim/

دُسَتَتیُٛم or دُسَتَتِم

73. /trusatatʰ/ or /trɨsatatʰ/

ترُٛسَتَتھ or ترٕٛسَتَتھ

/trusatatjum/ or /trusatatim/

ترُٛسَتَتیُٛم or ترُٛسَتَتِم

/trɨsatatjum/ or /trɨsatatim/

ترٕٛسَتَتیُٛم orترٕٛسَتَتِم

74. /t͡susatatʰ/

ژُسَتَتھ

/t͡susatatjum/ or /t͡susatatim/

ژُسَتَتیُٛم or ژُسَتَتِم

75. /pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatʰ/ or /pãːt͡sɨsatatʰ/

پٲنٛژٕسَتَتھ or پانٛژٕسَتَتھ

/pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatjum/ or /pãːt͡sɨsatatjum/

پٲنٛژٕسَتَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕسَتَتیُٛم

/pə̃ːt͡sɨsatatim/ or /pãːt͡sɨsatatim/

پٲنٛژٕسَتَتِم or پانٛژٕسَتَتِم

76. /ʃusatatʰ/

شُسَتَتھ

/ʃusatatjum/ or /ʃusatatim/

شُسَتَتیُٛم or شُسَتَتِم

77. /satɨsatatʰ/

سَتہٕ سَتَتھ

/satɨsatatjum/ or /satɨsatatim/

سَتہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ سَتَتِم

78. /arɨsatatʰ/

اَرٕسَتَتھ

/arɨsatatjum/ or /arɨsatatim/

اَرٕسَتَتیُٛم or اَرٕسَتَتِم

79. /kunɨʃiːtʰ/

کُنہٕ شيٖتھ

/kunɨʃiːtjum/ or /kunɨʃiːtim/

کُنہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or کُنہٕ شيٖتِم

80. /ʃiːtʰ/

شيٖتھ

/ʃiːtjum/ or /ʃiːtjim/

شيٖتیُٛم or شيٖتِم

81. /akɨʃiːtʰ/

اَکہٕ شيٖتھ

/akɨʃiːtjum/ or /akɨʃiːtim/

اَکہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or اَکہٕ شيٖتِم

82. /dɔjiʃiːtʰ/

دۄیِہ شيٖتھ

/dɔjiʃiːtjum/ or /dɔjiʃiːtjum/

دۄیِہ شيٖتیُٛم or دۄیِہ شيٖتِم

83. /trejiʃiːtʰ/

ترٛێیِہ شيٖتھ

/trejiʃiːtjum/ or /trejiʃiːtim/

ترٛێیِہ شيٖتیُٛم or ترٛێیِہ شيٖتِم

84. /t͡sɔjiʃiːtʰ/

ژۄیِہ شيٖتھ

/t͡sɔjiʃiːtjum/ or /t͡sɔjiʃiːtim/

ژۄیِہ شيٖتیُٛم or ژۄیِہ شيٖتِم

85. /pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ/ or /pãːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ/

پٲنٛژٕشيٖتھ or پانٛژٕشيٖتھ

/pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtjum/ or /pãːt͡sɨʃiːtjum/

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم or پانٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم

