Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
|Duchess of Cambridge (more)|
The Duchess of Cambridge in 2014
|Born||Catherine Elizabeth Middleton
9 January 1982
Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, Berkshire, England
|Spouse||Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
|Issue||Prince George of Cambridge
Princess Charlotte of Cambridge
|House||Windsor (by marriage)|
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (Catherine Elizabeth "Kate"; née Middleton; born 9 January 1982) is the wife of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge. Following his father Charles, Prince of Wales, William is second in line to succeed his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, as monarch of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms, making Catherine a likely future queen consort.
Catherine grew up in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, Berkshire, England. She studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced on 16 November 2010 before they married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. The Duke and Duchess have two children: Prince George (born 22 July 2013) and Princess Charlotte of Cambridge (born 2 May 2015), who are, respectively, third and fourth in the line of succession. In September 2017, it was announced that she is expecting her third child.
Catherine's impact on British and American fashion has been called the "Kate Middleton effect" in the media, and in 2012 and 2013, she was selected as one of the "100 Most Influential People in the World" by Time magazine.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Relationship with Prince William
- 3 Public life
- 4 In popular culture
- 5 Titles, styles, honours and arms
- 6 Ancestry
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
Catherine Elizabeth Middleton was born at Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading on 9 January 1982 to an upper-middle-class family. She was christened at St Andrew's Bradfield, Berkshire, on 20 June 1982. She is the eldest of three children born to Michael Middleton (b. 1949), and his wife, Carole (née Goldsmith; b. 1955), a former flight dispatcher and flight attendant, respectively, who in 1987 founded Party Pieces, a mail order private company that sells party supplies and decorations with an estimated worth of £30 million. The family of her father Michael has ties to British aristocracy and benefitted financially from trust funds which they had established over 100 years ago. Her Middleton relatives were reported as having played host to British royalty "as long ago as 1926". She has a younger sister, Philippa "Pippa", and a younger brother, James.
The family lived in Amman, Jordan, from May 1984 to September 1986; her father worked for British Airways (BA), and Middleton went to an English-language nursery school. Following her return to Berkshire in 1986, she was enrolled aged four at St Andrew's School, a private school near the village of Pangbourne in Berkshire. She boarded part-weekly at St Andrew's in her later years. She then studied briefly at Downe House. She was a boarder at Marlborough College, a co-educational independent boarding school in Wiltshire, and graduated in 2005 from the University of St Andrews in Fife, Scotland, with an undergraduate MA (2:1 Hons) in the history of art. In November 2006, Middleton accepted a position as an accessory buyer with the clothing chain Jigsaw, where she worked part-time until November 2007. She also worked until January 2011 at Party Pieces; her role within the family business included catalogue design and production, marketing and photography.
Relationship with Prince William
In 2001, Middleton met Prince William while they were both students in residence at St Salvator's Hall at the University of St Andrews. The couple began dating in 2003, although their relationship remained unconfirmed. On 17 October 2005, Middleton complained through her lawyer about harassment from the media, stating that she had done nothing significant to warrant publicity.
Media attention increased around the time of her 25th birthday in January 2007, prompting warnings from both the Prince of Wales and Prince William and from Middleton's lawyers, who threatened legal action. Two newspaper groups, News International, which publishes The Times and The Sun; and the Guardian Media Group, publishers of The Guardian, decided to refrain from publishing paparazzi photographs of her. Middleton attended Prince William's Passing Out Parade at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 15 December 2006.
On 17 May 2008, Middleton attended the wedding of Prince William's cousin Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly, which the prince did not attend. On 19 July 2008, she was a guest at the wedding of Lady Rose Windsor and George Gilman. Prince William was away on military operations in the Caribbean, serving aboard HMS Iron Duke. In 2010, Middleton pursued an invasion of privacy claim against two agencies and photographer Niraj Tanna, who took photographs of her over Christmas 2009. She obtained a public apology, £5,000 in damages, and legal costs.
Breakup and reconciliation
In April 2007, Prince William and Middleton split up. The couple decided to break up during a holiday in the Swiss resort of Zermatt. Newspapers speculated about the reasons for the split, although these reports relied on anonymous sources. Middleton and her family attended the Concert for Diana at Wembley Stadium, where she and Prince William sat two rows apart. The couple were subsequently seen together in public on a number of occasions and news sources stated that they had "rekindled their relationship".
Engagement and marriage
Prince William and Catherine Middleton became engaged in October 2010, in Kenya, during a 10-day trip to the Lewa Wildlife Conservancy to celebrate Prince William's passing his RAF helicopter search and rescue course. Clarence House announced the engagement on 16 November 2010. Prince William gave Middleton the engagement ring that had belonged to his mother, Diana, Princess of Wales. The couple married in Westminster Abbey on 29 April 2011 (St. Catherine's Day), with the day declared a bank holiday in the United Kingdom. Estimates of the global audience for the wedding ranged around 300 million or more, whilst 26 million watched the event live in Britain alone. On the morning of the wedding day, Prince William was created Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus, with Catherine assuming the feminine forms of the titles.
