Kathleen E. Carpenter

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Kathleen E. Carpenter
Kathleen E. Carpenter.jpg
Portrait of Kathleen E. Carpenter, cropped from a group photograph of the Scientific Society of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, 1910–11.
Born (1891-03-24)24 March 1891
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England
Died 29 May 1970(1970-05-29) (aged 79)
Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England
Nationality British
Alma mater Aberystwyth University
Scientific career
Fields Freshwater biology
Institutions Aberystwyth University
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
Radcliffe College
McGill University
Washington College
University of Liverpool

Kathleen E. Carpenter (1891–1970) was a British freshwater ecologist.[1][2] She is best known for her early studies of the effects of metal pollution on Welsh rivers and their biota, as well as her book "Life in Inland Waters",[3] the first textbook in English wholly devoted to freshwater ecology.

Early life[edit]

She was born Kathleen Edithe Zimmerman on 24 March 1891 in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England, daughter of Francis Frederick Zimmerman and Victoria Boor. In 1914 she changed her surname by deed poll to Carpenter (the English translation of the German word Zimmerman).[4]

Academic career[edit]

Carpenter was admitted to Aberystwyth University in 1907 to study for a BSc degree, which was awarded by the University of London in 1910.[5] She also received MSc and PhD degrees from Aberystwyth University in the 1920s.[1] In the late 1920s she was a researcher in America at University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign and later Radcliffe College and McGill University.[6][7] She was subsequently a professor at Washington College from 1931 to 1936.[6] She returned to Britain and was a lecturer at the University of Liverpool during World War II.[1]

Publications[edit]

Carpenter, K. E. (1922). The fauna of the Clarach stream (Cardiganshire) and its tributaries. Aberystwyth studies by members of the University College of Wales, 4, 251–258.[8]

Carpenter, K. E. (1923). Notes on the History of Cardiganshire Lead Mines. Aberystwyth studies by members of the University College of Wales, 5, 99–103.[8]

Carpenter, K. E. (1923). Distribution of Limnæa pereger and L. truncatula. Nature 112(2801), 9.[9]

Carpenter, K. E. (1924). A study of the fauna of rivers polluted by lead mining in the Aberystwyth district of Cardiganshire. The Annals of Applied Biology, 9(38), 1–23.[10]

Carpenter, K. E. (1924). The freshwater fauna of the Aberystwyth district of Cardiganshire, studied with especial reference to the pollution of streams consequent on lead-mining operations. No. 49, File F.G. 1898, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Standing Committee on River Pollution.[11]

Carpenter, K. E. (1925). Biological factors involved in the destruction of river-fisheries by pollution due to lead-mining. Ser. No 84, Rep. No. 77, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Standing Committee on River Pollution.[12]

Carpenter, K. E. (1925). On the biological factors involved in the destruction of river-fisheries by pollution consequent on lead-mining. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1925, p. 403.[13]

Carpenter, K. E. (1925). On the biological factors involved in the destruction of river-fisheries by pollution due to lead-mining. The Annals of Applied Biology, 12(44), 1–13.[14]

Carpenter, K. E. (1926). The lead mine as an active agent in river pollution. Annals of Applied Biology, 13(3), 395–401.[15]

Carpenter, K. E. (1926). A Planarian species new to Britain. Nature, 117(2946), 556.[16]

Carpenter, K. E. (1926). Report on the lethal action of lead salts on fishes. Ser. No. 190, Rep. No. 129, Ref. File F.G. 1655. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Standing Committee on River Pollution.[17]

Carpenter, K. E. (1926). On a Vexed Question. Fishing Gazette, June 11. 1927.

Carpenter, K. E. (1927). The lethal action of soluble metallic salts on fishes. Journal of Experimental Biology, 4, 378–390.[18]

Carpenter, K. E. (1927). Faunistic ecology of some Cardiganshire streams. Journal of Ecology, 15(1), 33–54.[19]

Carpenter, K. E. (1928). Life in Inland Waters, with especial reference to animals. Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd.

