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Kashmiris

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Kashmiris
کٲشُر لُکھ
कॉशुर लुख
Regions with significant populations
 India 5,527,698 (2001)*[1]
 Pakistan 132,450 (1998)*[2]
Languages
Kashmiri
Hindi, Urdu, also spoken widely as second language[3]
Religion
Predominantly:
Islam
Minorities:
Related ethnic groups
Other Dard people

*The population figures are only for the number of speakers of the Kashmiri language. May not include ethnic Kashmiris who no longer speak Kashmiri language.
Political Map: the Kashmir region districts, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley.

The Kashmiris (Kashmiri: کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are an Indo-Aryan Dardic ethnic group[4] native to the Kashmir Valley, located in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The bulk of Kashmiri people predominantly live in the Kashmir Valley-which is the real 'Kashmir' and does not include the other territories of the old princely state of Jammu and Kashmir such as Jammu, Gilgit-Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and Ladakh.[5] Other ethnic groups living in the Jammu and Kashmir state include Gujjars, [6] Dogras,[7] Paharis, Baltis and Ladakhis.[8] Although some residents of Azad Kashmir call themselves 'Kashmiri', most residents of Azad Kashmir are not actually ethnic Kashmiris.[9]

Whilst Kashmiris are native to the Kashmir Valley, smaller populations of Kashmiris also live in the remaining districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Ethnic Kashmiris can be found in the Chenab region's Doda, Ramban and Kishtwar districts. There are also ethnic Kashmiri populations inhabiting the Neelam Valley and Leepa Valley of northern Azad Kashmir.[10] Since 1947, many ethnic Kashmiris and their descendants are also found in Pakistan.[10] Many ethnic Kashmiris from the Kashmir Valley also migrated to the Punjab region during Dogra and Sikh rule.[11][12][13][14] Most Kashmiris today are Sunni Muslim[15] but a sizable Hindu community also exists. Pure ethnic Kashmiri Muslims are descended from Kashmiri Hindus and are also known as 'Sheikhs'.[16][17][18][19] Common surnames among these people include Butt, Dar,[20] Lone etc.[21]

Origins[edit]

As regards the origin of the Kashmiri Brahmans, it is certain that it was a colony of Aryan immigrants from Central Asia (see Rajatarangini Book 1, 341). Their features and fair complexion testify to their connection with the Aryan stock.[22]

— Census of India, 1921. Vol. XXII: Kashmir. Part I: Report

History[edit]

Shah Mir Dynasty[edit]

Islam arrived in Kashmir starting with the conversion in 1323 of Kashmir's Buddhist ruler, Rinchan, at the hands of the saint, Sayyid Bilal Shah (also known as Bulbul Shah).[23] After conversion to Islam he called himself Malik Sadur-ud-Din and was the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir. Islam grew in the 14th century under the Shah Mir reign and numerous Muslim ulama from Central Asia came to preach in Kashmir. Some of the famous ulama who spread Islam in Kashmir included Sayyid Bilal Shah, Sayyid Jalaluddin, Sayyid Tajuddin, Sayyid Ḥusayn Simani, Sayyid Ali Ḥamadani, Mir Muḥammad Hamadani, and Shaykh Nuruddin.[24]

Sayyid Ali Hamadani (also known as Shah-yi Hamadan) made immense contributions towards the spread of Islam in Kashmir. He and hundreds of his followers converted thousands of Kashmiris to Islam. His son Sayyid Muḥammad Hamadani also propagated Islam and influenced Kashmir's Muslim ruler Sikander (who reigned from 1389–1413) to enforce Islamic law. By the late 1400s the majority of the population had embraced Islam.[25] Since the arrival of invaders and the start of religious conflicts, before the Partition of India, many Kashmir Hindus and Buddhists migrated to other regions.[26][27][28]

Chak Rule[edit]

In 1557 the Shah Miri dynasty was overthrown by the Chaks who were foreigners to Kashmir and originated from Baltistan. Since they were from outside Kashmir they were not interested in the Kashmiri population's welfare. The Chak rulers, who were Shia, persecuted their Sunni subjects and this caused Sunni scholars to flee to safer environs. Some disenchanted Sunnis, such as notable Sunni scholar, Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi, went to the court of Akbar and invited the Mughals to conquer Kashmir and overthrow Chak rule on certain conditions. These conditions included a guarantee of Kashmiri rights such as freedom of religion for all of Kashmir's population. Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi also forbade Sunnis from carrying out any reprisal against Shias and he devoted his life to restoring peace and communal harmony between the Sunnis and Shias of Kashmir.[29][30]

Mughal Rule[edit]

Kashmiri historians see Mughal rule as the beginning of the end of Kashmiri independence.[31] The Mughal Emperor Akbar succeeded in invading the Kashmir Valley, despite tough Kashmiri resistance,[32] due to internal Sunni-Shia divisions amongst Kashmiris.[33] The anti-Shia policies of Mirza Haidar Dughlat and the anti-Sunni policies of the Chaks had broken Kashmiri unity, thus paving the way for the Mughal occupation of Kashmir.[34]

Akbar's victory brought an end to indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule.[35] Christopher Snedden states that the Mughals began a process of psychological warfare against Kashmiris to strip them of their martial capabilities. After this, outsiders started considering Kashmiris a 'non-martial' race.[36]

In an opinion piece for Greater Kashmir, Zahir-ud-Din states that Mughals resorted to character assassination of Kashmiris and historians say that when fighting Kashmiris Akbar's army is said to have recited the poem “Agar Qahtul Rijaal Uftund A(z)e Shaan Unus Kumgeeri, Awal Kambo Doum Afghan Soum Budzaat Kashmiri.” (Translation: If there is dearth of men in the world, never make friends with an Afghan, Kambo or Kashmiri even in such difficult times). The perpetual occupation for centuries by Mughals and later by the Afghans, Sikhs and Dogras is said to have taken a toll on Kashmiri psyche and Kashmiris have always resisted external aggression.[37]

Conversely, Akbar also reduced the land revene demand from two-thirds, as it was earlier, to one-half of the produce.[38] Kashmiri Hindus also felt a respite from the severe persecution they faced under the earlier Muslim rule.[39]

The Mughals maintained a large military presence on the Valley and were not interested in developing the productive sectors although they patronised art and constructed some pleasure gardens and a few mosques. While many histories of Kashmir consider the Kashmir Valley's incorporation into Mughal India as a decline of Kashmiri independence and cultural identity, Chitralekha Zutshi argues that Kashmiri poets began to consciously articulate their sense of regional belonging during the Mughal rule. According to M.J. Akbar the clash of cultures between Delhi and Kashmir resulted in Kashmiris wishing for nothing more than to be left alone.[40]

Afghan Rule[edit]

In 1751, the Afghans, ruled by Ahmad Shah Durrani, absorbed Kashmir into the Durrani Empire. The Afghans were cruel, especially to Kashmir's Hindus. However, Kashmiri historians state that the Afghans were brutally repressive to all Kashmiris, regardless of religion.[41] The Afghans extorted money from the locals and both Kashmiri men and women lived in fear of their lives. The Afghans sent many Kashmiris as slaves to Afghanistan. During Afghan dominance, the shawl industry declined, probably due to heavy taxes. However, due to the administrative experience of Kashmiri Pandits, the Afghans utilised their services. Kashmiri Pandits were not prevented from entering into government service. George Foster, who visited Kashmir during the Afghan rule, documented the oppression of Kashmiris by Afghans. He writes:[42]

The Afghans would never issue an order without a blow of the side of hatchet (battle axe). Karim Dad Khan in a mood of enjoyment would tie up the inhabitants by back in pairs and drop them in the river.

