Kashtan CIWS

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Kortik / Kashtan
Кортик на корвете Стерегущий.jpg
A Kortik combat module (missiles absent)
TypeClose-in weapon system
Place of originSoviet Union, Russia
Service history
In service1989–present[1][2]
Used bySee Operators
Production history
DesignerDeveloper:
KBP (Arkady Shipunov)[1][2]
Fire control system: RATEP[1]
DesignedLate 1970s–?
ManufacturerTulamashzavod, RATEP[1][3]
Produced1989–present
VariantsKortik-M / Kashtan-M[1][2][4]
Specifications
Weight15,500 kg (34,200 lb) (Kashtan)[1]
12,500 kg (27,600 lb) (Kashtan-M)[1]
Height2,250 mm (89 in) (above deck)[1][2]

ShellHEI-Frag, Frag-T, APDS-T[1][5]
Shell weight0.39 kg (0.86 lb) (HEIF, FT)[6]
0.30 kg (0.66 lb) (APDS-T)[6]
Caliber30×165mm AO-18[N 1]
Barrels2 × 6 (guns); 2 × 4 launch tubes
ActionGas-operated rotary cannon
Rate of fireKashtan:[N 2]
9,000 rounds/min (guns)[1]
Kashtan-M:[N 2]
1–2 (salvo) missiles per 3–4 sec[1]
10,000 rounds/min (guns)[1][2]
Muzzle velocity860 m/s (2,800 ft/s) (HEIF, FT)[1]
Kashtan-M:
960 m/s (3,100 ft/s) (HEIF, FT)[1][2]
1,100 m/s (3,600 ft/s) (APDS-T)[1][2]
Effective firing rangeBy missiles:
Kashtan:[1][2][4]
1,500–8,000 m (4,900–26,200 ft)
Kashtan-M:[1][2][4]
1,500–10,000 m (4,900–32,800 ft)
By guns:
Kashtan: (range, altitude)
500–4,000 m (1,600–13,100 ft),[1][4]
3,000 m (9,800 ft)[1][4]
Kashtan-M:
300–5,000 m (980–16,400 ft)[2][4]
Feed systemLink-less, helical; 1000 rounds[1][7]
SightsRadar / TV-optical:[4][N 3]
2–3/1 m (6.6–9.8/3.3 ft) accuracy,[1]
tracks 6 targets simultaneously[1]
WarheadContinuous-rod w/ frag layer[1][2][4]

Main
armament
8 × 9M311K + 32 missiles[1][N 4][N 5]
Kashtan-M:
8 × 9M311-1E + 24 missiles[7][N 4]
Secondary
armament
2 × AO-18K autocannon[1]
Kashtan-M:
2 × AO-18KD autocannon[2][4]
Flight altitude3,500 m (11,500 ft) (Kashtan)[1][2]
6,000 m (20,000 ft) (Kashtan-M)[1][4]
Speed910 m/s (3,000 ft/s)[1]

The Kortik (Russian: Кортик, English: Dirk) close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a modern naval air defence gun-missile system deployed by the Russian Navy. Its export version is Kashtan (Russian: Каштан, English: Chestnut), with NATO designation CADS-N-1 Kashtan.[8][9]

It is found on the aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, Kirov class battlecruisers, Neustrashimy class frigates, China's Sovremenny class destroyers, and other modern designs. Most typically deployed as a combined gun and missile system, it provides defence against anti-ship missiles, anti-radar missiles and guided bombs. The system can also be employed against fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft or even surface vessels such as fast attack boats or targets on shore.

The Kortik will be replaced in Russian Navy service by the Pantsir-M CIWS, which uses similar rotary cannons but different missile and radar systems.[10]

Design[edit]

The weapon is a modular system consisting of a command module and typically two combat modules, as in the case of China's Eminent and Thoughtful destroyers, although the number can be as many as 8 in the case of Admiral Kuznetsov. The command module detects and tracks threats, distributes targeting data to the combat modules, and interrogates IFF of approaching threats. The command module has a 3-D target detection radar, and an all weather multi-band integrated control system. Depending on the number of installed combat modules, the system can engage multiple targets simultaneously. The combat modules automatically track using either radar, electro-optronic control system (such as FLIRs) or both, and then engages targets with missiles and guns. The combat modules are typically equipped with two GSh-30K (AO-18K) six-barrel 30 mm rotary cannons, fed by a link-less feeding mechanism, and two 9M311-1 missile launchers equipped with 4 ready-to-fire missiles each and fed by a reloading system storing 32 missiles in ready-to-launch containers.

