Katar (dagger)

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Katar
Ornamental katar.jpg
Ornamented katar
Type Dagger
Place of origin India
Specifications
Hilt type Horizontal

The katar or katara,[1][2][3] is a type of push dagger from South Asia.[4] The weapon is characterised by its H-shaped horizontal hand grip which results in the blade sitting above the user's knuckles. Unique to South Asia, it is the most famous and characteristic of Indian daggers.[5] Ceremonial katar were also used in worship.[6]

Etymology[edit]

Having originated in the south, the weapon's earliest name-form was likely the Tamil kaţţāri (கட்டாரி). It is alternatively known in Tamil as kuttuvāḷ (குத்துவாள்) which means "stabbing blade". This was adapted into Sanskrit as kaţāra (कट्टार) or kaţārī. Due to the schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages however, the word often came to be rendered as "katar" in colonial transliterations.

Other regional names for the weapon include kaṭhāri (ಕಠಾರಿ) in Kannada, katāram (കട്ടാരം) in Malayalam, kaṭyāra (कट्यार) in Marathi, kaṭār (ਕਟਾਰ) in Panjabi, and kaṭāra (कटार) or kaṭāri in Hindi.

History[edit]

The katar originated in south India,[7] its earliest forms being closely associated with the 14th-century Vijayanagara Empire.[5] It may be related to the maustika, a weapon described vaguely as a "fist dagger" in the arsenal list of Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak. One of the most famous groups of early katar come from the Thanjavur Nayak kingdom of the 17th century.[4][8][5][9] Katar dating back to this period often had a leaf- or shell-like knucklebow curving up from the top of the blade to protect the back of the hand.[10] This form is today sometimes called a "hooded katara" but the knuckleguard was discarded altogether by the later half of the 17th century.[11] As the weapon spread throughout the region it became something of a status symbol, much like the Southeast Asian kris or the Japanese katana. Princes and nobles were often portrayed wearing a katar at their side. This was not only a precaution for self-defense, but it was also meant to show their wealth and position. Upper-class Rajputs and Mughals would even hunt tigers with a pair of katar. For a hunter to kill a tiger with such a short-range weapon was considered the surest sign of bravery and martial skill.[5]

From the 16th century onwards, katar were often made from broken sword-blades. Even old imported European blades were used, especially by the Maratha Empire, and were riveted to projections from the hilt. After India was colonised by the British, numerous katar were made for the European collectors' market which placed little value on functionality. Among these were the scissors katar with two or three blades that folded together, appearing to be one, until the handle bars were pressed together, when they opened out. These novelty weapons were popular among foreigners but were impractical in actual combat. For example, the blades couldn't be opened after they are thrust into an opponent's body. More importantly, if they were wielded with the blades opened, all the force of the blow would have to be absorbed by the hinge-pins at the root of the blades.

In another modern katar design, single-shot pistols are built into either side of the weapon. In the 18th century, some traditional katar were refurbished with this innovation. The pistols are meant to deal the killing blow after the weapon has been thrust into the enemy. The katar ceased to be in common use by the 19th century, though they were still forged for decorative purposes. During the 18th and 19th century, a distinctive group of katar were produced at Bundi in Rajasthan. They were ornately crafted and their hilts were covered in gold foil. These katar were shown at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in Crystal Palace, London. Since then, the weapon has sometimes been mistakenly referred to in English as a "Bundi dagger".

Appearance[edit]

The basic katar has a short, wide, triangular blade. Its peculiarity lies in the handle which is made up of two parallel bars connected by two or more cross-pieces, one of which is at the end of the side bars and is fastened to the blade. The remainder forms the handle which is at right angle to the blade. Some handles have long arms extending across the length of the user's forearm. The handle is generally of all-steel construction and is forged in one piece together with the blade.

The blade, typically measuring 30–90 cm (12–35 in) in length, is usually cut with a number of fullers. Most katar have straight blades, but in south India they are commonly wavy.[5] South Indian blades are often made broad at the hilt and taper in straight lines to the point, and elaborately ribbed by grooves parallel to the edges. Occasionally the blades are slightly curved, making them suited for slashing attacks. Some blades are forked into two points, which would later develop into the scissors katar.

The force of a katar thrust could be so great that many blades were thickened at the point to prevent them from bending or breaking. This also strengthened their use against mail. All katar with thickened tips are commonly described as "armour-piercing", but it's likely that only narrow and slender blades made this function possible. Such a weapon was capable of piercing textile, mail, and even plate armor. This quality was preferred for warfare, where an opponent was more likely to be armor-clad, as opposed to single combat.

The Indian nobility often wore ornamental katar as a symbol of their social status. The hilts may be covered in enamel, gems, or gold foil. Similarly, figures and scenes were chiselled onto the blade. Sheaths, generally made from watered steel, were sometimes pierced with decorative designs. The heat and moisture of India's climate made steel an unsuitable material for a dagger sheath, so they were covered in fabric such as velvet or silk. Some katar served as a sheath to fit one or two smaller ones inside.

Techniques[edit]

Because the katar's blade is in line with the user's arm, the basic attack is a direct thrust identical to a punch, although it could also be used for slashing. This design allows the fighter to put their whole weight into a thrust. Typical targets include the head and upper body, similar to boxing. The sides of the handle could be used for blocking but it otherwise has little defensive capability. As such, the wielder must be agile enough to dodge the opponent's attacks and strike quickly, made possible because of the weapon's light weight and small size. Indian martial arts in general make extensive use of agility and acrobatic maneuvers. As far back as the 16th century, there was at least one fighting style which focused on fighting with a pair of katar, one in each hand.[5]

Aside from the basic straight thrust, other techniques include the reverse thrust, reverse flipped pierce, inwards side slashing, outwards side slashing, cobra coiled thrust, and tiger claw pierce performed by jumping towards the opponent.

See also[edit]

Pata (sword)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dick Luijendijk (2008). Kalarippayat: The structure and essence of an Indian martial art. Lulu. 
  2. ^ Max Klimburg (1999). The Kafirs of the Hindu Kush: Art and Society of the Waigal and Ashkun Kafirs. Franz Steiner Verlag. 
  3. ^ Judith Pfeiffer and Sholeh Alysia Quinn (2006). History and Historiography of Post-Mongol Central Asia and the Middle East. Harrassowitz Verlag. 
  4. ^ a b DK (2012-10-01). The Military History Book. Dorling Kindersley Limited. ISBN 9781409328964. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Dr Tobias Capwell (2009). The World Encyclopedia Of Knives, Daggers And Bayonets. Anness Publishing. 
  6. ^ Nityasumaṅgalī: devadasi tradition in South India. 
  7. ^ O'Bryan, John (2013-04-23). A History of Weapons: Crossbows, Caltrops, Catapults & Lots of Other Things that Can Seriously Mess You Up. Chronicle Books. ISBN 9781452124209. 
  8. ^ Stone, George Cameron (1999-01-01). Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor in All Countries and in All Times. Courier Corporation. ISBN 9780486407265. 
  9. ^ Michell, George (1995-01-01). Architecture and Art of Southern India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521441100. 
  10. ^ Swords And Hilt Weapons. Prion. 2012. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-85375-882-9. 
  11. ^ Dr Tobias Capwell (2009). The World Encyclopedia Of Knives, Daggers And Bayonets. Anness Publishing. p. 86.