By 1819 the Sikh Empire's Maharajah Ranjit Singh finally succeeded in taking Kashmir. Initially, Kashmiris felt relieved as they had suffered under the Afghans.[43]

Sikh Empire[edit]

In 1819 Kashmir came under Maharajah Ranjit Singh's Sikh Empire and Sikh rule over Kashmir lasted for 27 years till 1846. These 27 years of Sikh rule saw 10 Governors in Kashmir. Of these 10 Governors five were Hindus, three were Sikhs and two were Muslims.[44] Due to the fact that Kashmiris had suffered under the Afghan rulers, they initially welcomed the Sikh rule.[43] However, the Sikhs oppressed the population.[45] Scholar Christopher Snedden states that the Sikhs exploited Kashmiris regardless of religion.[46]

During the Sikh rule the mostly illiterate Muslim population suffered under heavy taxation, rural indebtedness and discrimination.[47] The Sikhs had enacted a number of anti-Muslim policies, thus subjecting the Muslim majority population of the Valley to a number of hardships in the practice of their religion. The central mosque, Jama Masjid, was closed for 20 years and Muslims were prohibited from issuing the azan (call to prayer). If a Sikh murdered a Hindu the compensation amount allowed was four rupees. However, if a Sikh murdered a Muslim the compensation amount allowed was only two rupees.[44]

During the Sikh rule, Europeans who visited the Valley documented the deprivation and starvation and also wrote of the abject poverty of the peasantry and the exorbitant taxes under the Sikhs. According to European traveler Moorcraft, no more than one-sixteenth of the cultivable land surface was under cultivation and due to starvation many people had fled to India.[45] Kashmiri histories also emphasise the wretchedness of life for common Kashmiris during the Sikh rule. According to them, the peasantry became mired in poverty and migrations of Kashmiri peasants to the plains of Punjab reached high proportions. Several European travelers' accounts from the period agree and provide evidence for such assertions.[12] When Moorcroft left the Valley in 1823, about 500 emigrants accompanied him across the Pir Panjal Pass.[48]

The Sikhs lost their independence with the Battle of Subraon. In 1846 Kashmir came under the rule of Gulab Singh, a Hindu Dogra Maharajah under the British suzerainty.[44][46]

1833 Famine[edit]

The 1833 famine caused many people to leave the Kashmir Valley and migrate to the Punjab, with the majority of weavers leaving Kashmir. Weavers settled down for generations in the cities of Punjab such as Jammu and Nurpur.[49] Due to the famine, the Punjabi city of Amritsar witnessed a large influx of Kashmiris.[50][51] Thousands of people died during the famine of 1833 and both the famine and emigration reduced the population to one-fourth by 1836. Hindus were not much affected but Muslims were and had to leave in large numbers.[52]

Dogra Regime[edit]

The Muslim population suffered severe oppression under Hindu rule and were subjected to heavy taxation, discriminatory laws and forced unpaid labour.[53] The 100 year Dogra regime was a disaster for the Muslim peasantry of Kashmir Valley.[54] Walter Lawrence described the conditions of the Valley's peasantry as being 'desperate' and noted that the Valley's peasantry attributed their miseries to the Maharajah's deputies rather than the rulers themselves. The state officials apparently kept the rulers from knowing the conditions of the Muslim peasantry in the Valley.[54]

Lawrence in particular criticised the state officials who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community.[54] Lawrence provided evidence that while many of the Kashmiri Pandit officials may have been ''individually gentle and intelligent, as a body they were cruel and oppressive.'' Scholar Ayesha Jalal states that the Maharajahs nurtured ties with Kashmiri Pandits and their Dogra kinsfolk in Jammu to trample on the rights of their subjects.[55] Christopher Snedden also states that the Kashmiri Muslims were often exploited by the Kashmiri Pandit officials.[56] Kashmiri Pandits had entered the state administrative machinery during the Afghan period and by the Dogra period they had become entrenched in the lower levels of the state bureaucracy. However, the Pandits were, like all Kashmiris, excluded from the upper sections of the bureaucracy, although they continued to exercise control in the countryside. [57]

Wingate and Lawrence spent many months in the rural hinterland of Kashmir and in an unprecedented manner brought to the fore the tensions that underlay Kashmiri society between the interests of the Hindu Pandit community and the numerically preponderant Kashmiri Muslim cultivators. However, while both acknowledged the oppression of Kashmiri Muslims, the solutions offered by Lawrence and Wingate differed from each other. While both acknowledged the responsibility of the Kashmiri Pandit community in exacerbating the situation of the Muslim cultivating classes, Wingate was far more uncompromising in demanding that the privileges of the Pandit community be eliminated. However, Lawrence proposed to provide relief to Kashmir's cultivating class without eliminating the privileges of the Kashmiri Pandits.[58]

Gawasha Nath Kaul described the poor conditions of the Valley's Muslim population in his book Kashmir Then And Now and in it he wrote that 90 percent of Muslim households were mortgaged to Hindu moneylenders.[59] Muslims were non-existent in the State's civil administration and were barred from officer positions in the military.[59]

Prem Nath Bazaz, one of the few Kashmiri Pandits who joined the movement for change, described the poor conditions of the Valley's Muslim population as such:[59]

The poverty of the Muslim masses is appalling. Dressed in rags and barefoot, a Muslim peasant presents the appearance of a starved beggar...Most are landless laborers, working as serfs for absentee landlords.

1878 Famine[edit]

There was a famine in Kashmir between 1877-9 and the death toll from this famine was overwhelming by any standards. Some authorities suggested that the population of Srinagar had been reduced by half while others estimated a diminution by three-fifths of the entire population of the Valley.[60] During the famine of 1877-9 not a single Pandit died of starvation during these annihilative years for the Muslim cultivators, according to reports received by Lawrence. During the famine the office of Prime Minister was held by a Kashmiri Pandit, Wazir Punnu, who is said to have declared that there ''was no real distress and that he wished that no Musulman might be left alive from Srinagar to Rambhan (in Jammu).'' [61]

When lands fell fallow temporarily during the famine, Pandits took over substantial tracts of them claiming that they were uncultivated waste. Numerous Kashmiri Muslim cultivators who had left the Valley for Punjab to escape the devastation of those years found upon their return that they had been ousted from lands that they had cultivated over generations.[62]

A large number of Muslim Kashmiris migrated from the Kashmir Valley[11] to the Punjab due to conditions in the princely state[11] such as famine, extreme poverty[63] and harsh treatment by the Dogra Hindu regime (according to Prem Nath Bazaz the Kashmiri Muslims faced this harsh treatment because of their religion).[64] According to the 1911 Census there were 177,549 Kashmiri Muslims in the Punjab. With the inclusion of Kashmiri settlements in NWFP this figure rose to 206,180.[65]

Lawrence described the famine and its effects in his book: The Valley of Kashmir.[66]

Later, some time before the terrible famine of 1877-79, Dr. Elmslie, who had resided in the valley for six years as a medical missionary, calculated the population of the valley to be 402,700 of these 75,000 were Hindus and the rest Musalmans...If, therefore, Dr. Elmslie's figures were approximately correct the famine removed 67,400 persons from the city and 174,220 persons from the villages. Many of these escaped with their lives to the Punjab, and many have since returned to Kashmir.

Culture[edit]

Kashmiri cuisine and culture has been greatly influenced by Central Asian and Persian culture. Kashmiri culture is defined in terms of religious values, Kashmiri language, literature, cuisine and traditional values of mutual respect. The overwhelming majority of Kashmiris are Muslims and Islamic identity plays a very important role in the daily lives of people. Kashmiris across the religious divide have for centuries shared cordial and friendly ties. Kashmir has been noted for its fine arts for centuries, including poetry and handicrafts.[citation needed] Shikaras, traditional small wooden boats, and houseboats are a common feature in various lakes and rivers across the Valley.

Cuisine[edit]

Further information: Kashmiri cuisine

Kashmiri cuisine holds a unique place among different world cuisines. Rice is the staple food of Kashmiris and has been so since ancient times.[67] Meat, along with rice, is the most popular food item in Kashmir.[68] Kashmiris consume meat voraciously.[69] Despite being Brahmin, Kashmiri Pandits are great meat eaters.[70] Salted tea or Noon Chai is the traditional drink and is cooked in a samavar, a Kashmiri tea-pot. Kehwa, traditional green tea with spices and almond, is served on special occasions and festivals. Kashmiri weddings are regarded incomplete[citation needed] without the Kashmiri traditional food known as wazwan, which is typically spicy food cooked by the traditional cooks (waz). Wazwan is a multi-course meal in which almost all the dishes are meat-based.

Language[edit]

Further information: Kashmiri language

Kashmiri (/kæʃˈmɪəri/)[6] (कॉशुर, کأشُر), or Koshur, is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab regions of Jammu and Kashmir. The language originates from Sanskrit although it received Persian influence during Muslim rule.[71] According to many linguists, the Kashmiri language is a northwestern Dardic language of the Indo-Aryan family, descending from Middle Indo-Aryan languages. The label "Dardic" indicates a geographical label for the languages spoken in the northwester mountain regions, not a linguistic label.[4] UCLA estimates the number of speakers as being around 4.4 million, with a preponderance in the Kashmir Valley,[72] whereas the 2001 census of India records over 5.5 million speakers.[1] According to the 1998 Census there were 132,450 Kashmiri speakers in Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.[73] According to Professor Khawaja Abdul Rehman the Kashmiri language is on the verge of dying out in the Neelum Valley.[74]

Kashmiri is believed to be the only one among the Dardic languages that has a written literature.[4] Kashmiri literature dates back to over 750 years, comparable to that of most modern languages.[75] Kashmiri poets and writers like Mehjoor, Abdul Ahad Azad, etc. enriched the literature with their poetry.[76]

Religious traditions[edit]

