|A Ki-100 in the RAF Museum at Hendon, London|
|Manufacturer||Kawasaki Kōkūki Kōgyō K.K.|
|First flight||1 February 1945|
|Introduction||9 March 1945|
|Primary user||Imperial Japanese Army Air Service|
|Number built||396 |
|Developed from||Kawasaki Ki-61|
The Kawasaki Ki-100 is a fighter aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service in World War II. The Japanese Army designation was "Type 5 Fighter" (五式戦闘機: Go-shiki sentouki or abbreviated as Goshikisen). No new Allied code name was assigned to this type; 275 Ki-100 airframes were built as Ki-61s before being modified to accept a Mitsubishi Ha-112-II radial engine in place of the original Kawasaki Ha-40 inline engine.
The emergency measure of adapting a Ki-61-II-KAI fighter to carry a Mitsubishi radial engine resulted in one of the best interceptors used by the Army during the entire war. It combined excellent power and maneuverability, and although its high-altitude performance against USAAF Boeing B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers was limited by the lack of an efficient supercharger, it performed better than most other IJAAF fighters.
Operational missions began in March 1945. From the first engagements, the Ki-100 performed well against the B-29 and showed itself to be equally effective against U.S. Navy carrier fighters. A new variant, the Ki-100-Ib, was produced during the last weeks of the war in time to equip five sentai for home defense duties.
Design and development
In mid-1944, the Ki-61 was one of the best fighters of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service. It was the only production Japanese fighter to have an inline powerplant (the Kawasaki Ha-40, a Japanese adaptation of the German Daimler-Benz DB 601 engine) during World War II, as well as the first one with factory-installed armor and self-sealing fuel tanks. It also had respectable performance, more in line with contemporary American and European designs of the time, with speed and rate of climb emphasized instead of manoeuvrability and range. It was an effective design, but suffered from engine shortages and reliability problems.
These problems as well as the performance advantage of enemy fighters, especially the Grumman F6F Hellcat, led to the development of an improved model, the Ki-61-II (later Ki-61-II-KAI), powered by the new 1,120 kW (1,500 hp) Kawasaki Ha-140 engine, which was heavier than the Ki-61-I-KAIc it replaced. Maximum speed increased from 590 km/h (370 mph) to 610 km/h (380 mph) and general performance (except rate of climb) improved as well. However, it was never able to perform as planned due to the continued degradation of quality of the engine's assembly line, with far fewer engines produced than were required, while many of the engines that were built were rejected due to poor build quality. At this point of the war, the IJAAF was in desperate need of effective interceptors to stop the enemy bomber raids over the Japanese mainland, so in October 1944 it was ordered that a 1,120 kW (1,500 hp) Mitsubishi Ha-112-II (Kinsei ["Venus"] 60 series), a 14-cylinder, two-row radial engine should be installed in those airframes. The need for the re-engined fighter was made yet more urgent on 19 January 1945, when a B-29 raid destroyed the Ha-140 production plant, leaving 275 finished Ki-61s without a powerplant.
The Mitsubishi Ha-112-II was some 54 kg (120 lb) lighter than the Ha-140 and produced the same power more reliably. After the study of an imported Fw 190A, an example of an aircraft in which a wide radial engine had been successfully installed in a narrow airframe, three Ki-61-II-KAI airframes were modified to carry this engine and to serve as prototypes. Three engineers, Takeo Doi, chief engineer and head of project, his assistant Makato Owada, and head of engine systems at Kawasaki Kagamigahara, Tomio Oguchi, worked through several concepts for redesigning the Ki-61 airframe to accept the new engine before settling on a solution in which a second skin fairing was riveted to the fuselage to smooth out the airflow behind the adjustable cooling flaps and multiple exhaust stubs of the new engine cowling. At first, there were problems with the aircraft now being found to be very tail-heavy, but the removal of a large lead counterbalance, which had been placed in the Ki-61-II-KAI's rear fuselage to balance the increasingly heavy Ha-140 engine, restored the center of gravity (cg).
