Kashyapa statue in Andhra Pradesh, India
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Kashyapa (Sanskrit Kaśyapa) was an ancient sage (rishi) who is counted as one of the Saptarishis in the present manvantara (the others are Atri, Vashistha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja and Gautama Maharishi).
Kashyapa is the claimed author of the treatise Kashyapa Samhita, or Jivakiya Tantra, which is considered a classical reference book on Ayurveda especially in the fields of Ayurvedic pediatrics, gynecology and obstetrics.
Wives of Kashyapa
Kashyapa is a manasputra (wish-born-son) of Lord Brahma. However, according to [Rama:1.70.20], he is the grand son of Lord Brahma, being the son of Marichi, a wish-born son of Lord Brahma. Kashyapa had many wives, most of them the daughters of Daksha prajapathi. His wives (who are daughters of Daksha) are : Aditi mother of the Devas, Diti the mother of the Daityas, Arishta, the mother of the Gandharvas, Kadru, the mother of the Nagas (snakes), Vinata the mother of Aruna (Charioter of Lord Surya's chariot-time right before surnrise) and Garuda, Danu the mother of the Danavas (who are generally considered part of the Asuras), Kalaka the mother of the monster Kalkanja, Khasa, the mother of the Yakshas, Krodhavasa the mother of the Pishachas (flesh eating monsters), Muni the mother of Maumeya, Puloma the mother of the monster Pauloma, Somathi the mother of Sumathi (who married Sagara).
In addition to the daughters of Daksha he also married Syeni who had a son (a great bird) named Jatayu, and Unmathi who had a son (also a great bird) called Sampati. Vali and Sugreeva are also said to be the sons of Kashyapa. He also had a wife named Surabhi, who gave birth to the Rudras and a wife named Rohini, who gave birth to the cattle.
Children of Kashyapa
Kashyapa was the father of the devas, asuras and nāgas. He married Aditi, with whom he fathered Agni, the Adityas, and most importantly Vamana, who was the fifth Avatar of Lord Vishnu, in the seventh Manvantara. With his second wife, Diti, he begot the Daityas. Diti and Aditi were daughters of King Daksha Prajapati and sisters to Sati, Shiva's consort. Kashyapa received the earth, obtained by Parashurama's conquest of King Kartavirya Arjuna and Kshatriyas henceforth, earth came to be known as "Kashyapai".
- His sons from Aditi or Adityas were Aṃśa, Aryaman, Bhaga, Dhatr, Mitra, Pūṣan, a daughter Bhumidevi, Śakra, Savitṛ, Tvaṣṭṛ, Varuṇa, Viṣṇu, and Surya or Vivasvat or Vivasvan, who went on to start the Solar Dynasty (Suryavansha), which later came to be known as Ikshvaku dynasty, after his great grandson, King Ikshvaku, whose subsequent kings were, Kukshi, Vikukshi, Bana, Anaranya, Prithu, Trishanku, and finally King Raghu, who gave it the name, Raghuvansh (Dynasty of Raghu), and then further leading up to Lord Ram, the son of Dashrath.
- His sons from Diti were the Daityas Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha and a daughter Sinhika, who later became the wife of Viprachitti. Hiranyakashipu had four sons, Anuhlada, Hlada, Prahlada, and Sanhlada, who further extended the Daityas.
- Garuda and Aruna are the sons of Kashyapa from his wife Vinata.
- The Nāgas (serpents) are his sons from Kadru and Surasa.
- The Danavas are his sons from Danu.
- The Bhagavata Purana states that the Apsaras were born from Kashyapa and Muni.
- Uttar Ramayana says Diti had a son named Maya who was the lord of Daityas.
In the family line of Kashyapa, along with him there are two more discoverers of Mantras: his sons Avatsara and Asita. Two sons of Avatsara, Nidhruva and Rebha, are also Mantra-seers. In the Manvantara period named 'Svarochisha', Kashyapa was one of the seven sages (saptarishi) for that manvantara.