The Kashmir Valley has a 700 year old tradition of Sufism. The Kashmir Valley is known as the ‘Pir Waer’, meaning the ‘Alcove of Sufis and Saints.[77] Sufism was introduced to Kashmir almost simultaneously with the foundation of Muslim rule.[78] Kashmiris take pride in inhabiting a cultural space between Sufi Islam and Vedic Hinduism. Both the Pandits and Muslims of Kashmir respect the Shaivite mystic Lala Ded, who symbolises Kashmir's syncretic culture[79] and both Kashmiri Muslims and Kashmiri Hindus also hold the shrine of Dastgeer Sahib in high esteem. People in Kashmir pay regular visits to the shrines of Sufi saints for peace of mind. It has also been a centuries old tradition in Kashmir for Sufi disciples to recite special 'Wazaif'.[77]

In contrast, the introduction of Salafism to Kashmir only goes back to a hundred years. Salafis remained on the fringes of Kashmir's religious and cultural life since belief in the local traditions of Sufi Islam was very strong in the Valley. But this has begun to change since the insurgency in Kashmir since the late 1980s. Pakistani-trained jihadi groups hijacked the local sentiment for freedom and transformed the Kashmiri struggle into a continuation of their holy war for an Islamic caliphate, by playing on the fears of the people that Kashmir's Muslim identity was under threat of erasure.[80] However, there has also been a proliferation in the number of Barelvi groups, claiming to be custodians of the Valley's Sufi moorings, which have sprung up to challenge the growing power of the Wahhabi faith.[81]

Salafis say that those who frequent shrines indulge in 'grave worship' (which is forbidden in Islam). But Sufis state that it is incorrect to assume that shrine-goers indulge in grave worship. They say they visit shrines only to seek the blessings of Allah as these places are said to be sacred as great scholars are buried there.[77]

Barelvis, Deobandis and Salafis in Kashmir have organised joint conferences to demonstrate their unity for the purpose of achieving 'freedom'.[82]

Characteristics[edit]

Physical features[edit]

According to French traveller Francois Bernier the Kashmiris are celebrated for their beauty. Kashmiris were considered 'well-made' like the Europeans.[83] Marco Polo observed that the beauty of Kashmiris was superb.[84] Fair complexion and prominent noses are the hallmarks of Kashmirs.[85] The fair skin and long noses of Kashmiris suggest that they have a Semitic origin. One theory suggests that they are descended from the lost tribes of Israel however there is no actual evidence for this theory.[86][87] Bhandari remarks that one is usually struck by the marked ethnic differences between Kashmiris from other races in India and Pakistan.[86]

In 2011 a survey by Gilani Research Foundation/Gallup Pakistan found that 55 percent of Pakistanis considered Kashmiris and Pashtuns to be the best looking people in the country. 29 percent rated Kashmiris as the best looking people while 26 percent rated Pashtuns as the best looking people.[88]

Population[edit]

Further information: Kashmiri Pandit and Kashmiri Muslim

Kashmiri Muslims[edit]

The 1921 Census report stated that Kashmiri Muslims formed 31% of the Muslim population of the entire princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.[89] The 1921 Census report also stated that Kashmiri Muslims are sub-divided into numerous sub-castes such as Bat, Dar, Wain etc.[90] The Kashmiri Muslim population in the 1921 Census was recorded as 796,804.[89]

The 1931 Census report also reiterated that the 'Kashmiri Muslim' population occupied the foremost position in the State (other communities in the princely State being Arains, Jats, Sudhans, Gujjars and Rajputs etc).[91] It recorded the Kashmiri Muslim population as 1,352,822.[92] The 1931 Census report explains that the 'phenomenal' increase in the number of Kashmiri Muslims by 556,018 was due to several castes such as Hajjam, Hanji, Sayed and Sheikh being merged into the community.[93][94]

The 1931 Census report stated that the Bat, Dar, Ganai, Khan, Lun, Malik, Mir, Pare, Rather, Shah, Sheikh and Wain were the most important sub-castes among Kashmiri Muslims.[91] Below are the population figures for the various sub-castes among the Kashmiri Muslim population according to the 1931 Census.[95]

Ailo Akhoon Bat Chaupan Dar Ganai Hajam Hanji Khan Khawja Lon Magre Malik
Population in entire Jammu and Kashmir State
Male 5807 2715 90477 6045 64446 32441 10371 2334 18195 3236 34312 4523 31211
Female 4622 2383 77751 5208 53906 26800 8504 1780 15770 2669 30055 4145 26743
Population in Kashmir Province
Male 4934 2608 80444 5758 61512 31327 10010 2165 18017 2227 29593 4806 17458
Female 4280 2211 69286 5025 51418 25957 8154 1648 15672 1679 25870 3788 15604
Mir Pandit Parai Pirzada Raina Rather Rishi Syed Shah Sheikh Tantrei Wain Others
Population in entire Jammu and Kashmir State
Male 55092 1911 8317 4452 2111 21765 5672 6756 10333 40264 6158 39670 222655
Female 47155 1673 7180 3995 1762 17960 4626 5821 9027 34711 6095 32443 189269
Population in Kashmir Province
Male 49586 1902 7852 4444 2105 19643 5374 6059 10289 37320 4875 34080 196596
Female 42285 1670 6739 8995 1755 16572 4469 5298 8977 31787 4790 28622 164986

Kashmiri Pandits[edit]

The following data is from the 1931 Census.[96]

Kashmiri Pandit
Population in entire Jammu and Kashmir State
Male 35060
Female 28028
Population in Kashmir Province
Male 33590
Female 27136

Diaspora[edit]

Further information: Kashmiri diaspora

Muslim[edit]

In the early twentieth century, famines and the policies of the Dogra rulers drove many Kashmiri Muslims to flee their native land to Punjab. Kashmiri Muslims constituted an important segment of several Punjabi cities such as Sialkot, Lahore, Amritsar and Ludhiana.[97] Kashmiris who migrated from Amritsar in 1947 have had a big influence on Lahore's contemporary cuisine and culture.[98] The Kashmiris of Amritsar were more steeped in their Kashmiri culture than the Kashmiris of Lahore.[99] An exclusive research conducted by the “Jang Group and Geo Television Network” showed that the Kashmiri community had been involved in spearheading the power politics of Lahore district since 1947.[100]

Notable members of the Kashmiri Muslim diaspora in Punjab include Pakistan's current Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif (paternal ancestry from Anantnag), Finance Minister Ishaq Dar and politician Khawaja Asif.[101] Another notable member of the Kashmiri Muslim diaspora in Punjab was Muhammad Iqbal (who took pride in his Brahmin ancestry[102] and whose poetry displayed a keen sense of belonging to the Kashmir Valley).[103] Another famous proud Kashmiri writer from Punjab was Saadat Hasan Manto.[104][105]

According to the 1921 Census the total Kashmiri population in Punjab was 169,761. However, the Census report stated that only 3% of Kashmiris settled in Punjab retained their Kashmiri language. The number of people speaking Kashmiri in 1901 was 8,523 but had decreased to 7,190 in 1911. By 1921 the number of people speaking Kashmiri in Punjab had fallen to 4,690. The 1921 Census report stated that this fact showed that the Kashmiris who had settled in Punjab had adopted the Punjabi language of their neighbours.[106] In contrast, the 1881 Census of Punjab had shown that there were 49,534 speakers of the Kashmiri language in the Punjab.[107] The 1881 Census had recorded the number of Kashmiris in the Punjab as 179,020[108] while the 1891 Census recorded the Kashmiri population as 225,307[109] but the number of Kashmiri speakers recorded in the 1891 Census was 28,415.[110]

Scholar Ayesha Jalal states that Kashmiris faced discrimination in the Punjab as well.[111] Kashmiris settled for generations in the Punjab were unable to own land,[111] including the family of Muhammad Iqbal.[112] Scholar Chitralekha Zutshi states that Kashmiri Muslims settled in the Punab retained emotional and familial links to Kashmir and felt obliged to struggle for the freedom of their brethren in the Valley.[113]

Since the 1990s approximately 35,000 Kashmiri Muslims from Indian administered Kashmir have fled to Azad Jammu and Kashmir.[114]

Hindu[edit]

160,000-170,000[115] Kashmiri Pandits have also fled to India and to other parts of Jammu and Kashmir since 1989. A number of Kashmiri organisations have been existence for over half a century in Delhi, including Kashmiri Pandit Sabha, Panun Kashmir, Vyeth Television, and N. S. Kashmir Research Institute. Notable members of the Kashmiri Pandit diaspora in India include former Indian Prime Ministers Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi.