/pə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtim/ or /pãːt͡sɨʃiːtim/

پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتِم or پانٛژٕ شيٖتِم

86. /ʃejiʃiːtʰ/

شێیِہ شيٖتھ

/ʃejiʃiːtjum/ or /ʃejiʃiːtim/

شێیِہ شيٖتیُٛم or شێیِہ شيٖتِم

87. /satɨʃiːtʰ/

سَتہٕ شيٖتھ

/satɨʃiːtjum/ or /satɨʃiːtim/

سَتہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or سَتہٕ شيٖتِم

88. /arɨʃiːtʰ/

اَرٕشيٖتھ

/arɨʃiːtjum/ or /arɨʃiːtim/

اَرٕشيٖتیُٛم or اَرٕشيٖتِم

89. /kunɨnamatʰ/

کُنہٕ نَمَتھ

/kunɨnamatjum/ or /kunɨnamatim/

کُنہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or کُنہٕ نَمَتِم

90. /namatʰ/

نَمَتھ

/namatjum/ or /namatim/

نَمَتیُٛم or نَمَتِم

91. /akɨnamatʰ/

اَکہٕ نَمَتھ

/akɨnamatjum/ or /akɨnamatim/

اَکہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or اَکہٕ نَمَتِم

92. /dunamatʰ/

دُنَمَتھ

/dunamatjum/ or /dunamatim/

دُنَمَتیُٛم or دُنَمَتِم

93. /trunamatʰ/ or /trɨnamatʰ/

ترُٛنَمَتھ or ترٕٛنَمَتھ

/trunamatjum/ or /trunamatim/

ترُٛنَمَتیُٛم or ترُٛنَمَتِم

/trɨnamatjum/ or /trɨnamatim/

ترٕٛنَمَتیُٛم or ترٕٛنَمَتِم

94. /t͡sunamatʰ/

ژُنَمَتھ

/t͡sunamatjum/ or /t͡sunamatim/

ژُنَمَتیُٛم or ژُنَمَتِم

95. /pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatʰ/ or /pãːt͡sɨnamatʰ/

پٲنٛژٕنَمَتھ or پانٛژٕنَمَتھ

/pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatjum/ or /pãːt͡sɨnamatjum/

