Kattendijk Sands

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Kattendijk Sands is a five million years old marine geological formation north of Antwerp, Belgium. including the north-western parts of the Campine region.

The area was named by De Heuter and Laga in 1976.[1] The sands range from medium fine to coarse and contain a large proportion of shell grit.[2]


The clay of the Rupelian era developed to a depth of approximately 70 m (230 ft) beneath a deposit of Neogene sand.[1] The formation has a Miocene Era aquifer, while the clay level dates to the Pliocene.[3]


A Pliocene species of auk (Alca stewarti) was found in 2000.[4]


  1. ^ a b Schittekat, J. (2001). "Engineering geology of the Boom clay in the Antwerp area". In Holeyman, Alain E. Screw Piles — Installation and Design in Stiff Clay. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9789058091925. 
  2. ^ van der Sijp, Jaap Willem Charles Marie, ed. (1973). New aspects of mineral and water resources in The Netherlands. The Hague: M. Nijhoff. OCLC 2367071. 
  3. ^ Coetsiers, M.; Walraevens, K. (2009). "The Neogene Aquifer, Flanders, Belgium". In Edmunds, W. Mike; Shand, Paul. Natural groundwater quality. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444300352. 
  4. ^ Martin, J.W.R.; Walker, C.A.; Bonser, R.; Dyke, Gareth J. (2000). "A new species of large auk from the Pliocene of Belgium". Oryctos. 3: 53–60. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 

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