Krams (Surnames)[edit]

Kashmiri Hindus are all Saraswast Brahmins and are known by the exonym Pandit.[116] Their surnames (kram) designate their original profession or their ancestors' nicknames. These include Hakim, Kaul, Dhar,[117] Raina and Teng.[116] The Muslims living in Kashmir are ethnically of the same stock as the Kashmiri Pandit community and are designated as 'Kashmiri Muslims'. They are descended from the Kashmiri Hindus and are also known as 'Sheikhs'.[16][17][18][19]

After Kashmiri Hindus had converted to Islam they largely retained their family names (kram) which indicated their original profession, locality or community.[20] These included surnames such as Butt,[20] Pandit (Brahmin), Dar (kshatriya),[20][117] Tantre (Tantray), Magre (Magray), Mantu, Nayak, Lone, Parry, Rather and Yatoo etc.[21][91]

Common krams (surnames) found amongst the Kashmiri Muslims who migrated from the Valley[11] to the Punjab include Bat (Butt),[117][118][119] Dar,[117] Lun (Lone), Wain (Wani), Mir and Shaikh.[120][121] The 1881 Census of the Punjab recorded these major Kashmiri sub-divisions in the Punjab along with their population. The Bat (Butt) tribe numbered 24,463, the Dar tribe numbered 16,215, the Lun (Lone) tribe numbered 4,848, the Wain (Wani) tribe numbered 7,419, the Mir sub-division numbered 19,855 and the Sheikhs numbered 14,902.[121] Watorfield also noted the presence of the Bat (Butt) and Dar castes amongst the Kashmiris of the town of Gujrat in Punjab.[120]

The But/Butt of Punjab were originally Brahmin migrants from Kashmir during 1878 famine.[118]