As a result, on 1 February 1945, the new model was flown for the first time. Without the need for the heavy coolant radiator and other fittings required for a liquid-cooled engine, the Ki-100 was 329 kg (725 lb) lighter than the Ki-61-II, reducing the wing loading from 189 kg/m2 (38.8 lb/ft2) to 175 kg/m2 (35.8 lb/ft2). This had an immediate positive effect on the flight characteristics, enhancing landing and takeoff qualities as well as imparting increased manoeuvrability, including a tighter turning circle.
The army general staff was amazed by the flight characteristics of the plane, which surpassed the Hien's in all but maximum speed (degraded by a maximum of 29 km/h [18 mph] by the larger area of the radial engine's front cowling), and the model was ordered to be put in production as the Goshikisen (Go = five; shiki = type; sentoki = fighter) or Army Fighter Type 5. The company's name was Ki-100-1-Ko. All of the airframes were remanufactured from Ki-61-II Kai and Ki-61-III airframes; the integral engine mount/cowling side panel was cut off the fuselage and a tubular steel engine mount was bolted to the firewall/bulkhead. Many of the redundant fittings from the liquid-cooled engine, such as the ventral radiator shutter actuator, were still kept. The first 271 aircraft, or Ki-100-1-Ko, with the raised "razorback" rear fuselage were rolled out of the factory between March and June 1945. A further 118 Ki-100 I-Otsu were built with a cut-down rear fuselage and new rear-view canopy from May through to the end of July 1945. This version also featured a modified oil cooler under the engine in a more streamlined fairing.
The engine was reliable in contrast to the mechanical nightmares of the Nakajima Ki-84, Kawasaki Ki-61, and Kawanishi N1K-J that kept many aircraft grounded. Although slow in level flight for 1945, unlike most Japanese fighters, the Ki-100 could dive with P-51 Mustangs and hold the speed on pullout. Two problems which hampered the effective employment of Japanese fighters towards the end of the war were unreliable electrical systems; that of the Ki-100 was less problematic than most other aircraft types, although the fuse-boxes caused problems; and poor radio communications, which was generic throughout the war.
Improvement of the basic model led to the Ki-100-II, with a turbocharged engine for high-altitude interception of the B-29 Superfortresses, but only three examples were built, and it never saw combat.
Army units to be equipped with this model included the following Sentai: 5th, 17th, 18th, 20th, 59th, 111th, 112th, 200th and 244th and the 81st Independent Fighter Company. Along with the previously named Army air units, pilots were trained through the Akeno and Hitachi (Mito) Army Flying Schools. Many of the Akeno and Hitachi instructors, who were often seconded from operational units, flew combat missions (this deployment was a notable spreading out of the very few fighters that were operational, but many of these wings were only partially re-equipped).
The Ki-100 made its combat debut on the night of 9 March 1945 and suffered its first loss on 7 April 1945, when a Ki-100 flown by Master Sergeant Yasuo Hiema of the 18th Sentai was shot down by a B-29 after "attacking the formation again and again".[N 1] Allied aircrews soon realised that they were facing a formidable new fighter Although far fewer Ki-100s were available than the Ki-84s, it was considered one of the most important fighters in the inventory. However, during interception of the high-flying B-29s (the B-29 raids soon became low-level missions) the new Japanese fighters struggled as the Ha-112-II engine's performance decreased at high altitudes. The most effective way to attack the Superfortress was by making very dangerous head-on attacks, with the fighter hanging its approach path as it neared the bomber. A failure while attempting this was deadly, because of the concentration of defensive fire from the bombers. In this type of combat, the Navy's Mitsubishi J2M Raiden was superior.
During March and April 1945 experienced instructors from the Akeno Army Flying School flew the Ki-100 in extensive tests against the Ki-84, which was considered to be the best of the JAAF fighters then in operational service. Their conclusions were that, given pilots of equal experience, the Ki-100 would always win in combat. From Mid-April, Major Yasuhiko Kuroe, a highly experienced combat veteran was placed in charge of a "flying circus" made up of captured Allied aircraft, including a Mustang which had been captured in China. This "circus" travelled to various operational fighter bases throughout Japan and was used to train pilots in the best ways to combat enemy aircraft.