In October, several months after the wedding, Commonwealth leaders pledged that they would implement changes in British royal succession law to adopt absolute primogeniture, meaning that the first child of the Duke and Duchess, whether boy or girl, would be next in line to the throne after their father.
Motherhood and children
On 3 December 2012, St James's Palace announced that the Duchess was pregnant with her first child. The announcement was made earlier in the pregnancy than is usual as she had been admitted to King Edward VII's Hospital suffering from hyperemesis gravidarum, a severe form of morning sickness. She stayed in hospital for three days. On 14 January 2013, St James's Palace announced that the child was due to be born in July 2013, and that the condition of the Duchess was improving. The Duchess was admitted to St Mary's Hospital in London in the early stages of labour on the morning of 22 July 2013 and gave birth to Prince George later that day.
The Duchess's second pregnancy was announced on 8 September 2014. As with her first pregnancy, the Duchess suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum and was required to cancel official engagements. On 2 May 2015, the Duchess gave birth to Princess Charlotte.
The Duchess's third pregnancy was announced on 4 September 2017. She was again forced to cancel engagements due to hyperemesis gravidarum.
Middleton was formally introduced to public life on 24 February 2011, two months before the wedding, when she and Prince William attended a lifeboat-naming ceremony in Trearddur, Anglesey, in North Wales. A day later they appeared in St Andrews to launch the university's 600th anniversary celebrations. On 16 February 2011, Clarence House announced that the Duke and Duchess's first royal tour of Canada would take place in July 2011. In May 2011, shortly after the wedding, Clarence House announced that the Duke and Duchess would extend their tour to visit California. This was to be the Duchess's first visit to the United States.
The Duchess's first official engagement after the wedding came in May, when she and her husband met Barack Obama, the President of the United States, and First Lady Michelle Obama. In June 2011, the Duke and Duchess presented medals to members of the Irish Guards. On 26 October 2011, she undertook her first solo event for In Kind Direct, stepping in for the Prince of Wales, who was in Saudi Arabia. On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess visited the UNICEF Supply Division Centre for supplying food to malnourished African children in Copenhagen, Denmark. On St. Patrick's Day, 17 March 2012, the Duchess carried out the traditional awarding of shamrocks to the Irish Guards at their base in Aldershot; this was her first solo military engagement. On 19 March, she gave her first speaking engagement for the opening of the Treehouse, a new children's hospice opened by East Anglia's Children's Hospices (EACH), a charity of which she is a patron.
In June 2012, The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry was renamed The Royal Foundation of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry, to reflect Catherine's contribution to the charity. The Duke and Duchess were announced as ambassadors for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, alongside Prince Harry. As part of her role, the Duchess attended numerous sporting events throughout the games. In September 2012, the Duke and Duchess embarked on a tour of Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu, and the Solomon Islands as part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. During this overseas visit, she made her first official speech abroad, while visiting a hospice in Malaysia, drawing on her experience as patron of East Anglia's Children's Hospices.
After the birth of Prince George, the Duchess carried out her first engagement in late August when she accompanied the duke to meet runners preparing for an ultra-marathon on the isle of Anglesey, where they have a residence. At the beginning of March 2014, details were announced of the half-month-long tour to New Zealand and Australia that the couple and son would be taking from 16 to 25 April. The tour was Catherine's first visit to the area and Prince George's first major public appearance since his christening in October 2013. The tour began in New Zealand where they visited Wellington, Blenheim, Auckland, Dunedin, Queenstown and Christchurch. It ended in Australia where they visited Sydney, the Blue Mountains, Brisbane, Uluru, Adelaide, and Canberra.
On 21 July 2014, it was announced that the Duchess would be making her first solo trip, visiting the island of Malta on 20–21 September 2014, when the island was celebrating its 50th independence anniversary. Her trip was cancelled, with the Duke taking her place, after the announcement of her second pregnancy in early September. In April 2016, the Duchess and her husband undertook a tour to India and Bhutan.
In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who want to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities they care about instead. The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple's choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. These causes are close to their hearts and reflect the experiences, passions and values of their lives so far.
The Duchess has a number of patronages: The Art Room, National Portrait Gallery, East Anglia's Children's Hospice, Action on Addiction, Place2Be, Natural History Museum, Anna Freud Centre, Sportsaid, and The 1851 Trust. The Duchess is joint Patron of 100 Women in Hedge Fund's Philanthropic Initiatives, along with Prince William and Prince Harry. In 2017, She became patron of The Lawn Tennis Association, All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club and Action for Children.
In October 2012, the Duchess gave her royal patronage to the M-PACT programme (Moving Parents and Children Together), one of the only UK programmes to focus specifically on the impact of drug addiction on families as a whole.
In December, 2015, she assumed the patronage of the RAF Cadets for youths 12-19 years of age. The Duke of Edinburgh, who had been patron of the RAF Cadets for 63 years, formally passed the torch to her during an audience at Buckingham Palace.