— The Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, Volume 52

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2000, Census of India, 2001
  2. ^ Mohsin Shakil, Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study), Unpublished, 2012
  3. ^ a b "Kashmiri: A language of India". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2007-06-02. 
  4. ^ a b c Munshi, S. (2010), "Kashmiri", Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, pp. 582–, ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4 
  5. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9781849043427. In 1947, Kashmir was a geographically identifiable region that was called the Vale of Kashmir or the Kashmir Valley...In 1947, the other regions of J&K were not as well known as Kashmir. Jammu and other non-Kashmiri areas of J&K, except possibly Ladakh, had never enjoyed the geo-political unity, regional existence or continuous rule that Kashmiris had experienced for long periods...Kashmir's acclaim is why J&K was popularly called 'Kashmir'. 
  6. ^ http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/AGPC/doc/Publicat/TAPAFON/TAP_10.PDF
  7. ^ Minahan.J.B., (2012), Dogras, Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia
  8. ^ http://www.jktourism.org/index.php/cultural/ethnic-groups
  9. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849046220. Confusingly, the term 'Kashmiri' also has wider connotations and uses. Some people in Azad Kashmir call themselves 'Kashmiris'. This is despite most Azad Kashmiris not being of Kashmiri ethnicity. 
  10. ^ a b Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849046220. Small numbers of ethnic Kashmiris also live in other parts of J&K. There are Kashmiris who live in areas that border the Kashmir Valley, including Kishtwar (Kishtawar), Bhadarwah, Doda and Ramban, in Jammu in Indian J&K, and in the Neelum and Leepa Valleys of northern Azad Kashmir. Since 1947, many ethnic Kashmiris and their descendants also can be found in Pakistan. Invariably, Kashmiris in Azad Kashmir and Pakistan are Muslims. 
  11. ^ a b c d Bose, Sumantra (2013). Transforming India. Harvard University Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780674728202. From the late nineteenth century, conditions in the princely state led to a significant migration of people from the Kashmir Valley to the neighboring Punjab province of British-as distinct from princely-India. 
  12. ^ a b Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 9781850656944. Kashmiri histories emphasize the wretchedness of life for the common Kashmiri during Sikh rule. According to these, the peasantry became mired in poverty and migrations of Kashmiri peasants to the plains of the Punjab reached high proportions. Several European travelers' accounts from the period testify to and provide evidence for such assertions. 
  13. ^ Ames, Frank (1986). The Kashmir shawl and its Indo-French influence. Antique Collectors' Club. ISBN 9780907462620. The shawl industry began to decline with the institution of the dagshawl tax system during the beginnings of Afghan rule in Kashmir. The warring Sikhs sustained this system, perhaps not in name but in practice, if only to support their military exploits. The natural calamities of the 1830s caused the weavers to emigrate en masse to the Punjab, leaving their homeland. 
  14. ^ Rizvi, Janet (2001). Trans-Himalayan Caravans: Merchant Princes and Peasant Traders in Ladakh. Oxford University Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780195658170. Moorcroft himself, passing through Amritsar in 1820, had encountered refugee Kashmiri weavers. He reported that: 'The yarn was formerly imported from Kashmir, but the [Sikh] Governor of that country has prohibited the export at the request, he pretends, of the Kashmirian weavers but, in reality, to discourage the foreign manufacture of shawls, the duty on which constitutes the chief source of his revenue. 
  15. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 7. ISBN 9781849046220. As in Pakistan, Sunni Muslims comprise the majority population of Kashmir, whereas they are a minority in Jammu, while almost all Muslims in Ladakh are Shias. 
  16. ^ a b Census of India, 1941. Volume XXII. p. 9. Retrieved 30 December 2016. The Muslims living in the southern part of the Kashmir Province are of the same stock as the Kashmiri Pandit community and are usually designated Kashmiri Muslims; those of the Muzaffarabad Distnct are partly Kashmiri Muslims, partly Gujjar and the rest are of the same stock as the tribes of the neighbouring Punjab and North \Vest Frontier Province districts. 
  17. ^ a b Kashmiri Pandits: Looking to the Future. APH Publishing. 2001. ISBN 9788176482363. The Kashmiri Pandits are the precursors of Kashmiri Muslims who now form a majority in the valley of Kashmir...Whereas Kashmiri Pandits are of the same ethnic stock as the Kashmiri Muslims, both sharing their habitat, language, dress, food and other habits, Kashmiri Pandits form a constituent part of the Hindu society of India on the religious plane. 
  18. ^ a b Bhasin, M.K.; Nag, Shampa (2002). "A Demographic Profile of the People of Jammu and Kashmir" (PDF). Journal of Human Ecology. Kamla-Raj Enterprises: 15. Retrieved 1 January 2017. Thus the two population groups, Kashmiri Pandits and Kashmiri Muslims though at the time constituted ethnically homogenous population, came to differ from each other in faith and customs. 
  19. ^ a b Bhasin, M.K.; Nag, Shampa (2002). "A Demographic Profile of the People of Jammu and Kashmir" (PDF). Journal of Human Ecology: 16. Retrieved 1 January 2017. The Sheikhs are considered to be the descendants of Hindus and the pure Kashmiri Muslims, professing Sunni faith, the major part of the population of Srinagar district and the Kashmir state. 
  20. ^ a b c d Brower, Barbara; Johnston, Barbara Rose (2016). Disappearing Peoples?: Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Minorities in South and Central Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781315430393. Sheikh: local converts, subdivided into numerous subgroups. Most largely retain their family names, or patronyms (kram), indicating their original profession, locality or community-such as Khar (carpenter), Pampori (a place), Butt and Pandit (brahmin), Dar (kshatriya)-but with increasing Islamization, some have dropped these 
  21. ^ a b Proceedings - Indian History Congress, Volume 63. Indian History Congress. 2003. p. 867. Retrieved 30 December 2016. ...the Muslims also retained their Hindu caste-names known as Krams e.g. Tantre, Nayak, Magre, Rather, Lone, Bat, Dar, Parry, Mantu, Yatoo..... 
  22. ^ Census of India, 1921. Vol. XXII: Kashmir. Part I: Report. Retrieved 2017-01-10. As regards the origin of the Kashmiri Brahmans, it is certain that it was· a colony of Aryan immigrants from Central Asia (see Rajatarangini Book 1, 341). Their features and fair complexion testify to their connection with the Aryan stock. 
  23. ^ Troll, C. (1982). Mahmud of Ghori never entered Kashmir he was defeated soundly by Hindu Kashmir. Islam in india: Studies and commentaries. Stosius Inc/Advent Books Division.
  24. ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Rinchan, a Buddhist ruler of Kashmir, embraced Islam in 1320 under the guidance of Sayyid Bilāl Shāh (also known as Bulbūl Shāh), a widely travelled Musavī sayyid from Turkistan. Islam consolidated its hold during Shāh Mir's reign (1339–1344). A large number of Muslim ʿulamāʿ came from Central Asia to Kashmir to preach; Sayyid Bilāl Shāh, Sayyid Jalāluddīn of Bukhara, Sayyid Tajuddīn, his brother Sayyid Ḥusayn Sīmānī, Sayyid ʿAlī Ḥamadānī, his son Mir Muḥammad Hamadānī, and Shaykh Nūruddīn are some of the well-known ʿulamāʿ who played a significant role in spreading Islam. 
  25. ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. The contribution of Sayyid ʿAlī Hamadānī, popularly known as Shah-yi Hamadān, is legendary. Born at Hamadān (Iran) in 1314 and belonging to the Kubrawīyah order of Ṣūfīs, a branch of the Suhrawardīyah, he paid three visits to Kashmir in 1372, 1379, and 1383; together with several hundred followers, he converted thousands of Kashmiris to Islam. His son Sayyid Muḥammad Hamadānī continued his work, vigorously propagating Islam as well as influencing the Muslim ruler Sikander (1389–1413) to enforce Islamic law and to establish the office of the Shaykh al-Islām (chief religious authority). By the end of the fifteenth century, the majority of the people had embraced Islam. 
  26. ^ Gottschalk, P. (2012). Religion, science, and empire: Classifying hinduism and islam in british india. (pp. 400, 234-354). USA: Oxford University Press.
  27. ^ Hees, P. (2002). Indian religions: A historical reader of spiritual expression and experience. NYU Press
  28. ^ Bayly, S. (2001). Caste, society and politics in india from the eighteenth century to the modern age (The New Cambridge History of India). (1st & 4th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  29. ^ Sofi, Sameer Ahmad (2016). "Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi of Kashmir: A Case Study of his literary and political contribution" (PDF). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 6: 259. Retrieved 16 January 2017. In 1557, when Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi was thirty-five, the Shah Miri dynasty was overthrown by the Chaks. The Chaks traced their origins to Baltistan. Being from outside Kashmir, they were not particularly concerned about the welfare of the people of Kashmir. The Chak rulers persecuted the Sunni subjects...In their audience with Akbar, Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi and his companions insisted that after Akbar took over the administration of Kashmir, he should ensure full freedom of religion to all its people...With the Mughal takeover of Kashmir, some Sunnis are said to have launched stern reprisals against the Shi’as. Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi is said to have bitterly protested against this, and is credited with having made efforts to restore peace and communal harmony...He devoted his life to normalize the sectarian tensions between the Shias and Sunnis of Kashmir. 
  30. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 9781849043427. By 1586, however, Akbar and his empire had become strong while Kashmir's situation was deteriorating due to significant Sunni-Shia sectarianism that the Chaks, who were Shias, allegedly often instigated. Consequently, come disenchanted Sunnis invited their fellow Sunni, Akbar, to rule Kashmir. 
  31. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 9781850657002. If the Mughal period is seen as the beginning of the end of Kashmiri independence by Kashmiri historians, the Afghan period is seen as its end. 
  32. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 9781849046220. Kashmiris united and fought the intruder. Tough and capable fighters defended the entrances to the Kashmir Valley... 
  33. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9781849043427. Similarly, Sunni and Shia Kashmiris had troubles at times, with their differences offering the third Mughal Emperor, Akbar (ruled 1556-1605), a pretext to invade Kashmir, and capture it, in 1586. 
  34. ^ Chen, Yu-Wen; Shih, Chih-Yu (2016). Borderland Politics In Northern India. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 9781317605171. The anti-Shia policy of Mirza Haidar Dughlat and anti-Sunni policy of Daulat Chak and Yaqub Shah Chak broke unity among the Kashmiris and ultimately paved the way for Mughal occupation of Kashmir in 1586. 
  35. ^ Puri, Balraj (June 2009), "5000 Years of Kashmir", Epilogue, 3 (6), pp. 43–45, retrieved 31 December 2016, It was emperor Akbar who brought an end to indigenous Kashmiri Muslim rule that had lasted 250 years. The watershed in Kashmiri history is not the beginning of the Muslim rule as is regarded in the rest of the subcontinent but the changeover from Kashmiri rule to a non-Kashmiri rule. 