پٲنٛژٕنَمَتیُٛم or پانٛژٕنَمَتیُٛم

/pə̃ːt͡sɨnamatim/ or /pãːt͡sɨnamatim/

پٲنٛژٕنَمَتِم or پانٛژٕنَمَتِم

96. /ʃunamatʰ/

شُنَمَتھ

/ʃunamatjum/ or /ʃunamatim/

شُنَمَتیُٛم or شُنَمَتِم

97. /satɨnamatʰ/

سَتہٕ نَمَتھ

/satɨnamatjum/ or /satɨnamatim/

سَتہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or سَتہٕ نَمَتِم

98. /arɨnamatʰ/

اَرٕنَمَتھ

/arɨnamatjum/ or /arɨnamatjim/

اَرٕنَمَتیُٛم or اَرٕنَمَتِم

99. /namɨnamatʰ/

نَمٕہ نَمَتھ

/namɨnamatjum/ or /namɨnamatim/

نَمٕہ نَمَتیُٛم or نَمٕہ نَمَتِم

100. /hatʰ/

ہَتھ

/hatyum/ or /hatim/

ہَتیُٛم or ہَتِم

101. /akʰ hatʰ tɨ akʰ/

اَکھ ہَتھ تٕہ اَکھ

/akʰ hatʰ tɨ ǝkjum/ or /akʰ hatʰ tɨ ǝkim/

اَکھ ہَتھ تٕہ أکیُٛم or اَکھ ہَتھ تٕہ أکِم

102. /akʰ hatʰ tɨ zɨ/

اَکھ ہَتھ تٕہ زٕ

/akʰ hatʰ tɨ dojum/ or /akʰ hatʰ tɨ dojim/

اَکھ ہَتھ تٕہ دۆیُم or اَکھ ہَتھ تٕہ دۆیِم

200. /zɨ hatʰ/

زٕ ہَتھ

/du hatyum/ or /duhatim/

دُہَتیُٛم or دُہَتِم

300. /tre hatʰ/

ترٛےٚ ہَتھ

/trɨ hatyum/ or /trɨ hatim/

ترٕٛہَتیُٛم or ترٕٛہَتِم

400. /t͡soːr hatʰ/

ژور ہَتھ

/t͡su hatyum/ or /t͡su hatim/

ژُہَتیُٛم or ژُہَتِم

500. /pãːt͡sʰ hatʰ/

پانٛژھ ہَتھ

/pə̃ːt͡s hatyum/ or /pə̃ːt͡s hatim/

پٲنٛژہَتیُٛم or پٲنٛژہَتِم

600. /ʃe hatʰ/

شےٚ ہَتھ

/ʃe hatyum/ or /ʃe hatim/

شےٚہَتیُٛم or شےٚہَتِم

700. /satʰ hatʰ/

سَتھ ہَتھ

/ʃat hatyum/ or /ʃat hatim/

سَت ہَتیُٛم or سَت ہَتِم

800. /əːʈʰ ʃatʰ/

ٲٹھ شَتھ

/əːʈʰ ʃatjum/ or /əːʈʰ ʃatim/

ٲٹھ شَتیُٛم or ٲٹھ شَتِم

900. /naw ʃatʰ/

نَو شَتھ

/naw ʃatjum/ or /naw ʃatim/

نَو شَتیُٛم or نَو شَتِم

1000. /saːs/

ساس

/səːsjum/ or /səːsim/

سٲسیُٛم or سٲسِم

1001. /akʰ saːs akʰ/

اَکھ ساس اَکھ

/akʰ saːs ǝkjum/ or /akʰ saːs ǝkim/

اَکھ ساس أکیُٛم or اَکھ ساس أکِم

1002. /akʰ saːs zɨ/

اَکھ ساس زٕ

/akʰ saːs dojum/ or /akʰ saːs dojim/

اَکھ ساس دۆیُم or اَکھ ساس دۆیِم

1100. /akʰ saːs hatʰ/

اَکھ ساس ہَتھ

or

/kah ʃatʰ/ or /kaːh ʃatʰ/

کَہہ شَتھ or کاہ شَتھ

/akʰ saːs hatjum/ or /akʰ saːs hatim/

اَکھ ساس ہَتیُٛم or اَکھ ساس ہَتِم

or

/kah ʃatjum/ or /kaːh ʃatjum/

کَہہ شَتیُٛم or کاہ شَتیُٛم

/kah ʃatim/ or /kaːh ʃatim/

کَہہ شَتِم or کاہ شَتِم

1500. /akʰ saːs pãːt͡sʰ hatʰ/

اَکھ ساس پانٛژھ ہَتھ

or

/pandaːh ʃatʰ/

پَنٛداہ شَتھ

/akʰ saːs pãːt͡s hatjum/ or /akʰ saːs pãːt͡s hatim/

اَکھ ساس پانٛژ ہَتیُٛم or اَکھ ساس پانٛژ ہَتِم

or

/pandaːh ʃatjum/ or /pandaːh ʃatim/

پَنٛداہ شَتیُٛم or پَنٛداہ شَتِم

10,000. /dəh saːs/ or /daːh saːs/

دٔہ ساس or داہ ساس

/dəh səːsjum/ or /daːh səːsjum/

دٔہ سٲسیُٛم or داہ سٲسیُٛم

/dəh səːsim/ or /daːh səːsim/

دٔہ سٲسِم or داہ سٲسِم

Hundred thousand /lat͡ʃʰ/

لَچھ

/lat͡ʃjum/ or /lat͡ʃim/

لَچیُٛم or لَچِم

Million /dəh lat͡ʃʰ/ or /daːh lat͡ʃʰ/

دٔہ لَچھ or داہ لَچھ

/dəh lat͡ʃjum/ or /daːh lat͡ʃjum/

دٔہ لَچیُٛم or داہ لَچیُٛم

/dəh lat͡ʃim/ or /daːh lat͡ʃim/

دٔہ لَچِم or داہ لَچِم

Ten million /kɔroːr/ or /karoːr/

کۄرور or کَرور

/kɔroːrjum/ or /kɔroːrim/

کۄروریُٛم or کۄرورِم

Billion /Arab/

اَرَب

/arabjum/ or /arabim/

اَرَبیُٛم or اَرَبِم

Hundred billion /kʰarab/

کھَرَب

/kʰarabjum/ or /kʰarabim/

کھَرَبیُٛم or کھَرَبِم

The ordinal number "1st" which is /ǝkjum/ أکیُٛم for its masculine genre and /ǝkim/ أکِم for its feminine genre is also known as /gɔɖnjuk/ گۄڈنیُٛک and /gɔɖnit͡ʃ/ گۄڈنِچ respectively.[72]