Carpenter, K. E. (1928). On the distribution of freshwater Turbellaria in the Aberystwyth district, with especial reference to two ice-Age relicts. Journal of Ecology, 16(1), 105–122.[20]

Carpenter, K. E. (1928). On the tropisms of some freshwater planarians. The British Journal of Experimental Biology, 5, 196–203.[21]

Carpenter, K. E. (1930)†. Further researches on the action of metallic salts on fishes. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 6, 407–422.[22] †Contributions from the Zoölogical Laboratories of the University of Illinois, no. 376.

Carpenter, K. E. (1931). Variations in Holopedium Species. Science, 74, 550–551.[23]

Carpenter, K. E. (1939). Food of Salmon Parr. Nature, 143, 336.[24]

Carpenter, K. E. (1940). The feeding of Salmon parr in the Cheshire Dee. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 110, 81–96.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Williams, Dudley; Duigan, Catherine (2009). Rivers of Wales. Margraf Publishers. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-3-8236-1561-3. 
  2. ^ Talling, Jack (2004). "The Development of Freshwater Science in Britain, And British Contributions Abroad, 1900–2000". Freshwater Forum. 22: 24. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  3. ^ Carpenter, Kathleen E. (1928). Life in inland waters: with special reference to animals. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd. 
  4. ^ "Who was... Kathleen Carpenter?". thebiologist.rsb.org.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-06. 
  5. ^ "University of London Calendar, 1920". Retrieved 1 May 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "The Washington Elm" (XXXI (1)). 3 October 1931. Retrieved 6 March 2016. 
  7. ^ Duigan, Catherine. "'A Life in Fresh Water' Kathleen Carpenter (1891–1970), a pioneering freshwater ecologist at Aberystwyth University". Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Aberystwyth Studies. / by Members of the University College of Wales, 1912-1923". Archive.org. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  9. ^ "Distribution of Limnæa pereger and L. truncatula". Nature Magazine. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  10. ^ "A STUDY OF THE FAUNA OF RIVERS POLLUTED BY LEAD MINING IN THE ABERYSTWYTH DISTRICT OF CARDIGANSHIRE". Wiley Online LIbrary. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  11. ^ "Freshwater Fauna of Aberystwyth district with reference to pollution of stream by lead-mining operations". National Archives, Kew. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  12. ^ "Biological Factors involved in destruction of river fisheries by pollution due to lead mining". National Archives, Kew. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  13. ^ "Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science". Archive.org. British Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2 July 2018. 
  14. ^ "ON THE BIOLOGICAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE DESTRUCTION OF RIVER-FISHERIES BY POLLUTION DUE TO LEAD-MINING". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  15. ^ "THE LEAD MINE AS AN ACTIVE AGENT IN RIVER POLLUTION". Wiley Online LIbrary. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  16. ^ "A Planarian Species New to Britain". Nature Magazine. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  17. ^ "Lethal action of lead salts on fishes". National Archives, Kew. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  18. ^ "The Lethal Action of Soluble Metallic Salts on Fishes". The Company of Biologists. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  19. ^ "Faunistic Ecology of Some Cardiganshire Streams". JSTOR 2256062. 
  20. ^ "On the Distribution of Freshwater Turbellaria in the Aberystwyth District, with Especial Reference to Two Ice-Age Relicts". JSTOR 2255844. 
  21. ^ "On the Tropisms of Some Freshwater Planarians". The Company of Biologists. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  22. ^ "Further researches on the action of metallic salts on fishes". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  23. ^ "VARIATIONS IN HOLOPEDIUM SPECIES". Science Magazine. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  24. ^ "Food of Salmon Parr". Nature Magazine. Retrieved 18 November 2017. 
  25. ^ "The Feeding of Salmon Parr in the Cheshire Dee". Wiley Online Library. Retrieved 18 November 2017.