  36. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9781849043427. The finally victorious Mughals also allegedly sought to diminish the Kashmiris' martial instincts and skills by compelling all Kashmiri men to wear an article of apparel called a pheran. This loose-fitting gown, which may have existed before the Mughals, was considered 'effeminate' by some non-Kashmiris. It certainly severely restricted Kashmiri men's ability to engage in combat because it hindered unfettered movement, including preventing he easy and rapid drawing of knives or swords from their scabbards. This apparel-led pacification of Kashmiris seemingly worked as many outsiders came to consider Kashmiris 'cowardly' and a 'non-martial' race. 
  37. ^ Din, Zahir-ud (1 September 2016). "What is Kashmiriyat?". Greater Kashmir. Retrieved 16 January 2017. Kashmiris have been enslaved, tortured, humiliated and ruthlessly killed since the past four centuries. The perpetual occupation has changed their psyche. They have moulded their personality accordingly. They have always resisted external aggression...Very often the couplet of an unknown Central Asian poet is cited to malign Kashmiris. The poet says: “Agar Qahtul Rijaal Uftund A(z)e Shaan Unus Kumgeeri, Awal Kambo Doum Afghan Soum Budzaat Kashmiri.” (If there is dearth of men in the world, never make friends with an Afghan, Kambo or Kashmiri even in such difficult times). Historians believe that Akbar’s army recited this verse repeatedly while fighting Kashmiris. While Kashmiris do not need a character certificate from a colonizer and his army, the question as to why the poet resorted to their character assassination needs to be answered. 
  38. ^ Hangloo, Ratan Lal (June 1984), "The Magnitude of Land Revenue Demand in Kashmir-1846 to 1900 A.D.", Social Scientist, 12 (6): 52–59, JSTOR 3517003 
  39. ^ Toshkhani, S. S. (2004), "Early Kashmiri Society and the Challenge of Islam", in M. K. Kaw, Kashmir and It's People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society, APH Publishing, p. 115, ISBN 978-81-7648-537-1, Oppressed, hunted, tormented and crushed by the burden of heavy exactions, the Hindus, particularly the Brahmins, somehow got a brief respite during the rule of Akhar, who treated them with sympathy. But under the later Mughals it was the same story of forcible conversions, demoliitons of temples, discrimination, and rape 
  40. ^ Chen, Yu-Wen; Shih, Chih-Yu (2016). Borderland Politics in Northern India. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 9781317605171. According to M. J. Akbar, the first clash of cultures between Delhi and Kashmir only resulted in the former sneering at the latter and the Kashmiri wishing nothing more than to be left alone...It is significant to note that except for constructing some pleasure gardens for their own personal purposes and constructing a few mosques and a military cantonment by the name of Naagar Nagar and patronizing a few artists and poets of repute, the Mughals did not show any interest in developing the productive sectors. While, on the one hand, almost all the works on the history of Kashmir consistently portray the incorporation of the Kashmir valley into the Mughal India after Chak rule as the beginning of the end of Kashmiri independence and decline of Kashmiri cultural identity, Chitralekha Zutshi, on the other hand, argues that it was precisely in the Mughal period that Kashmiri poets first began to self consciously articulate a sense of regional belongings. 
  41. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 9781850657002. Most historians of Kashmir agree on the rapacity of the Afghan governors, a period unrelieved by even brief respite devoted to good work and welfare for the people of Kashmir. According to these histories, the Afghans were brutally repressive with all Kashmiris, regardless of class or religion 
  42. ^ Chen, Yu-Wen; Shih, Chih-Yu (2016). Borderland Politics in Northern India. Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 9781317605171. George Forster, who visited Kashmir during its Afghan domination, has left a brief but valuable account of oppression that Kashmir was subjected to by the Afghans. He says: The Afghans would never issue an order without a blow of the side of hatchet (battle axe). Karim Dad Khan in a mood of enjoyment would tie up the inhabitants by back in pairs and drop them in the river. 
  43. ^ a b Schofield, Victoria (2000). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. I.B.Tauris. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9781860648984. In 1751, the Afghans, ruled by Ahmad Shah Durrani, absorbed Kashmir into their expanding empire. The names of the Afghan governors who ruled Kashmir are all but forgotten but not their cruelty, which was directed mainly towards the Hindus. Oppression took the form of extortion of money from the local people and brutality in the face of opposition. Both Kashmiri men and women lived in fear f their lives. Many were captured and sent as slaves to Afghanistan...During Afghan dominance, the shawl industry declined, probably due to heavy taxes...Despite the religious oppression, to which many Hindus were subjected, they were, however, useful to the Afghans because of their administrative experience. Kashmiri Pandits were not prevented from entering into government service...In 1819, the 'Lion of the Punjab', as Ranjit Singh became known, finally succeeded in taking Kashmir, initially to the relief of the local people who had suffered under the Afghans. 
  44. ^ a b c Fahim, Farukh (2011). "Centuries' Subjugation Kicks off a Bitter Struggle". In Harsh Dobhal. Writings on Human Rights, Law, and Society in India: A Combat Law Anthology : Selections from Combat Law, 2002-2010. Socio Legal Information Cent. p. 259. ISBN 9788189479787. Sikh army entered Kashmir on 4th July, 1819, starting a new phase of tyranny and oppression...Describing the Sikh rule, Moorcraft, an English traveler reflected, 'Sikhs looked at Kashmiris 'a little better than the cattle. The murder of a native Sikh was punished with a fine to the government ranging from 16 to 20 rupees, of which four were paid to the family of the deceased if a Hindu, and two if he was a Mohammedan;. During this dark phase in Kashmir's history, people were in a most abject condition 'subjected to every kind of extortion and oppression'. Under Sikh rule Kashmir was ruled by 10 governors. Out of these, five were Hindus, three Sikhs, and two Muslims. Sikhs consistently followed anti-Muslim policies in Kashmir, subjecting the majority population of the Kashmir valley to severe hardship in relation to the practice of religion. It was also during this phase that the central mosque of Srinagar, the Jama Masjid was ordered to be closed and Muslims of Kashmir were not allowed to say azan (call to prayer). Sikhs tried to establish a 'Hindu' state where cow slaughter was declared a crime and a complete ban was passed against cow slaughter, lands attached to several shrines were also resumed on state orders...With the battle of Subraon, the Sikhs lost their independence. The treaty of Amritsar between British and Dogras signed on 16th of March 1846, gave way to Dogra rule in Kashmir. 
  45. ^ a b Schofield, Victoria (2010). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9780857730787. The picture painted by the Europeans who began to visit the valley more frequently was one of deprivation and starvation...Everywhere the people were in the most abject condition, exorbitantly taxed by the Sikh Government and subjected to every kind of extortion and oppression by its officers...Moorcroft estimated that no more than one-sixteenth of the cultivable land surface was under cultivation; as a result, the starving people had fled in great numbers to India. 
  46. ^ a b Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9781849046220. 
  47. ^ Amin, Tahir; Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. During both Sikh and Dogra rule, heavy taxation, forced work without wages (begār), discriminatory laws, and rural indebtedness were widespread among the largely illiterate Muslim population. 
  48. ^ Parashar, Parmanand (2004). Kashmir The Paradise Of Asia. Sarup & Sons. p. 4. ISBN 9788176255189. What with the political disturbances and the numerous tyrannies suffered by the peasants, the latter found it very hard to live in Kashmir and a large number of people migrated to the Punjab and India. When Moorcroft left the Valley in 1823, about 500 emigrants accompanied him across the Pir Panjal Pass. 
  49. ^ Kashmir Under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. 1984. p. 20. ISBN 9788171560943. In the beginning, it was only the excess of population that was increasing rapidly, that started migrating into Punjab, where in the hilly cities of Nurpur and Jammu, that remained under the rule of Hindu prince the weavers had settled down for generations...As such, even at that time, a great majority of the weavers have migrated out from Kashmir. The great famine conditions and starvation three years earlier, have forced a considerable number of people to move out of the valley and the greater security of their possessions and property in Punjab has also facilitated this outward migration...The distress and misery experienced by the population during the years 1833 and 1834, must not be forgotten by the current generation living there. 
  50. ^ Punjab revisited: an anthology of 70 research documents on the history and culture of undivided Punjab. Gautam Publishers. 1995. p. 576. Owing to a large influx of Kashmiris into Amritsar during the great famine which occurred in Kashmir in the year 1833 A.D., the number of shops increased in Amritsar to 2,000 and the yearly out-turn of pashmina work to four lacs of rupees. 
  51. ^ Watt, George (2014). A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Part 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 648. ISBN 9781108068796. In the year 1833 A.D. owing to a great famine in Kashmir, there was a large influx of Kashmiris into Amritsar. 
  52. ^ Parashar, Parmanand (2004). Kashmir The Paradise Of Asia. Sarup & Sons. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9788176255189. Moreover, in 1832 a severe famine caused the death of thousands of people...Thus emigration, coupled with the famine, had reduced the population to one-fourth by 1836...But still the proportion of Muslims and Hindus was different from what it is as the present time inasmuch as while the Hindus were not much affected among the Muslims; and the latter alone left the country in large numbers during the Sikh period. 
  53. ^ Kashmir. The Islamic World: Past and Present. Muslims, however, suffered under Hindu rule. Despite being the majority of the population, they encountered severe oppression, including heavy taxation, forced labor without wages, and discriminatory laws. 
  54. ^ a b c Bose, Sumantra (2013). Transforming India. Harvard University Press. pp. 233–4. ISBN 9780674728202. The hundred-year reign of the tinpot monarchy appointed as subcontractors of the Raj was an unmitigated disaster for the peasantry of Muslim faith who made up the overwhelming majority of the Valley's population. Walter Lawrence wrote: when I first came to Kashmir in 1889, I found the people sullen, desperate and suspicious. They had been taught for many years that they were serfs without any rights....Pages might be written by me on facts which have come under my personal observation, but it will suffice to say that the system of administration had degraded the people and taken all heart out of them. Lawrence...was careful to absolve the ruler of personal culpability: the peasants, one and all, attributed their miseries to the deputies through which the Maharajas ruled, and they have always recognised that their rulers were sympathetic and anxious to ensure their prosperity. But the officials of Kashmir would never allow their master to know the real condition of the people. Who were these venal officials? Lawrence was particularly critical of princely state officials belonging to the Kashmiri Pandit community... 