Public image and style
Middleton became prominent for her fashion style and has been placed on numerous "best dressed" lists. She was selected by The Daily Telegraph as the "Most Promising Newcomer" in its 2006 list of style winners and losers. Tatler placed her at number 8 on its yearly listing of the top ten style icons in 2007. She was featured in People magazine's 2007 and 2010 best-dressed lists. Middleton was named as one of Richard Blackwell's ten "Fabulous Fashion Independents" of 2007. In June 2008, Style.com selected Middleton as their monthly beauty icon. In July 2008, Middleton was included in Vanity Fair's international best-dressed list. In February 2011, she was named the Top Fashion Buzzword of the 2011 season by the Global Language Monitor. In January 2012, she was voted 'Headwear Person of the Year.' Middleton was number one on Vanity Fair's annual best dressed lists in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013; she also appeared as the cover star in 2012. In June 2016, she took part in her first magazine shoot for Vogue's centenary issue appearing on the cover of the magazine. While she wears many new designers, she has also worn dresses by Catherine Walker, who designed many of Princess Diana's favourite evening gowns and day suits.
Privacy and the media
In 1997, William's mother, Diana, Princess of Wales, died in a road accident in Paris while being chased by paparazzi. This incident has influenced the Duke's attitude towards media attention. Both the Duchess and her husband have asked that, when off-duty, their privacy should be respected, yet the media has not always gone along with the couple's wishes.
In 2009, before her engagement to William, Middleton was awarded £10,000 damages and an apology from the photographic press agency Rex Features Ltd after she was photographed playing tennis on Christmas Eve when on holiday in Cornwall.
On 13 September 2012, it was reported that the French edition of "la presse people" magazine Closer and the Italian gossip magazine Chi, had both published photographs of the Duchess sun-bathing topless while on holiday at the Château d'Autet (a private château on a 260-ha estate 71 km north of Aix-en-Provence). Analysts from The Times believed that the photograph was taken from the D22 (Vaucluse) road half a kilometre from the pool – a distance that would require an 800-mm or a 1000-mm lens. On 17 September 2012, the Duke and Duchess filed a criminal complaint with the French prosecution department and launched a claim for civil damages at the Tribunal de Grande Instance de Nanterre; the following day the courts granted an injunction against Closer prohibiting further publication of the pictures and also announced that a criminal investigation would be initiated. Under French law, punitive damages cannot be awarded but such intrusions of privacy are a criminal offence carrying a maximum jail sentence of one year and a fine of up to €45,000 for individuals and €225,000 for companies. In September 2017, Closer was fined €100,000 and its editor Laurence Pieau and owner Ernesto Mauri were each fined €45,000.
In December 2012, two Australian radio hosts, Michael Christian and Mel Greig, called King Edward VII's Hospital Sister Agnes where the Duchess was an in-patient for hyperemesis gravidarum. Pretending to be the Queen and the Prince of Wales, Greig and Christian telephoned the hospital and spoke to a nurse on the Duchess's ward, enquiring about her condition. Following a hospital inquiry and a public backlash against the hoax, the nurse who put the call through to the ward, Jacintha Saldanha, committed suicide. The radio hosts subsequently apologised for their actions.
In February 2013, Chi published the first photos of Catherine's exposed baby bump, taken during her vacation on the private island of Mustique. The British press refused to publish the paparazzi shots. While the Duchess was visiting the Blue Mountains in Sydney a picture was taken of her bare bottom as her dress blew up. Many newspapers outside the UK published the picture.
On 14 August 2015, Kensington Palace published a letter detailing what they stated were the dangerous and invasive efforts of the media to get paparazzi pictures of Prince George and Princess Charlotte. The letter was written by Jason Knauf, communications secretary to the Cambridges, and sent to media standards organisations in various countries.
In popular culture
Following international attention regarding the wedding, Lifetime aired a TV film entitled William & Kate on 18 April 2011, in the US. The film premiered in the UK on 24 April 2011. Middleton was played by Camilla Luddington and Prince William by Nico Evers-Swindell. TV programmes were also shown in the UK prior to the wedding which provided deeper insights into the couple's relationship and backgrounds, including When Kate Met William and Channel 4's Meet the Middletons.
Another TV film covering similar ground to William & Kate, titled William & Catherine: A Royal Romance and filmed in Bucharest, starred Alice St. Clair and Dan Amboyer as the title characters. Jane Alexander appeared as the Queen and Victor Garber as the Prince of Wales. The film aired on 27 August 2011, in the US on the Hallmark Channel.
In 2014, she was already being regarded as a British cultural icon, with young adults from abroad naming her among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture, which included William Shakespeare, Queen Elizabeth II, David Beckham, J. K. Rowling, The Beatles, Charlie Chaplin, Elton John and Adele.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
Upon her marriage in 2011, Catherine Middleton became known as "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge". A fuller version of her title and style is "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge, Countess of Strathearn and Lady Carrickfergus". In Scotland, she is also styled as "Her Royal Highness The Countess of Strathearn".
