Kawabe Station was opened on December 1, 1894 as a station on the Japanese Government Railways, the predecessor to the Japan National Railways (JNR) on the Ōu Northern Line. From August 15, 1912, a spur line became operations to Kuroishi, and from September 25, 1918, the Mutsu Railways (present-day Gonō Line) began operations from Kawabe Station. On November 1, 1984, operations on the Kuroishi Line were transferred from JNR to the Konan Railway. All freight operations were discontinued from April 1987. With the privatization of the JNR on April 1, 1987, it came under the operational control of JR East. The Kuroishi Line ceased operations from April 1, 1998.
Kawabe Station has two island platform, serving three tracks, connected to the station building by an overpass. The station is attended during normal working hours, and has a Green Window service counter. The fourth track normally associated with two island platforms has not been in use since April 1, 1998 with the discontinuation of the Kuroishi Line.