  55. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (2002). Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850. Routledge. p. 352. ISBN 9781134599387. A succession of maharajas, nurturing ties with a small group of Hindu pandits in the Kashmir valley and a more extensive network of Dogra kinsmen in Jammu, wilfully trampled on the rights of their subjects. 
  56. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9781849043427. Incongruously, "Kashmiriness" did not deter rivalry and antipathy between Hindu Pandits, who were influential in government for long periods, and Muslim artisan and peasants, who invariably were poorer, iliterate and often exploited by Pandit officials. 
  57. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004), Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, p. 52, ISBN 978-1-85065-700-2 
  58. ^ Rai, Mridu (2004). Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 148–149. ISBN 9781850657019. Wingate and Lawrence had spent many months in the rural hinterland of Kashmir. They brought to the fore, in an unprecedented manner, the tensions that underlay Kashmiri society, pitting the interests of the Hindu Pandit community against thise of the numerically preponderant Kashmiri Muslim cultivators within the framework of the Dogra state. However, beyond agreeing about the nature and causesof the Kashmiri Muslims' oppression, the solutions offered by Wingate and Lawrence were at significant variance. While both acknowledged the responsibility of the Kashmiri Pandit community in exacerbating the situation of the Muslim cultivating classes, Wingate was far more uncompromising in demanding the elimination of the exemptins and privileges of the former. In contrast, while Lawrence's land settlement also sought to provide relief to the cultivating classes of Kashmir, it did so without entirely dismantling the privileges of the Kashmiri Pandit community. 
  59. ^ a b c Bose, Sumantra (2013). Transforming India. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674728202. Indeed, in a book titled Kashmir Then and Now, published in 1924, Gawasha Nath Kaul, a Kashmiri Pandit, painted a Dickensian picture of Srinagar: beggars, thieves, and prostitutes abounded along with disease and filth, and 90 percent of Muslim houses [were] mortgaged to Hindu sahukars [moneylenders]....local Muslims were barred from becoming officers in the princely state's military forces and were almost nonexistent in the civil administration. In 1941 Prem Nath Bazaz, one of a handful of Kashmiri Pandits who joined the popular movement for change that emerged during the 1930s and swept the Valley in the 1940s, wrote: the poverty of the Muslim masses is appalling. Dressed in rags and barefoot, a Muslim peasant presents the appearance of a starving beggar...Most are landless laborers, working as serfs for absentee landlords... 
  60. ^ Rai, Mridu (2004). Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 149. ISBN 9781850657019. The death toll from the famine had been overwhelming by any standards. Some authorities had suggested that the population of Srinagar had been reduced by half (from 127,400 to 60,000) while others had estimated a diminution by three-fifths of the population of the entire valley. 
  61. ^ Rai, Mridu (2004). Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 9781850657019. The fatal results for Muslim agriculturists of this capacity for combination among the Hindu Kashmiris was demonstrated most clearly during the famine of 1877-9 when the office of prime minister was also held by a Kashmiri Pandit, Wazir Punnu. According to reports received by Lawrence, not a Pandit died of starvation during these annihilative years for the Muslim cultivators. Undoubtedly reflecting a selective Pandit view of the famine, Wazir Punnu is said to have declared that there 'was no real distress and that he wished that no Mussulman might be left alive from Srinagar to Rambhan [in Jammu].' 
  62. ^ Rai, Mridu (2004). Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 157. ISBN 9781850657019. When lands fell fallow temporarily during the Kashmir famine of 1877-9, Pandits took over substantial tracts of them claiming that they constituted uncultivated waste. Numerous Kashmiri Muslim cultivators who had left the valley for Punjab, to escape the devastation of those years, found upon their return that they had been ousted from lands they had cultivated over generations. 
  63. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (2002). Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850. Routledge. p. 352. ISBN 9781134599387. Extreme poverty, exacerbated by a series of famines in the second half of the nineteenth century, had seen many Kashmiris fleeing to neighbouring Punjab. 
  64. ^ Chowdhary, Rekha (2015). Jammu and Kashmir: Politics of Identity and Separatism. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9781317414056. Prem Nath Bazaz, for instance, noted that 'the Dogra rule has been Hindu. Muslims have not been treated fairly, by which I mean as fairly as Hindus'. In his opinion, the Muslims faced harsh treatment 'only because they were Muslims' (Bazaz, 1941: 250). 
  65. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (2002). Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850. Routledge. ISBN 9781134599387. According to the 1911 census there were 177, 549 Kashmiri Muslims in the Punjab; the figure went up to 206, 180 with the inclusion of settlements in the NWFP. 
  66. ^ Lawrence, Walter Roper (1895). The Valley of Kashmir. Asian Educational Services. p. 224. ISBN 9788120616301. Later, some time before the terrible famine of 1877-79, Dr. Elmslie, who had resided in the valley for six years as a medical missionary, calculated the population of the valley to be 402,700 of these 75,000 were Hindus and the rest Musalmans...If, therefore, Dr. Elmslie's figures were approximately correct the famine removed 67,400 persons from the city and 174,220 persons from the villages. Many of these escaped with their lives to the Punjab, and many have since returned to Kashmir. 
  67. ^ Bamzai, Prithivi Nath Kaul (1994). Culture and Political History of Kashmir. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 243. ISBN 9788185880310. Rice was, as now, the staple food of Kashmiris in ancient times. 
  68. ^ Kaw, M.K. (2004). Kashmir and It's People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society. APH Publishing. p. 98. ISBN 9788176485371. But perhaps the most popular items of the Kashmiri cuisine were meat and rice. 
  69. ^ Press, Epilogue. Epilogue, Vol 3, issue 9. Epilogue -Jammu Kashmir. Since Kashmiris consume meat voraciously and statistics reveals that on an average 3.5 million sheep and goat are slaughtered annually for our consumption, the skin can be utilised for production. 
  70. ^ Dar, P Krishna (2000). Kashmiri Cooking. Penguin UK. ISBN 9789351181699. Though Brahmins, Kashmiri Pandits have generally been great meat eaters. 
  71. ^ Kaw, M.K. (2001). Kashmiri Pandits: Looking to the Future. APH Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 9788176482363. The Kashmiri language belongs to the Indo-Aryan family of languages. It has its origin in Vedic, Sanskrit itself. During the Muslim period in Kashmir, Persian and Urdu words and phrases have also been assimilated in the language 
  72. ^ "UCLA Languages Project: Kashmiri". UCLA International Institute. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  73. ^ Shakil, Mohsin (2012). "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)". 
  74. ^ "Up north: Call for exploration of archaeological sites". June 5, 2015. 
  75. ^ Ghulam Rasool Malik, Kashmiri Literature, Muse India, June 2006.
  76. ^ Poetry and renaissance: Kumaran Asan birth centenary volume. Sameeksha. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  77. ^ a b c "Kashmir: The Alcove of Sufis and Saints". DAWN.COM. 2013-07-18. Retrieved 2017-01-01. 
  78. ^ Rafiabadi, Hamid Naseem (2003). World Religions and Islam: A Critical Study, Part 2. Sarup & Sons. p. 94. ISBN 9788176254144. 
  79. ^ Khan, Nyla Ali. Kashmir. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women. Kashmiris have long taken pride in inhabiting a cultural space between Vedic Hinduism and Ṣūfī Islam. Lalla-Ded (fourteenth century), revered by both the Pandits and Muslims of Kashmir, is the finest symbol of their essentially syncretic culture. 
  80. ^ Mir, Tariq (5 November 2012). "Kashmir: From Sufi to Salafi". Pulitzer Center. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  81. ^ Wani, Riyaz (31 March 2012). "The Fight for Kashmir's Soul". Tehelka Magazine. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  82. ^ "Barelvis, Salafis, Jamaatis unite for 'freedom's cause'". Kashmir Reader. 31 July 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  83. ^ Drace-Francis, Alex (2013). European Identity: A Historical Reader. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 57. ISBN 9781137368195. The people of Kashmir, says Bernier, are celebrated for beauty; they are as well-made as the Europeans; they have nothing of the Tartar visage; nor have they that flat nose, and those pig's eyes we meet with among their neighbours. 
  84. ^ Bakshi, S.R. (1997). Kashmir Through Ages. Sarup & Sons. p. 102. ISBN 9788185431710. The fabulous beauty of Kashmiri women has been sung by many a traveller to the country. For instance, Marco Polo observed that the beauty of Kashmiri women was superb. 
  85. ^ Durrani, Huma (2015). Wrapped in Blue. Partridge Publishing. ISBN 9781482856255. For one, both looked like Kashmiris thanks to their fair complexions and rather prominent noses, hallmarks of most Kashmiri men and women. 
  86. ^ a b Bhandari, Mohan C. (2006). Solving Kashmir. Lancer Publishers. p. 107. ISBN 9788170621256. One is usually struck by the marked ethnic differences of the Kashmiris from other Indian and Pakistani races. Fair skin and prominent noses suggest a Semitic origin. Historians write that there are no actual records based on facts, only speculations. The most interesting speculation is that the Kashmiris are descendents of one of the lost tribes of Israel. 
  87. ^ Oberoi, Surinder Singh. "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists". 52 (2). Retrieved 29 December 2016. First-time visitors are usually struck by the appearance of Kashmiris themselves. Fair skin and prominent noses sugest a Semitic origin, but there is no actual evidence for that, only speculation-one theory being that Kashmiris are descended from one of the lost tribes of Israel. 
  88. ^ Ali, Zunair (23 March 2011). "55% Pakistanis believe Pathans, Kashmiris best looking". Express Tribune. Retrieved 29 December 2016. ISLAMABAD: A total of 55% of Pakistanis believe Kashmiris and Pathans have the best looks in the country, according to a recently released survey by Gilani Research Foundation/Gallup Pakistan. The survey asked a nationally representative sample of 2,666 men and women across the country the following question: In your opinion which people in Pakistan are the most good looking? Kashmiris and Pathans stood out as the best looking amongst all linguistic groups, with 29 per cent voting for Kashmiris and 26 per cent for Pathans. 
  89. ^ a b Mohamed, C K. Census of India, 1921. Vol. XXII: Kashmir. Part I: Report. p. 147. Retrieved 9 January 2017. The bulk of the population in Group I is furnished by the Kashmiri Musalmans (796,804), who form more than 31 per cent of the total Musalman population of the State. The Kashmiri Musalman is essentially an agriculturist by profession, but his contribution to the trade and industry of the Kashmir Province is by no means negligible. 
  90. ^ Mohamed, C K. Census of India, 1921. Vol. XXII: Kashmir. Part I: Report. p. 150. Retrieved 9 January 2017. The Kashmiri Musalmans are sub-divided into numerous sub-castes such as Dar, Bat, Wain, etc. 