- 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal
- Commonwealth honours
- 1 October 2016: Tuvalu Order of Merit
Honorary military appointments
- 5 July 2011 – present: Canadian Ranger
- Ontario: Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award, University of Waterloo, Waterloo
In September 2013, the Queen granted a conjugal coat of arms to the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, consisting of their individual arms displayed side by side, beneath a helm and coronet denoting the duke's status as grandson of the sovereign. Below is shown the earlier grant of the duchess's personal arms, impaled with those of her husband.
Middleton's father, Michael, and her paternal ancestors were from Leeds, Yorkshire. Her paternal great-grandmother, Olive, was a member of the Lupton family, who are described in the City of Leeds Archives as "landed gentry, a political and business dynasty"; previously unpublished pictures revealed in March 2015 that Olive Middleton had grown up on her family's Potternewton Hall Estate alongside her cousin, Baroness von Schunck (née Kate Lupton). Middleton's paternal ancestors also include her great-great-grandfather, politician Francis Martineau Lupton (1848–1921), whose first cousin, Sir Thomas Martineau, was reported in June 2014 as being the uncle of World War II Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
Middleton's maternal ancestors, the Harrisons, were working-class labourers and miners from Sunderland and County Durham. Ancestors through her maternal line include Sir Thomas Conyers, 9th Baronet (1731–1810), who was a descendant of King Edward IV through his illegitimate daughter Elizabeth Plantaganet. Other ancestors are Sir Thomas Fairfax (1475–1520), whose wife Anne Gascoigne was a descendant of King Edward III.
|Ancestors of Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge|
- "Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge". Current Biography Yearbook 2011. Ipswich, MA: H.W. Wilson. 2011. pp. 116–118. ISBN 978-0-8242-1121-9.
- "Queen Kate? Her Royal Highness? In search of Kate Middleton's New Title". Time. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Royal wedding: Kate Middleton's home village of Bucklebury prepares for big day". The Telegraph. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- Saul, Heather (22 July 2013). "Royal baby: Duchess of Cambridge goes into labour". The Independent. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "Royal baby: Kate gives birth to boy". BBC News. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "Royal baby: Duchess of Cambridge gives birth to daughter". BBC News. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- Caroline Davies. "Duchess of Cambridge gives birth to baby girl". the Guardian.
- Thomas-Bailey, Carlene; Zoe Wood (30 March 2012). "How the 'Duchess of Cambridge effect' is helping British fashion in US". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
- "Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, and Pippa Middleton – 2012 TIME 100: The Most Influential People in the World – TIME". TIME.com. 18 April 2012.
- "The 2013 Time 100". Time magazine. 18 April 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- Warde, Alan. "Cultural Consumption, Classification and Power". Routledge, 18 Oct. 2013 (Page 9). Retrieved 1 May 2014.
...Kate Middleton is privately educated (courtesy of paternal family trust funds established decades ago)...and ...is from a wealthy upper-middle-class family...
- Smith, Sean. "Kate - A Biography of Kate Middleton". Simon and Schuster, 24 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
...family trusts were set up over 100 years ago..."(Middleton's ) family were upper-middle-class observed a family friend"...
- "Class exclusive: Seven in 10 of us belong to Middle Britain". The Independent. UK. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
The next poshest, Kate Middleton, is regarded as upper middle class...
- Price, Joann. F. (21 Mar 2011). Prince William: A Biography. ABC-CLIO. p. 130. ISBN 9780313392863. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
.... She (Kate Middleton) is a woman from an upper-middle-class family...
- "'Middle-class' Duchess of Cambridge's relative wore crown and attended George V's coronation". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
"To my mind it's just silly to describe Kate as middle-class", (says Reed)
- "The Duchess of Cambridge". The Royal Household. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- Jobson 2010, p. 32.
- Adams, William Lee (14 April 2011). "Kate Middleton's Secret Confirmation: How Religious Is the Future Princess?". Time. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Westfahl, Gary. "A Day in a Working Life: 300 Trades and Professions through History". ABC-CLIO, 21 April 2015 (page 1232). Retrieved 25 July 2017.
...Michael Middleton (1949 - ), a flight dispatcher with connections to a distinguished family...
- Bradbury, Poppy (3 May 2011), "Kate Middleton's mum's old school hosts Royal Wedding party", Ealing Gazette, archived from the original on 21 March 2012
- "Money and the Middletons". The Daily Telegraph. Australia. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- "About us". PartyPieces.co.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- Dominic Kennedy; Alex Ralph (26 November 2010). "How Kate Middleton's family made their money with Party Pieces website". The Australian. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- Rayner, Gordon. "'Middle-class' Duchess of Cambridge's relative wore crown and attended George V's coronation". UK Daily Telegraph 13 September 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
Two of her father Michael's relations were baronesses who were invited to successive coronations, and one of them, Baroness Airedale, was photographed wearing a coronet and ceremonial robes on the day of George V’s coronation in 1911.....some of the family wealth trickled down to the Duchess and her siblings through trust funds set up decades ago to pay for the education of members of the family
- "Kate Middleton Biography Duchess (1982-)". © 2016 Bio and the Bio logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
It was on this job at British Airways that Carole met Michael Middleton, a dispatcher, whose wealthy family hails from Leeds and which has ties to British aristocracy.