The guns used in the Kortik are the GSh-30K six-barrel 30 mm rotary cannon. Individually, each GSh-30K has a higher rate of fire compared to other guns used by other CIWS such as the GAU-8 on the Goalkeeper and the M61 Vulcan on the Phalanx. Along with a high rate of fire, the fairly heavy round (390 g or 14 oz) used by the Kortik is comparable to the DPU rounds of the GAU-8 Avenger (425 g or 15.0 oz), although the muzzle velocity (and therefore both the kinetic energy and effective range) is slightly lower, partially offsetting the high caliber and rate of fire.

The missiles used in the Kortik are the 9M311 missiles, which is also used on the 9K22 Tunguska. The 9M311 is a SACLOS guided missile, however, it is steered automatically by the command module. The warhead weighs 9 kilograms (20 lb) and is either laser or radio fused. The warhead is a continuous-rod warhead with a steel cube fragmentation layer. The detonation of the warhead will form a complete circle of fragmentation that is 5 meters in radius, and damage or destroy anything in that circle.

The combination of the missiles and guns, provides more comprehensive protection when compared to other CIWS utilising either missiles or guns only. The system's combined kill probability is 0.96 to 0.99.[1][4]

Variants[edit]

  • Kashtan-M: improved variant with:
  • Salvo capability
  • Dedicated targeting station
  • Two AO-18KD cannons with higher muzzle velocity (range improved from 4 to 5 km)
  • Improved missile range and engagement altitude (from 8 to 10 km for range and from 3.5 to 6 km altitude)
  • Increased system's reaction time from 6.8 to 5.7 seconds
  • Sensor modularity
  • Lower weight

Specifications[edit]

Kashtan Kashtan-M
Weight 15,500 kg (34,200 lb) 12,500 kg (27,560 lb)
Armament 2 x GSh-6-30 2 x GSh-6-30KD
Firing Rate 2 x 4,500 rds/min 2 x 5,000 rds/min
Target Range 500-4,000m (1,640-13,120 ft)
Effective Range 500-1,500m (1,640-4,920 ft)
Ammunition Store 2 x 500 rounds 2 x 1500 rounds
Muzzle Velocity 860 m/s (2,820 ft/s) 960-1100 m/s (3,150-3,610 ft/s)
Elevation 3,000m (9,840 ft)

Operators[edit]

Map of Kashtan operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators[edit]

Former operators[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Not compatible with the army 30×165mm ammunition.
  2. ^ a b 6–8 sec reaction time. Kashtan-M: 5–7 sec (3–6 sec according to other sources).
  3. ^ Kashtan-M can be equipped with radar and optics, only radar or only optics.
  4. ^ a b 1.5 minutes reload time.
  5. ^ Kashtan is compatible with the Kashtan-M's 9M311-1E missiles.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "3M87 Kortik / Kashtan (SA-N-11 Grison) System". MilitaryRussia.ru (in Russian). 17 January 2009 – 22 May 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m ""Kortik" ("Kashtan", 3M87, SA-N-11, Grison), Naval Close-in Weapon System". Arms-Expo.ru (in Russian). Информационное агентство «Оружие России». Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  3. ^ "Air Defence Missile-Gun System "KASHTAN-M"". Radio Engineering Enterprise RATEP. Almaz-Antey. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Kashtan, Kashtan-M, CADS-N-1, Palma, Palash close in weapon systems (CIWS)". Navy Recognition. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  5. ^ "30 mm AK-630 System". MilitaryRussia.ru (in Russian). 19 January 2009 – 4 July 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2013.
  6. ^ a b Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. pp. 289–296. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.
  7. ^ a b "Naval Air-Defense Missile/Gun System "KASHTAN–M"". KBP Instrument Design Bureau. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007.
  8. ^ http://www.navyrecognition.com/index.php/east-european-navies-vessels-ships-equipment/russian-navy-vessels-ships-equipment/weapons-a-systems/123-kashtan-kashtan-m-kashtan-lr-cads-n-1-close-in-weapon-system-ciws-.html
  9. ^ http://www.redstar.gr/Foto_red/Eng/Other/KashtanM.html
  10. ^ Pantsir-M Naval Air Defense Missile/Gun System to Enter Service with Russian Navy Before Year-End - Navyrecognition.com, 28 February 2017
  • "2001 Russian Export Arms Catalog"

External links[edit]

(in English)

(in Russian)