Vocabulary[edit]

Kashmiri is an Indo-Aryan language and was heavily influenced by Sanskrit, especially early on.[73][74] After the arrival of Islamic administrative rule in India, Kashmiri acquired many Persian loanwords.[74] In modern times, Kashmiri vocabulary has been imported from Hindustani and Punjabi.[75]

Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary[edit]

Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.[20] Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form yodvai (meaning if), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use instead the word yadi.[20]

First person pronoun[edit]

Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *eǵHom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as aham and in Avestan Persian as azam. This contrasts with the m- form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ma(-m). However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with m- in words such as ma-n and mai. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is bɨ/bi/bo in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other me terms. 'Mine' is myon in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (aun vs me-), Gujarati (hu-n vs ma-ri), Konkani (hā̃v vs mhazo), and Braj (hau-M vs mai-M). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (za vs. maa).[76]

Variations[edit]

There are minor differences between the Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims.[77] For 'fire', a traditional Hindu uses the word اۆگُن /ogun/ while a Muslim more often uses the Arabic word نار /naːr/.[78]

Literature[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Kashmiri: A language of India". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  2. ^ Kashmiri at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  3. ^ a b c d Sociolinguistics. Mouton de Gruyter. 1977. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  4. ^ "Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Ethno-linguistic areas". koshur.org. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  5. ^ "The Jammu and Kashmir Official Languages Bill, 2020". prsindia. 23 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
  6. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kashmiri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  7. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  8. ^ Kashmiri at Ethnologue (20th ed., 2017)
  9. ^ "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2018. The precise figures from the 2011 census are 6,554,36 for Kashmiri as a "mother tongue" and 6,797,587 for Kashmiri as a "language" (which includes closely related smaller dialects/languages).
  10. ^ "Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  11. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84904-622-0.
  12. ^ Shakil, Mohsin (2012). "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)".
  13. ^ Kiani, Khaleeq (28 May 2018). "CCI defers approval of census results until elections". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  14. ^ "Scheduled Languages of India". Central Institute of Indian Languages. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  15. ^ "The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir (India)" (PDF). General Administrative Department of the Government of Jammu & Kashmir (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  16. ^ "Kashmiri made compulsory subject in schools". One India. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  17. ^ "Jammu And Kashmir State Board Of School Education". jkbose.ac.in. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  18. ^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  19. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 9-16.
  20. ^ a b c d K.L. Kalla (1985), The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications, ... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ... the latter (Yodvai) is archaic and is to be come across mainly in the Vedas ...
  21. ^ "Sarada". Lawrence. Archived from the original on 24 February 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  22. ^ "The Sharada Script: Origin and Development". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  23. ^ "Kashmiri (कॉशुर / كٲشُر)". Omniglot. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  24. ^ Daniels & Bright (1996). The World's Writing Systems. pp. 753–754.
  25. ^ Kaw, M.K (2004). Kashmir and It's [sic] People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. pp. 303–304. ISBN 9788176485371.
  26. ^ Mahapatra, B.P (1989). The Written Languages of the World: A Survey of the Degree and Modes of Use : India : Book 1 Constitutional Languages. Presses Université Laval. p. 270. ISBN 9782763771861.
  27. ^ "Braj B. Kachru: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri". www.koshur.org. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course". www.koshur.org. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  29. ^ "Valley divide impacts Kashmiri, Pandit youth switch to Devnagari". Indian Express. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  30. ^ "Devnagari Script for Kashmiri: A Study in its Necessity, Feasibility and Practicality". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  31. ^ Government of India. (2009). Proposal to add six characters in the Devanagari block for representation of Kashmiri language in Devanagari script.