- Gutteridge, Nick (2 July 2016). "PICTURED: Kate's great grandmother and her own extraordinary contribution to Britain's war". Daily Express. UK. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
She (Olive Middleton, née Lupton) grew up in opulent surroundings at the family's ancestral seat of Potternewton Hall Estate, near Leeds in Yorkshire, after being born into one of the pre-eminent families of her time.
- Gutteridge, Nick (2 July 2016). "Kate's hero relative died at the Somme after signing up to fight alongside Diana's grandad". Daily Express. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
During the war Olive herself served as a volunteer nurse at Gledhow Hall, the ancestral seat of her cousin, Baroness Airedale, which had been converted into a field hospital....Baroness Airedale, (pictured), worked alongside her cousin, Olive Middleton, Kate's great-grandmother...
- Reed, Michael. "Gledhow Hall". House and Heritage - David Poole 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- Wilson, Christopher (26 July 2013). "The Middletons deserve a title, step forward the Earl and Countess of Fairfax". UK Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
As long ago as 1926, the Middleton family played host to the Queen's aunt, Princess Mary and another relative ... was a friend of George V
- "Headrow, Permanent House". Leodis – a Photographic Archive of Leeds. City of Leeds UK Gov. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
As Chairman of the Leeds General Infirmary, Henry (Dubs Middleton) had played host to Princess Mary when she visited the Leeds General Infirmary in 1932
- Reitwiesner, William Addams (2011). Child, Christopher Challender, ed. The Ancestry of Catherine Middleton. Scott Campbell Steward. Boston, Massachusetts: New England Historic Genealogical Society. pp. 9, 16. ISBN 978-0-88082-252-7.
- Rayner, Gordon (7 March 2011). "Kate Middleton family photos reveal her time in Jordan". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- "Profiles – Kate Middleton". Hello!. August 2001. Retrieved 9 August 2008.
- "Duchess of Cambridge returns to St Andrew's School". BBC. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Roberts, Laura (17 November 2010). "Royal wedding: 50 things you may not know about Kate Middleton and Prince William". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "World press gather outside Middleton family home in Bucklebury as royal relationship ends". Newbury Today. 14 April 2007. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011.
- Claudia Joseph (11 January 2011). Kate: The Making of a Princess. Mainstream Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 978-1-907195-35-8. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
One of the first girls Kate met ... was Jessica Hay who showed (Kate) up to their dormitory...
- Cramb, Auslan (25 February 2011). "Prince William and Kate Middleton return to St Andrews University for anniversary celebrations". The Telegraph.
- Lyall, Sarah (21 April 2011). "Fixating on a Future Royal as Elusive as Cinderella". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Daily Mail, Reporter, (24 January 2011). "Kate Middleton prepares for life as a Royal housewife by leaving her parents' mail order business". UK Daily Mail, 25 January 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
Royal aides confirmed she stepped down on Friday, one saying, 'She has handed over her work to colleagues and is now preparing for her future life
- Hoggard, Liz (21 July 2008). "Kate's not precious. She mucked in at Jigsaw". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Cramb, Auslan (25 February 2011). "Prince William and Kate Middleton return to St Andrews University for anniversary celebrations". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
In their first year, they lived a few doors apart at St Salvator's hall....
- Peskoe, Ashley (12 April 2011). "The Start of Prince William and Kate Middleton's Love Story". ABC News. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Ex-royal aide condemns paparazzi". BBC News. 9 January 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Rubin, Courtney; Nudd, Tim (16 January 2007). "Kate Middleton Seeks Privacy from Paparazzi". People. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
- "William graduates from Sandhurst". BBC News. 15 December 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Royal wedding: The Kate Middleton story". BBC News. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Alderson, Andrew; Nikkah, Roya (17 May 2008). "Royal wedding: Peter Phillips and Autumn Kelly tie the knot". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Nikkah, Roya (19 July 2008). "Kate Middleton attends another royal wedding". The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 March 2011.
- Woods, Richard (21 February 2010). "Kate Middleton set for £10,000 privacy victory". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- Singh, Anita (11 March 2010). "Kate Middleton wins damages from paparazzi agency". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Prince William splits from Kate". BBC News. 14 April 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "'Paparazzi chase' concerns prince". BBC News. 5 October 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "Prince William to marry Kate Middleton next year". BBC News. 16 November 2010.
- "Royal wedding: profile of Kate Middleton". The Telegraph. 16 November 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "His Royal Highness Prince William of Wales and Miss Catherine Middleton are engaged to be married" (Press release). Clarence House. 16 November 2010. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2015 – via princeofwales.gov.uk.
- Bates, Stephen (23 November 2010). "Royal wedding date set for 29 April". The Guardian. UK.