  91. ^ a b c Anant, Ram; Raina, Hira Nand (1933). Census of India, 1931. Vol. XXIV: Jammu and Kashmir State. Part I: Report. p. 316. Retrieved 12 January 2017. Kashmiri Muslim.-The community occupies the fore-most position in the State having 1,352,822 members. The various sub-castes that are labelled under the general head Kashmiri Muslim are given in the Imperial Table. The most important sub-castes from the statistical point of view are the Bat, the Dar, the Ganai, the Khan, the Lon, the Malik, the Mir, the Pare, the Rather, Shah, Sheikh and Wain. They are mostly found in the Kashmir Province and Udhampur district of the Jammu Province. 
  92. ^ Ram, Anant; Raina, Hira Nand. Census of India, 1931. Vol. XXIV: Jammu and Kashmir State. Part II: Imperial and State Tables. p. 206. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  93. ^ Ram, Anant; Raina, Hira Nand (1933). Census of India, 1931. Vol. XXIV: Jammu and Kashmir State. Part II: Imperial and State Tables. p. 205. Retrieved 9 January 2017. The decrease in some of the Muslim castes is counterbalanced by the abnormal increase under Kashmiri Muslims which include a large number of castes. 
  94. ^ Ram, Anant; Raina, Hira Nand (1933). Census of India, 1931. Vol. XXIV: Jammu and Kashmir State. Part I: Report. p. 318. Retrieved 12 January 2017. The Kashmiri Muslim shows a phenomenal increase of 556,018 which is due to several castes having been merged in the community. The Hajjam, Hanji, Sayed, Sheikh afford some instances of the process of amalgamation which while adding to the Kashmiri Muslim community in such vast numbers has reduced the strength of other communities who show a decrease. 
  95. ^ Ram, Anant; Raina, Hira Nand (1933). Census of India, 1931. Vol. XXIV: Jammu and Kashmir State. Part II: Imperial and State Tables. pp. 281–283. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  96. ^ Ram, Anant; Raina, Hira Nand. Census of India, 1931. Vol. XXIV: Jammu and Kashmir State. Part II: Imperial and State Tables. p. 276. Retrieved 9 January 2017. 
  97. ^ Sevea, Iqbal Singh (2012). The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal: Islam and Nationalism in Late Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 9781139536394. In the early twentieth century, famine and the policies of the Dogra rulers drove many Kashmiri Muslims to flee their native land and further augment the number of their brethren already resident in the Punjab. Kashmiri Muslims constituted an important segment of the populace in a number of Punjabi cities, especially Sialkot, Lahore, Amritsar and Ludhiana. 
  98. ^ "Lahore, Amritsar: Once sisters, now strangers". Rediff News. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2016. The biggest influence on Lahore's contemporary culture and cuisine are the Kashmiris who migrated from Amritsar in 1947. 
  99. ^ Hamid, A. (11 February 2007). "Lahore Lahore Aye: Lahore's wedding bands". Academy of the Punjab in North America. Retrieved 12 January 2017. The Kashmiris of Lahore were not as steeped in their Kashmiri culture and heritage as the Kashmiris of Amritsar, which was why the Kashmiri Band did not last long. 
  100. ^ Shah, Sabir (12 October 2015). "Ayaz Sadiq: Yet another Arain legislator wins from Lahore". The News International. Retrieved 29 December 2016. An exclusive research conducted by the “Jang Group and Geo Television Network” shows that the Arain and Kashmiri communities have spearheaded the power politics in Lahore district since independence. 
  101. ^ Jaleel, Muzamil (2013). "As Nawaz Sharif becomes PM, Kashmir gets voice in Pakistan power circuit". The Indian Express. Retrieved 29 December 2016. Kashmir may have been missing from the agenda of the elections in Pakistan, but the country's new government will have Kashmiris in vital positions — beginning with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif himself. Sharif, 63, who was sworn in for a historic third term on Wednesday, belongs to a family that migrated to Amritsar from South Kashmir's Anantnag district in the beginning of the last century. Sharif's close confidant Ishaq Dar, and influential PML (N) leader Khawaja Asif — both of whom are likely to get important positions in the new government — too have roots in Kashmir. 'My father would always tell me that we are from Anantnag. We had migrated to Amritsar from there for business', Sharif told this correspondent in his office in Lahore's Model Town last month where he sat with his key associates tracking the results of the election. 'And my mother's family came from Pulwama'. 
  102. ^ Sevea, Iqbal Singh (2012). The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal: Islam and Nationalism in Late Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 9781139536394. Iqbal's attachment to his Kashmiri lineage is evident from his poetic references to himself as a descendant of Kashmiri Brahmins. 
  103. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (2002). Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850. Routledge. ISBN 9781134599370. As one of the most highly educated Kashmiris in the Punjab, Muhammad Iqbal supported the Kashmiri cause through the Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam and the lesser known Anjuman-i-Kashmiri Musalman. His poetry demonstrates a keen sense of belonging to Kashmir, the magnificent valley which the cruel hands of fate had allowed men of bestial disposition to reduce to abject slavery and benightedness. 
  104. ^ Reeck, Matt; Ahmad, Aftab (2012). Bombay Stories. Random House India. ISBN 9788184003611. He claimed allegiance not only to his native Punjab but also to his ancestors' home in Kashmir. While raised speaking Punjabi, he was also proud of the remnants of Kashmiri culture that his family maintained-food customs, as well as intermarriage with families of Kashmiri origin-and throughout his life he assigned special importance to others who had Kashmiri roots. In a tongue-in-cheek letter addressed to Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, he went so far as to suggest that being beautiful was the second meaning of being Kashmiri 
  105. ^ Pandita, Rahul (2013). Our Moon Has Blood Clots: The Exodus of the Kashmiri Pandits. Random House India. ISBN 9788184003901. By virtue of his disposition, temperament, features and his spirit, Manto remains a Kashmiri Pandit. 
  106. ^ "Chapter IX-Language". Census of India, 1921. Volume XV. p. 309. Retrieved 30 December 2016. The only language belonging to the non-sanskritic sub-branch of the Indian branch of the Aryan sub-family spoken in the provinces is Kashmiri. The number of persons speaking this language was 8,523 in 1901 and 7,190 in 1911; but has now fallen to 4,690, a fact which shows that Kashmiris who have settled in these provinces have adopted the Punjabi language of their neighbours. This is amply proved if we compare the strength of Kashmiris returned in the caste Table XIII with that shown by the language table. Kashmiri now appears in the return as the language of 4,690 persons though Kashmiris themselves have a strength of 169, 761; in other words only about 3 out of every 100 Kashmiris still retain their own language. 
  107. ^ Punjab Census Report 17 Feb 1881. 1883. p. 163. Retrieved 30 December 2016. Kashmiri is the language of the valley of Srinagar in Kashmir which nowhere touches our border. But famine and other causes, already fully discussed in the chapter on the Fluctuations of Famination, have driven a considerable number of immigrants at one time or another from Kashmir into the Panjab; and the language is now spoken by no fewer than 49,534 inhabitants of the Province. 
  108. ^ Rose, H A (1902). Census of India, 1901. Vol. XVII: Punjab, its Feudatories, and the North West Frontier Province. Part I: The Report on the Census. p. 347. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  109. ^ Census Of India - The Punjab And Its Feudatories, Volume xx, Part 2. 1891. p. 324. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  110. ^ Census Of India - The Punjab And Its Feudatories, Volume xx, Part 2. 1891. p. 120. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  111. ^ a b Jalal, Ayesha (2002). Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam Since 1850. Routledge. p. 352. ISBN 9781134599370. ...Kashmiris engaged in agriculture were disqualified from taking advantage of the Punjab Land Alienation Act...Yet Kashmiris settled in the Punjab for centuries faced discrimination. 
  112. ^ Sevea, Iqbal Singh (2012). The Political Philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal: Islam and Nationalism in Late Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 9781139536394. Like most Kashmiri families in Punjab, Iqbal's family did not own land. 
  113. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (2004). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 191–192. ISBN 9781850656944. Kashmiri Muslim expatriates in the Punjab had retained emotional and familial ties to their soil and felt compelled to raise the banner of freedom for Kashmir and their brethren in the Valley, thus launching bitter critiques of the Dogra administration. 
  114. ^ Ahmed, Issam (October 13, 2010). "Thousands fled India-controlled Kashmir. Are they better off in Pakistan?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 29 December 2016. Some 35,000 Kashmiris fled from Indian-controlled Kashmir during the 1990s to settle in Pakistan, a country that has not yet granted citizenship to up to 40 percent of the migrants....migrants speak the Kashmiri language whereas many of the locals speak a dialect of Punjabi. 
  115. ^ "Kashmir: The Pandit question". Al Jazeera. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2017. One of the chief causes of the ambiguity is because the numbers of Pandits in the valley in 1989 can only be adduced from the census of 1941, the last time the Pandits were counted and listed as distinct from the category of Kashmiri Hindus and that census listed a little fewer than 79,000 Pandits in the valley. It's from this baseline that demographers have sought to work out the number of Kashmir Pandits in the valley in 1990. Using the rough measure of the average decennial growth rate in the state as a whole, available through the censuses up to 1941 and then the 2001 census, the number of Kashmiri Pandits living in the valley before 1990 that they arrive at is about 160,000 to 170,000. So the number of 700,000 as representing the number of Kashmiri Pandit departures after 1989-1990 is not credible because that exceeds by many hundreds of thousands the total of the Kashmiri Pandit population at the time. 
  116. ^ a b Brower, Barbara; Johnston, Barbara Rose (2016). Disappearing Peoples?: Indigenous Groups and Ethnic Minorities in South and Central Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781315430393. Kashmiri Hindus are all Saraswat brahmins, known by the exonym Pandit (the endonym being Batta), a term first reserved for emigrant Kashmiri brahmins in Mughal service. Their surnames (kram) designate their original professions or their ancestors' nicknames (e.g., Hakim, Kaul, Dhar, Raina, Teng). 
  117. ^ a b c d Explore Kashmiri Pandits. Dharma Publications. Retrieved 2010-12-02. 
  118. ^ a b The Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, Volume 52. The Survey. Retrieved 2010-12-02. The But/Butt of Punjab were originally Brahmin migrants from Kashmir during 1878 famine. 
  119. ^ P.K. Kaul. Pahāṛi and other tribal dialects of Jammu, Volume 1. Eastern Book Linkers. Retrieved 2010-12-02. The But/Butt of Punjab were originally Brahmin migrants from Kashmir during 1878 famine. 
  120. ^ a b A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province. Nirmal Publishers and Distributors. Retrieved 25 March 2007. 
  121. ^ a b Punjab Census Report 17 Feb 1881. 1883. p. 303. Retrieved 30 December 2016. The Kashmiris have returned numerous sub-divisions of which the few largest are shown in the margin. 

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