Kazakhs in China

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Kazakhs in China
Kazakh: Қытай қазақтары, romanized: Qıtaý qazaqtarı
Total population
1,462,588
Regions with significant populations
Xinjiang (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County, Mori Kazakh Autonomous County)
Languages
Kazakh, Russian, Mandarin
Religion
Sunni Islam[1]
Related ethnic groups
Kazakhs, Turkic peoples

Kazakhs are a Turkic ethnic group, called Hāsàkè Zú in Chinese (; literally "Kazakh ethnic group"), and are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

During the fall of the Dzungar Khanate, the Manchus massacred the native Dzungar Oirat Mongols of Dzungaria in the Dzungar genocide and filled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria. Dzungaria was subjected to mass Kazakh settlement after the defeat of the Dzungars.[2] In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. In China there is one Kazakh autonomous prefecture, the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, three Kazakh autonomous counties, Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County in Gansu, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County and Mori Kazakh Autonomous County in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

Russians originally referred to Kazakhs as Kirghiz.

In the 19th century, Russian settlers on traditional Kirghiz land drove many Kirghiz over the border to China, causing their population to increase in China.[3] Compared to Russian-controlled areas, more benefits were given to the Kirghiz on the Chinese controlled areas. Russian settlers fought against the nomadic Kirghiz, which led the Russians to believe that the Kirghiz would be a liability in any conflict against China. The Muslim Kirghiz were certain that in an upcoming war China would defeat Russia.[4]

To escape Russians slaughtering them in 1916, Kazakhs escaped to China.[5] Xinjiang became a sanctuary for fleeing Kazakhs escaping the Russians after the Muslims faced conscription by the Russian government.[6]

Soviet persecution of Kazakhs led to Kazakhs from Soviet Kazakhstan moving to Xinjiang.[7]

An estimate of 65,000 Kirghiz, 92,000 Hui, 326,000 Kazakh, 187,000 Han, and 2,984,000 Uyghur adding up to a total population of 3,730,000 in all of Xinjiang in 1941 was estimated by Toops, and 4,334,000 people lived in Xinjiang according to Hoppe in 1949.[8]

The Kazakhs had settled in the Dzungaria area of Xinjiang after the Dzungar genocide by the Manchus wiped out most of the native Dzungar Oirats and fleeing from Soviet engineered famines against the Kazakhs like the Kazakh famine of 1919–1922 and Kazakhstan famine of 1932-1933. The Kazakhs had defected to the Republic of China and fought against the Soviet Communist backed Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion.

Kazakh exodus[edit]

In 1936, after Sheng Shicai expelled 30,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai, Hui led by General Ma Bufang massacred their fellow Muslim Kazakhs, until there were 135 of them left.[9][10][11]

From Northern Xinjiang over 7,000 Kazakhs fled to the Tibetan-Qinghai plateau region via Gansu and were wreaking massive havoc so Ma Bufang solved the problem by relegating the Kazakhs into designated pastureland in Qinghai, but Hui, Tibetans, and Kazakhs in the region continued to clash against each other.[12]

Tibetans attacked and fought against the Kazakhs as they entered Tibet via Gansu and Qinghai.

In northern Tibet Kazakhs clashed with Tibetan soldiers and then the Kazakhs were sent to Ladakh.[13]

Tibetan troops robbed and killed Kazakhs 400 miles east of Lhasa at Chamdo when the Kazakhs were entering Tibet.[14][15]