- "2 billion tune into Royal Wedding". News.com.au. 1 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2 May 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- ""REVEALED: Royal Wedding TV audience closer to 300m than 2bn (because sport, not royalty, reigns)", by Nick Harris at". Sportingintelligence.com. 8 May 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- de Moraes, Lisa (28 April 2011). "The TV Column: Counting royal wedding watchers .?.?. before the wedding?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
- Beckford, Martin (29 April 2011). "Royal wedding: Prince William and Kate Middleton become Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". The Telegraph. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
Buckingham Palace said in a statement published at 8 am on Friday: 'The Queen has today been pleased to confer a Dukedom on Prince William of Wales. 'His titles will be Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus. 'Prince William thus becomes His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge and Miss Catherine Middleton on marriage will become Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge.'
- NewsDesk (28 October 2011). "British royal succession laws to change". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- "Royal pregnancy: Duchess leaves hospital". BBC News. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- "The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge are expecting a baby". Clarence House. 3 December 2012. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
- "Duchess of Cambridge due to give birth in July". BBC News. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge are expecting their second child" (Press release). Clarence House. 8 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 8 September 2014 – via princeofwales.gov.uk.
- "Duchess of Cambridge's second baby due in April". BBC News. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2014.
- "Royal princess named as Charlotte". BBC News. 4 May 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- "Royal baby: Duchess of Cambridge expecting third child". BBC. 4 September 2017.
- "Royal wedding: William and Kate's Anglesey visit". BBC News. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- Cramb, Auslan (25 February 2011). "Prince William and Kate Middleton return to St Andrews University for anniversary celebrations". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "HRH Prince William of Wales and Miss Catherine Middleton to undertake a Royal tour of Canada" (Press release). Clarence House. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2015 – via www.princeofwales.gov.uk.
- "Royal newly-weds to visit US after Canada tour". BBC News. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011.
- "Barack Obama and Michelle meet Prince William and Kate at Buckingham Palace". The Telegraph. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Irish Guards receive Afghanistan medals from Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". Ministry of Defence. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- Ramsdale, Suzannah (28 October 2011). "K-Mid to the Rescue". Sky Living HD. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "William and Kate visit Unicef famine relief depot in Copenhagen". BBC News. 2 November 2011.
- "Photo story: William and Kate visit UNICEF Supply Centre". unicef.org.uk. 2 November 2011. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- "Duchess of Cambridge presents shamrocks to Irish Guards". BBC News. 17 March 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Kate Middleton gives first public speech (2:51)". The Washington Post. 6 April 2012.
- Rayner, Gordon (17 July 2012). "'Kate effect' boosts Princes' charity by £4.2m". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Royals made ambassadors of London 2012 Olympic Games". The Guardian. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "The Royal Family and the Paralympics". royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- Singh, Anita (15 December 2011). "Jubilee: royal trip to paradise for Duke and Duchess". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Duchess of Cambridge's first speech outside of the UK reaffirms support for global hospice movement". wpca.org. Archived from the original on 6 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Duchess of Cambridge gives first speech abroad". BBC News. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Duchess of Cambridge attends Anglesey ultra marathon". BBC News. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Kate Middleton, Duchess of Cambridge Accompanies Prince William To Anglesey Marathon". The Huffington Post. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Duchess of Cambridge".
- "Royal Tour New Zealand: William, Kate and George Take Break in Wellington Ahead of Hectic Programme". IB Times. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Royal tour of New Zealand and Australia: where the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge should visit". The Daily Telegraph. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Duchess of Cambridge to make solo trip to Malta". BBC News. 21 July 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "Pregnant Duchess of Cambridge withdraws from Malta trip". BBC News. 18 September 2014.
- "Press release".
- "The Prince William & Miss Catherine Middleton Charitable Gift Fund". Royal Wedding Charity Fund. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Ward, Victoria (16 March 2011). "William and Catherine ask for charity donations in lieu of wedding gifts". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- Holden, Michael (16 March 2011). "William and Catherine set up royal wedding charity fund". Reuters. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
- "Duchess of Cambridge announces charity patronages". BBC News. 5 January 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "HRH The Duchess of Cambridge becomes Royal Patron of". The Art Room. 5 January 2012. Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "Charities". The Duchess of Cambridge. Clarence House. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
- "100 Women in Hedge Funds: Royal Patronage of UK Philanthropic initiatives". www.100womeninhedgefunds.org. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2016.
- "Lawn Tennis Association pays tribute to Her Majesty The Queen". Lawn Tennis Association. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- "The AELTC pays tribute to Her Majesty The Queen". AELTC. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- "A New Year and A New Royal Patron". www.actionforchildren.org.uk. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- Alleyne, Richard (5 January 2013). "Duchess of Cambridge to be a Scout leader as well as patron of four charities". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Olivia Parker (17 October 2012). "Duchess of Cambridge gives addiction charity royal support". The Telegraph. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- "Royal Air Force Cadets". Home - RAF Air Cadets.