  32. ^ Pandey, Anshuman. (2009). Comments on India’s Proposal to Add Devanagari Characters for Kashmiri.
  33. ^ The central vowels are typically transcribed ⟨ạ⟩ and ⟨u’⟩ when transliterating Arabic script, ⟨ö⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ when transliterating Nagari.
  34. ^ Everson, Michael & Pravin Satpute. (2006). Proposal to add four characters for Kashmiri to the BMP of the UCS.
  35. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 25.
  36. ^ Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri (2002). Kashmir News Network, pp.80.
  37. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. ii.
  38. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 28.
  39. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 26-28.
  40. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 31.
  41. ^ Wade 1888, p. 16.
  42. ^ Bhatt, Rajesh (2007)."Ergativity in Indo-Aryan Languages", MIT Ergativity Seminar, pp.6.
  43. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 32.
  44. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 39.
  45. ^ Wade 1888, pp. 10-15.
  46. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 83-84.
  47. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 119.
  48. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 84.
  49. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 86.
  50. ^ a b c Koul & Wali 2006, p. 87.
  51. ^ Zakharyin, Boris (2015). "Indo-Aryan Ergativity and its Analogues in Languages of Central and Western Eurasia", The Poznań Society for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences, PL ISSN 0079-4740, pp.66.
  52. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 89-90.
  53. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 91-92.
  54. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 93.
  55. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 94.
  56. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 94-95.
  57. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-97.
  58. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 96-99.
  59. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, pp. 100-101.
  60. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 103.
  61. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 105.
  62. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 107.
  63. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 108.
  64. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 53.
  65. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 52.
  66. ^ Koshur 2002, pp.79.
  67. ^ Wade 1888, p. 19.
  68. ^ a b Wade 1888, p. 20.
  69. ^ Koul & Wali 2006, p. 59.
  70. ^ Wade 1888, p. 21.
  71. ^ a b Koul & Wali 2006, p. 64.
  72. ^ Toushikhani S. k, Koul J. lal. Kashir Dictionary Vol 1.
  73. ^ The Encyclopedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, Volumes 15-16. Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. p. 690. Sanskrit has been actively studied for many centuries, and the Kashmiri vocabulary, and even its grammar, are now largely Indian. So much is this the case that, for convenience' sake, it is now frequently classed as belonging to the north-western group of Indo-Aryan languages, instead of as belonging to the Pisaca family as its origin demands. It cannot be said that either classification is wrong.
  74. ^ a b Gorekar, Niẓāmuddīn Es (2002). Indo-Islamic Relations. KnowledgeCity Books. p. 67. The Kashmiri language was in the beginning greatly influenced by the Sanskrit language, but with the coming of the Muslims and monarchs like Zainu'l-Abedin it began to accept the influence of Persian which was the language of the rulers.
  75. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. p. 582. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4. Kashmiri vocabulary can be broadly categorized into Kashmiri/Dardic, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Hindi/Urdu, Persian, and Arabic origins.
  76. ^ John D. Bengtson, Harold Crane Fleming (2008), In hot pursuit of language in prehistory: essays in the four fields of anthropology, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 978-90-272-3252-6, ... However, Gujarati as well as a Dardic language like Kashmiri still preserve the root alternation between subject and non-subject forms (but they replaced the derivative of the Sanskrit subject form ahám by new forms) ...
  77. ^ Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (6 April 2010), Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7, ... Kashmiri occupies a special position in the Dardic group, being probably the only dardic language that has a written literature dating back to the early 13th century ...
  78. ^ Krishna, Gopi (1967). Kundalini: The Evolutionary Energy in Man. Boston: Shambhala. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-57062-280-9.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chopra, R. M (2013). "Indo-Persian Literature in Kashmir". The rise, growth, and decline of Indo-Persian literature (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Iran Culture House. OCLC 909254259.
  • Koul, Omkar N; Wali, Kashi (2006). Modern Kashmiri Grammar (PDF). Springfield: Dunwoody Press. ISBN 1-931546-07-X.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Wade, TR (1888). A Grammar of the Kashmiri Language. SPCK.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

External links[edit]