Kashyapa in Sikhism
In Brahm Avtar composition present in Dasam Granth, Second Scripture of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh mentioned Rishi Kashyapa, as second avtar of Brahma. According to him, Rishi Kashyapa had great knowledge of Vedas and interpreted it very thoughtfully to whole world which bring them internal relief. He married with four wives, Banita, Kadru, Diti and Aditi and have many children out of them some remain religious (Deities) and other became irreligious (Demons).
Kashyapa in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism mentions a Kashaf, with variant readings as 'kasha, kashag and kashya'
Kashyapa and Kashmir
The Valley of Kashmir got its name from Kashyapa Rishi. According to a legend, the Kashmir valley was a vast lake called Satisaras, named after Sati or Parvati the consort of Shiva. The lake was inhabited by the demon Jalodbhav. The Nilamat Puran of the 7th century mentions the region being inhabited by two tribes — the Nagas and the Pisachas. The lake was drained off by leader of the Nagas called Ananta (Anantnag region of Kashmir is named after him) to capture and kill the demon. Ananta later names the valley as Kashyapa-mira after his father Kashyapa. Kalhana in Rajatarangini (The River of Kings) also mentions Prajapati Kashyapa killing Jalodbhava with the help of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The lake was then drained and comes to be known as Kash-mira after the Rishi Kashyapa.
- Q7 indianmedicine.nic.in. Q 7. The main classical texts for reference of Ayurvedic principles include Charak Samhita, Susrut Samhita, Astang Hridaya, Sharangdhar Samhita, Madhav Nidan, Kashyapa Samhita, Bhavprakash, and Bhaisajya Ratnavali, etc.
- Vishnu Purana: Book I, Chapter XV The Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840. p. 112. The daughters of Daksha who were married to Kaśyapa were Aditi, Diti, Danu, Arisjht́á, Surasá, Surabhi, Vinatá, Támrá, Krodhavaśá, Id́á, Khasá, Kadru, and Muni 19; whose progeny I will describe to you...Vishńu, Śakra, Áryaman, Dhútí, Twáshtri, Púshan, Vivaswat, Savitri, Mitra, Varuńa, Anśa, and Bhaga
- Saklani, Dinesh Prasad (1998). Ancient Communities of Himalayas. Indus Publishing Co, New Delhi. p. 74. ISBN 978-81-7387090-3.
- Account of the several Manus and Manwantaras Vishnu Purana, translated by Horace Hayman Wilson, 1840, Book III: Chapter I. 265:22, Vishńu, at the request of the deities, was born as a dwarf, Vámana, the son of Adití by Kaśyap; who, applying to Bali for alms, was promised by the prince whatever he might demand, notwithstanding Śukra, the preceptor of the Daityas, apprised him whom he had to deal with. The dwarf demanded as much space as he could step over at three steps; and upon the assent of Bali, enlarged himself to such dimensions as to stride over the three worlds. Being worshipped however by Bali and his ancestor Prahláda, he conceded to them the sovereignty of Pátála.
- Lineage of Kashyapa Valmiki Ramayana, Ayodhya Kanda in Prose Sarga 110.
- Birth of Garuda The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883-1896], Book 1: Adi Parva: Astika Parva: Section XXXI. p. 110.
- Valmiki Ramayan 7.12
- Dasam Granth, Dr. SS Kapoor
- Line 8, Description of Kashyapa the second incarnation of Brahma, in Bachittar Natak.
- Line 7, Description of Kashyapa the second incarnation of Brahma, in Bachittar Natak.
- P. 209 Al-Bīrūnī: Commemorative Volume By Hamdard National Foundation, Pakistan, 1979 - Science - 844 pages
- Valentine, Simon Ross (2008). Islam and Ahmediyya Jamat: History, belief, Practice. Hurst Publishers Ltd. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-85065-916-7.
- Kaw, M.K. (2004). Kashmir and its People: Studies in evolution of Kashmiri Society. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. p. 6. ISBN 81-7648-537-3.