- "Duchess of Cambridge becomes RAF Air Cadets patron". BBC. 16 December 2015.
- Kate Middleton in Vanity Fair's Best-Dressed List TheGloss, 1 August 2008
- Kate Middleton's Style: Fit For A Future Princess? The Huffington Post, 16 November 2010
- Clare Coulson (3 January 2007). "Style Winners and Losers". The Telegraph. Retrieved 6 July 2008.[dead link]
- "Kate Middleton (Elizabeth Catherine), Duchess of Cambridge Style Icon 2012". womenfitness.net. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Knowles, Stefani make mags 'best dressed'". USA Today. Associated Press. 12 September 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
- "Fabulous Fashion Independents". CBS News. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Evelyn Crowley (June 2008). "Kate Middleton". Style.com. Retrieved 6 July 2008.
- The International Best-Dressed List Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Vanity Fair. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
- Serjeant, Jill (8 February 2011). "Kate Middleton deemed top fashion buzzword". Reuters. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- White, Belinda (27 January 2012). "Kate Middleton crowned 'Hat Person of the Year'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Kate Middleton: Vanity Fair's Best-Dressed and September Cover Girl 2012". Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Kate Middleton Tops Vanity Fair Best Dressed List!". The Hollywood Gossip. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "The Duchess Is Vogue’s Centenary Cover Star". Vogue UK. Retrieved 2016-05-04.
- Guyon, Janet (19 October 2016). "Kate Middleton's pretty blue suit has revived interest in a quiet fashion label favored by Princess Diana". Quartz. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- "Paparazzi's role in Diana accident". BBC News. 9 April 2000. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Cowell, Alan; Burns, John F. (14 September 2012). "Royal Couple Sue Over Photos of Topless Duchess". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- Gillespie, James; Mansey, Kate; Follain, John (16 September 2012). "Nowhere to hide". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- As measured using Michelin Route Planner.
- Malvern, Jack; Connolly, Sue (15 September 2012). "Spying photographers may have taken their shots of a secluded chateau from the road". The Times. pp. 6–7.
- "Kate and William to make criminal complaint over topless shots". BBC News. 16 September 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "Kate topless photos: French injunction against magazine". BBC News. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Insurance/Reinsurance Bulletin August 2011 – Insurance and punitive damages in France". Holman Fenwick Willan, solicitors. 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "French Legislation on Privacy". Embassy of France in Washington. 2 December 2007. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- Schofield, Hugh (17 September 2012). "Kate topless pictures: Criminal and legal cases". BBC News. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
- "Kate topless pics: Closer magazine to pay royals in €100k damages". Sky News. 5 September 2017. Retrieved 5 September 2017.
- Rayner, Gordon (8 December 2012). "Prank call plays on after death". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Byrnes, Holly; Harris, Amy; Ritchie, Dean; Marie, Erin (10 December 2012). "2Day FM DJs Michael Christian and Mel Greig 'shattered, gutted'". Herald Sun. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- "The Royal Family Is Angered By Kate Middleton Baby Bump Photos". B96 Chicago. 13 February 2013.
- "Australian paper publishes Kate Middleton's controversial picture". Deccan Chronicle.
- "A letter from Kensington Palace". www.princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-26.
- Gallery: Lifetime's 'William & Kate' movie Digital Spy, 17 April 2011
- Wills and Kate movie 'guilty pleasure' TV ITN.co.uk, 26 April 2011 Archived 30 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Full cast and crew for William & Kate (2011) Internet Movie Database
- Kate Middleton actress home for royal wedding BBC News, 27 April 2011
- Sun, Feifei (21 March 2011). "Drama Queen: Lifetime's 'William & Kate' Trailer Serves Up the Sap". Time NewsFeed. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- Rewind TV: When Kate Met William; Kate and William: Romance and the Royals; The Suspicions of Mr Whicher; The Crimson Petal and the White The Observer, 1 May 2011
- TV review: Meet the Middletons; Help! My House is Infested; The Reckoning The Guardian, 18 April 2011
- "Hallmark Channel to film 'William & Catherine: A Royal Romance' – Lifeline Live". USA Today. 5 May 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- William & Catherine: A Royal Romance at IMDB
- Schutte, Lauren (5 May 2011). "Production Begins on 'William & Catherine: A Royal Romance'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- William & Catherine: A Royal Romance on IMDb
- "Culture, attraction and soft power" (PDF). British Council. 3 December 2016.
- "Shakespeare 'a cultural icon' abroad". BBC. 3 December 2016.
- "Media pack for the birth of the first child of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge" (PDF). Kensington Palace. July 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
On the occasion of his marriage, The Queen conferred a Dukedom on Prince William of Wales. The Duke received the titles of Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus. As a result Miss Catherine Middleton became Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge, Countess of Strathearn and Lady Carrickfergus.
- "Titles announced for Prince William and Catherine Middleton" (Press release). Clarence House. 29 April 2011. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2013 – via princeofwales.gov.uk.
- Rayner, Gordon (2 August 2013). "Royal baby: Duke and Duchess of Cambridge register birth of Prince George". The Telegraph.
