Erciyespor, which was Kayserispor's predecessor, was founded as Erciyesspor with red-white colours. In 1937, Erciyesspor merged with Yılmazspor and changed their colours as yellow-red. It was merged into Kayseri Gençlik in 1940. They were refounded in 1948 with yellow-navy colours. They merged with Kayseri Gençlik in 1949 and changed their colours as yellow-red. They were dissolved in 1951. But they were refounded by Naci Ulucan in 1952. They played in regional league until 1966.
In 1965, Orhan Şefik Apak, then president of the Turkish Football Federation, asked cities in Turkey to combine their amateur football clubs into one singular club that would represent their communities. These new clubs would compete in the newly created 2.Lig (Second Division). After several meetings, representatives of the city merged Erciyesspor, Sanayispor, and Ortaanadoluspor to form Kayserispor. The club submitted the required paperwork and were officially founded as Kayserispor on 1 July 1966. They began competing in the 1966–67 2.Lig. Erdoğan Gürhan was the first manager, signing a contract worth 1,500 TL. In their first season, the club competed in the Beyaz Grup (White Group). Yener scored the first goal in club history when he netted a shot in the 17th minute against Ankara Toprakspor. The club finished with a nine win, nine draw, and twelve loss record in 30 matches while scoring 21 goals and conceding 33. They finished in ninth place.
It was refounded as Kayseri Emniyetspor with red-navy colours. They merged with Kayserigücü, whose former name was Mahrumlarspor in 1985. They promoted to 3rd level in 1988. However changed their name as Kayseri Erciyesspor due to Security General Directorate's decision to withdrawing Security teams from leagues. They changed their colours as black-white. They became Büyükşehir Belediye Erciyesspor with blue-white colours in 1992, Melikgazi Belediyesi Erciyesspor with yellow-red in 1997, Hacılar Erciyesspor with yellow-navy colurs in 1999. They promoted to second level in 1999-2000 season. They changed their name as Erciyesspor and colours as yellow-red in 2001. They relegated to third level in 2001-2002 season. But after successive two promotions, Erciyesspor reached to top level in 2004. It was at this time that Kayserspor switched names with Kayseri Erciyesspor. Manager Hüsnü Özkara was fired after seven matches into the season after accumulating two points out of a possible twenty-one. Hikmet Karaman took over as manager and guided the club to a 14th-place finish, two places above the relegation zone.
Ertuğrul Sağlam, former Samsunspor and Beşiktaş player, took over for Karaman at the end of the season. Sağlam lead the club to fifth place in the league and Gökhan Ünal won the Gol Kralı (Top Goal Scorer) award after netting 25 goals in 32 matches. The club qualified for European competition for the first time. The club would go on to win the 2006 UEFA Intertoto Cup and qualified for the 2006–07 UEFA Cup, where they lost to AZ in the second round. Kayserispor finished fifth for the second time in a row at the end of the 2006–07 season. Sağlam moved to Beşiktaş over the summer, with Tolunay Kafkas being his replacement. Kafkas lead the club to a third straight fifth-place finish, as well as the clubs first Türkiye Kupası title in 2008.On 15 October 2012,it was confirmed that Robert Prosinečki signed two-year coaching contract with Kayserispor.It was also confirmed that his assistants at Kayserispor will be Gordan Ciprić and Dragan Spasić. They finished 5th in 2012-13 season. But, next season Kayserispor changed 3 times their coaches and finally relegated to 1st League after finishing Süper Lig as last.
Kadir Has Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Kayseri, Turkey. It is part of complex of sports venues that are planned on the outskirts of the city, as part of the Atatürk Sport Complex. It replaced Kayseri Atatürk Stadium, which had been in use since 1964. It was completed in early 2008, and has primarily been used to host the home matches of Kayserispor and Kayseri Erciyesspor. The stadium has a capacity of 32,864 (all-seated) and is covered. The stadium contains several restaurants, cafes, and VIP areas for fans. Two shopping centres are also located nearby, and the parking lot holds 1,785 cars. The light-rail system of Kayseri, Kayseray, passes near the stadium complex, allowing the fans an alternative to traveling by car or bus.