Ki-100s belonging to the 111th Sentai intercepted B-29 bombers attacking Kobe on 5 June 1945, claiming six bombers shot down and five more 'probables'. The Americans recorded a loss of nine B-29s to enemy action, including three shot down by Ki-100s over the target area. Ki-100s of the same unit, joined by Ki-84s of the 244th Sentai, participated in a large-scale engagement with P-51s of the 506th Fighter Group over Nagoya Bay on 16 July 1945. The Ki-100 pilots claimed six P-51s destroyed but in actuality only one of the US fighters was lost. In return, five Ki-100s were shot down and three pilots killed.
On 25 July 1945, 18 Ki-100 fighters from 244th Sentai encountered 10 Hellcats of the light aircraft carrier USS Belleau Wood's Fighter Squadron 31 (VF-31) in an air battle where the Ki-100 pilots claimed 12 victories with only two losses. Claims and counter-claims regarding the true results still arise around this action. The American claims were two Hellcats and two Ki-100s, including Major Tsutae Obara's Ki-100 and Ensign Edwin White's Hellcat which collided, killing both pilots. USN records for 25 July 1945 reflect the loss of two aircraft, both F6F-5's, by VF-31, #78228, piloted by ENS Edwin R. White and #77489, piloted by ENS Herbert L. Law
After the bombing of the Kagamigahara plant and the slow deliveries of components by the satellite plants, production rates of the Ki-100 began to fall more and more, and in the period between May and July, only 12 units were delivered. Finally, production ended due to the bombing, with only 118 units of the Army Type-5 Fighter Model 1b delivered.
An overall assessment of the effectiveness of the Ki-100 rated it highly in agility, and a well-handled Ki-100 was able to outmanoeuvre any American fighter, including the formidable P-51D Mustangs and the P-47N Thunderbolts which were escorting the B-29 raids over Japan by that time, and was comparable in speed, especially at medium altitudes. In the hands of an experienced pilot, the Ki-100 was a deadly opponent. The Ki-100 along with the Army's Ki-84 and the Navy's Kawanishi N1K-J were the only Japanese fighters able to defeat the latest Allied types in the final year of the Pacific War.
- Ki-100 (prototypes): one batch of Kawasaki Ki-61 II KAI with radial engine. 3 built.
- Ki-100 I-Ko: Fighter Type 5 of Army (Mark Ia) initial model of series, KI-61 II KAI modified. 271 built.
- Ki-100 I-Otsu: (Mark Ib) full-vision canopy. 118 built.
- Ki-100 II (prototypes): engine Mitsubishi Ha-112-II Ru with turbocharger, 1,120 kW (1,500 hp). 3 built.
- Ki-119 (project) Design influenced by the fuselage of the Ki-100, was to have been a fighter-bomber aircraft. Prototype incomplete.
|Ki-100 Production: Kagamigahara, Kawasaki Kokuki K.K. |
- Production on the Kagamigahara and Ichinomiya aircraft plant were severely hampered by Allied bombing raids. It was planned to produce 200 airframes per month, but the Ichinomiya plant had to be abandoned after its nearly complete destruction.
- Ki-100-I's pre-production started with three prototypes completed in February 1945.
- Ki-100-II's pre-production started with three prototypes completed during May to June 1945.
- A further twelve Ki-100-Ib were built at the Ichinomiya aircraft plant.
|According to USSBS Report: 378 ||Figure includes: 272 Ki-100-I and 106 Ki-100-II builds|
|According to Francillon: 396 ||Figure includes: 275 Ki-100-I and 121 Ki-100-II builds|
Specifications (Ki-100-1a/b Goshikisen)
Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War 
- Crew: 1
- Length: 8.82 m (28 ft 11 in)
- Wingspan: 12.00 m (39 ft 4 in)
- Height: 3.75 m (12 ft 4 in)
- Wing area: 20 m2 (215 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 2,525 kg (5,567 lb)
- Gross weight: 3,495 kg (7,705 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Mitsubishi Ha 112-II radial engine, 1,120 kW (1,500 hp) at take off
- Maximum speed: 580 km/h (360 mph, 313 kn) at 6,000 m (19,700 ft)
- Cruise speed: 400 km/h (249 mph, 217 kn)
- Range: 2,200 km (1,367 mi, 1,189 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 11,000 m (36,090 ft)
- Climb to 5,000 m (16,400 ft): 6 min
- Guns: 2 × 20 mm fuselage-mounted Ho-5 cannons, and 2 × 12.7 mm (.50 in) wing-mounted Ho-103 machine guns
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Focke-Wulf Fw 190
- Grumman F6F Hellcat
- Hawker Tempest
- Kawanishi N1K-J
- Lavochkin La-7
- Nakajima Ki-84
- North American P-51 Mustang
- Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
- Supermarine Spitfire
- Yakovlev Yak-3
- This was a mission flown against night-flying Superfortresses flown by a single Ki-100 piloted by Capt Masashi Sumita of the 18th Sentai.