The Duchess is entitled to use the title Princess William of Wales, but has never described herself as such, because the couple decided to be known as the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge after the titles were conferred on them by the Queen on their wedding day.
- Rayner, Gordon (2 August 2013). "Duchess Kate: Princess of the United Kingdom (but you can call me mummy)". The Daily Telegraph.
Although she has never used the name, the Duchess is entitled to refer to herself as Princess William of Wales, as well as being Countess of Strathearn and Lady Carrickfergus.
- Duke and Duchess of Cambridge – visit the Emirates Arena Archived 6 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. "The Duke and Duchess, known as the Earl and Countess of Strathearn when in Scotland..." (Accessed 24 July 2013)
- Prince of Wales – Dumfries House (Section: 5 April Official Opening of the Tamar Manoukian Outdoor Centre) "...Their Royal Highnesses The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay and the Earl and Countess of Strathearn..." (Accessed 24 July 2013)
- Palmer, Richard (30 March 2017). "William and Kate to receive highest Tuvalu award... for just VISITING the nation". Express.
- "The Duke of Edinburgh Hands Air Cadet Patronage to The Duchess of Cambridge, 16 December 2015". Royal Air Force.
- Cliff, Martha. "Kate's badge of honour: The Duchess of Cambridge dazzles in prestigious diamond Dacre brooch to mark the 75th anniversary of the RAF Air Cadets". Daily Mail. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- Tominey, Camilla (14 February 2016). "Truth behind Prince George's love of aviation". Daily Express. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- The Canadian Press (26 July 2011). "UW award honours Duke and Duchess of Cambridge". CTV. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- "University of Waterloo offers Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award". Canada News Wire. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Rayner, Gordon (27 September 2013). "Duke and Duchess of Cambridge get a joint coat of arms". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 October 2015. Includes full-color image of the conjugal arms and supporters.
- "The arms of Miss Catherine Middleton". College of Arms. 1 May 2011.
- Brooke-Little, J.P. (1978) . "XII – Marshalling". Boutell's Heraldry. London: Frederick Warne. ISBN 0-7232-2096-4.
- "Coat of Arms of Duchess of Cambridge". dukeandduchessofcambridge.org. 14 November 2012. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012.
- Laycock, Mike. "Duchess of Cambridge's links with stately home near York revealed". The Press (York) – 17 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
....he discovered previously unpublished pictures in the depths of the Leeds archives showing the Potternewton Hall Estate where Olive ...(and) her blood cousin Baroness von Schunck...grew up.
- A Photographic Archive of Leeds, Leodis. "Headingley Castle". Leeds Library and Information Service, Leeds City Council. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
The Luptons of Leeds were landed gentry; a political and business dynasty
- Rayner, Gordon (13 September 2013). "'Middle-class' Duchess of Cambridge's relative wore crown and attended George V's coronation". Daily Telegraph. p. 7. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
The (Lupton) relatives who spoke to me said their ancestors were very much landed gentry, and as we now know some of them were titled.
- "The Leeds connection ...". Yorkshire Evening Post. 11 September 2006.
- Wharton, Jane. "Kate Middleton is a Brummie and related to a former Prime Minister". UK Daily Express, Page 3, 3 June 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- London, Bianca (3 June 2014). "Historian discovers the Duchess of Cambridge is descended from Birmingham's most notable families". UK Daily Mail, 4 June 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
Kate's great great grandfather was Francis Martineau Lupton, a politician himself, and his first cousin was Birmingham Mayor Sir Thomas Martineau, a friend of Queen Victoria. Sir Thomas's nephew was Neville Chamberlain.
- "The Middletons – finding common ground with the royal family". The Guardian. 30 April 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Child, Christopher C. (Fall 2011). "A Gratifying Discovery: Connecting Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, to Sir Thomas Conyers, 9th Bt. of Horden, Durham" (PDF). American Ancestors. New England Historic Genealogical Society. pp. 35–36. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Adolph, Anthony. "Princess Catherine". Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Rayner, Gordon (13 September 2013). "Duchess of Cambridge's relative wore crown and attended coronation of George V". Michael Middleton's descent from Edward III. UK Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
Michael Middleton is a direct descendant of Edward III
- Jobson, Robert (2010). William & Kate – The Love Story. London: John Blake Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84454-736-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge|
- The Duchess of Cambridge at the Royal Family website
- The Duchess of Cambridge profile at the Official website of the Prince of Wales
- The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge News and Diary, Life in Pictures, Focus, The Duke of Cambridge, The Duchess of Cambridge, For Children
- Works by or about Kate Middleton in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- "Kate Middleton collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- Cracroft's Peerage – Catherine Middleton
- The Ancestry of H.R.H. Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, by Anthony Adolph
- Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge on IMDb
|Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom,|
The Princess Royal
HRH The Duchess of Cambridge
The Duke of Edinburgh
As Air Commodore-in-Chief
|Air Commandant of the Air Training Corps
2015 – present