- Francillon, 1979, p. 134
- Ethell 1995, p. 83.
- Picarella 2005, p. 74.
- Picarella 2005, pp. 76–77.
- Air International October 1976, pp. 186–187.
- Picarella 2005, pp. 64–68.
- Picarella 2005, p. 69.
- Picarello 2005, pp. 76–77.
- Picarella 2005, p. 67.
- Picarella 2005, pp. 74–75.
- Picarella 2005, p. 73.
- Francillon 1979, p. 130.
- Francillon 1979, p. 395.
- Millman, Nicholas. Ki-61 and Ki-100 Aces. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015. p. 81, pp. 85–86.
- Sakaida 1997, p. 73.
- Sgarlato 1996
- USSBS, Appendix E., p. 16
- Craven and Cate (1953), pp. 565–568
- Francillon 1970, pp. 133–134.
- Bueschel, Richard M. Kawasaki Ki.61/Ki.100 Hien in Japanese Army Air Force Service, Aircam Aviation Series No.21. Canterbury, Kent, UK: Osprey Publications Ltd, 1971. ISBN 0-85045-026-8.
- Craven, Wesley and Cate, James The Army Air Forces in World War II Volume Five The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki June 1944 to August 1945 Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1953. ASIN: B000LZHT7Q
- Ethell, Jeffrey L. Aircraft of World War II. Glasgow, Collins Jane's, 1995. ISBN 0-00-470849-0.
- Francillon, René J. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. London: Putnam, 1970. ISBN 0-370-00033-1.
- Francillon, René J. Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War. London: Putnam, 2nd edition, 1979. ISBN 0-370-30251-6.
- Green, William. Warplanes of the Second World War, Volume Three: Fighters. London: Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1961 (seventh impression 1973). ISBN 0-356-01447-9.
- Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. WW2 Aircraft Fact Files: Japanese Army Fighters, Part 1. London: Macdonald and Jane's, 1976. ISBN 0-356-08224-5.
- Januszewski, Tadeusz and Adam Jarski. Kawasaki Ki-61 Hien, Monografie Lotnicze 5 (in Polish). Gdańsk, Poland: AJ-Press, 1992. ISSN 0867-7867.
- "The Last Swallow of Summer...The Extraordinary Story of the Ki-100" Air International, October 1976, Volume 11, Number 4, pp. 185–191. Bromley, UK: Fine Scroll.
- Millman, Nicholas. Ki-61 and Ki-100 Aces. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015. ISBN 1-780-96295-9.
- Mondey, David. The Hamlyn Concise Guide to Axis Aircraft of World War II. London: Bounty Books, 2006. ISBN 0-7537-1460-4.
- Picarella, Giuseppe. "Database: Kawasaki Ki-100. Article, scale drawings and cutaway." Aeroplane magazine, Volume 33, No 11, Issue No 391, November 2005. London: IPC Media Ltd.
- Sakaida, Henry. Japanese Army Air Force Aces 1937–45. Botley, Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-85532-529-2.
- Sakurai, Takashi. Rikugun Hiko Dai 244 Sentai Shi History of the Army 244 Group (in Japanese). Tokyo: Soubunsha, 1995. ISBN unknown.
- Sakurai, Takashi. Hien Fighter Group: A Pictorial History of the 244th Sentai, Tokyo's Defenders(in Japanese/English). Tokyo: Dai Nippon Kaga, 2004. ISBN unknown.
- Sgarlato, Nico. "Ki-100: il FW-190 Giapponese" (in Italian). Aerei Nella Storia N. 51. 1996.
- United States Strategic Bombing Survey Aircraft Division. Kawasaki Aircraft Company, Ltd. Corporation Report IV, Washington, D.C. 1947.
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