The Kazakhs migrated to Qinghai and lived peacefully with the local Mongolians and Tibetans. In 1938, in order to strengthen the rule of the people of all ethnic groups in the pastoral area, Ma Bufang took a provocative approach and proclaimed: "Hui and Kazakhism, the Mongolians are outsiders." Shot guns at the Kazakhs to incite them to rob the Mongolian livestock; However, he threatened: "Hui and Mongolia are natives of Qinghai, and the Kazakhs are foreign." Guns were fired at the Mongolians, inciting the Mongolians to grab Kazakh livestock, and creating hatred among the ethnic groups. There were more than 3,500 Mongolian people in Keligou. After Ma Bufang provoked the Kazakhs to plunder, there were only 2,000 people. Large animals consisted of more than 200,000 heads (only), and only 20,000 heads were left. Taiji was originally 1800 people and was massacred. More than 1200 people. More than 200,000 heads of animals. The remaining Mongolians are in exile in southern Xinjiang and the Hexi Corridor. In turn, the Mongolians hated and killed the Kazakhs. The mutual hatred between the ethnic groups made the Kazakhs unable to survive. In August 1939, about 300 households moved to Dapaba, Gonghe County. The remaining about 1,000 households are planning to enter Tibet. Due to the lack of animals to transport and transport animals, more than 10,000 camels were captured in the tea card camel farm set up by Ma Bufang. However, because the livestock were still insufficient for transportation, only about 900 households went west as planned, and about 100 households rushed to Duranxiligou to hide. When about nine hundred households moved westward to the Alton Quker area (now Golmud, Qinghai Province), Ma Bufang drove more than 1,000 Mongolian and Tibetan militiamen as pioneers, attacked the Kazakhs, and surrounded the blankets of the 900 Kazakhs . As the Kazakh people lacked food along the way, 400 young people hunted wild beasts near Kunlun Mountain. Ma Bufang's forces feared that this young armed force would fight back, and did not dare to slay the poisoned hands of the migrating Kazakh people. The youth returned to Baotu so that they could be wiped out. These young people were aware of the conspiracy of the Ma Jun, and resolutely refused to return, and asked the Ma Jun to release the family they had been encased in, otherwise they would be determined to fight. The deception was not completed, and Ma Bufang sent another Islamic imam from Xining to trick the Kazakh people back into the tea card in the name of religion, and promised friendly treatment in the future. Under the guise of religion, four hundred young people of Kazakh nationality carried guns down the mountain to meet with the elders, and they were escorted back to Dulan tea card by Ma Jun. When passing through Barong and Zongjia, they were surrounded by Ma Bufang's pre-arranged army and disarmed. More than 800 young and middle-aged Kazakhs led by Hujiahan, Engelbayi, and others, desperately desperately, one night, with a spade, head, Axe and wooden sticks were used as weapons, and Ma Bufang's troops were escorted and attacked. The captive young Kazakh women also seized battle knives, cut the ropes in the tent, and closed them inside and out. Over 300 officers and soldiers of Ma Bu were killed overnight, and the commander of Ma Bufang and the imam who seduced the Kazakh people did not leak. The next day Ma Bufang's troops arrived to massacre Kazakh herdsmen. About 100 households were slaughtered, and more than 600 people were killed or injured. More than 300 women were taken away by Ma Jiafang, and all their properties were obtained by Ma Bufang. Someone has done statistics on Ma Bufang inciting more than 30,000 religious feuds. The enemies between nations weakened the power of various nations and could not join forces to oppose Ma Bufang's feudal rule, and all the tribes' property also entered Ma Bufang's pockets. In 1940, the feud between the Kazakhs and the Mongolians, Ma Bufang fished more than 20,000 sheep, 550 cattle, 1,000 camels, and 300 horses. In addition, there are many gold and silver treasures. Kazakhs plundered from the Mongolian and Tibetan people, but changed hands, but was owned by Ma Bufang. From 1934, there were 1,700 and 800 Kazakhs who gradually moved into Qinghai. By 1949, there were only about 600 and 1,000 people.|url=https://user.guancha.cn/main/content?id=172711%7C

In 1934, 1935, 1936-1938 from Qumil Eliqsan led the Kerey Kazakhs to migrate to Gansu and the amount was estimated at 18,000, and they entered Gansu and Qinghai.[16]


Distribution[edit]

By province[edit]

By county[edit]

County-level distribution of the Kazakh

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >1% of county population. 2000)

Сounty/City % Kazakh Kazakh pop Total pop
Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region 6.74 1,245,023 18,459,511
Aksay Kazakh autonomous county 30.5 2,712 8,891
Ürümqi city 2.34 48,772 2,081,834
Tianshan district 1.77 8,354 471,432
Saybag district 1.27 6,135 482,235
Xinshi district 1.06 4,005 379,220
Dongshan district 1.96 1,979 100,796
Ürümqi county 8.00 26,278 328,536
Karamay city 3.67 9,919 270,232
Dushanzi district 4.24 2,150 50,732
Karamay district 3.49 5,079 145,452
Baijiantan district 3.35 2,151 64,297
Urko district 5.53 539 9,751
Hami city 8.76 43,104 492,096
Yizhou district 2.71 10,546 388,714
Barkol Kazakh autonomous county 34.01 29,236 85,964
Yiwu county 19.07 3,322 17,418
Changji Hui autonomous prefecture 7.98 119,942 1,503,097
Changji city 4.37 16,919 387,169
Fukang city 7.83 11,984 152,965
Midong district 1.94 3,515 180,952
Hutubi county 10.03 21,118 210,643
Manas county 9.62 16,410 170,533
Qitai county 10.07 20,629 204,796
Jimsar county 8.06 9,501 117,867
Mori Kazakh autonomous county 25.41 19,866 78,172
Bortala Mongol autonomous prefecture 9.14 38,744 424,040
Bole city 7.10 15,955 224,869
Jinghe county 8.27 11,048 133,530
Wenquan county 17.89 11,741 65,641
Ili Kazakh autonomous prefecture 1.78 5,077 285,299
Kuytun city 1.78 5,077 285,299
Ili prefecture direct-controlled territories 22.55 469,634 2,082,577
Ghulja city 4.81 17,205 357,519
Ghulja county 10.30 39,745 385,829
Qapqal Xibe autonomous county 20.00 32,363 161,834
Huocheng county 7.96 26,519 333,013
Gongliu county 29.69 45,450 153,100
Xinyuan county 43.43 117,195 269842
Zhaosu county 48.43 70,242 145,027
Tekes county 42.25 56,571 133,900
Nilka county 45.15 64,344 142,513
Tacheng prefecture 24.21 216,020 892,397
Tacheng city 15.51 23,144 149,210
Usu city 9.93 18,907 190,359
Emin county 33.42 59,586 178,309
Shawan county 16.23 30,621 188,715
Toli county 68.98 55,102 79,882
Yumin county 32.42 15,609 48,147
Hoboksar Mongol autonomous county 22.59 13,051 57,775
Altay prefecture 51.38 288,612 561,667
Altay city 36.80 65,693 178,510
Burqin county 57.31 35,324 61,633
Koktokay county 69.68 56,433 80,986
Burultokay county 31.86 24,793 77,830
Kaba county 59.79 43,889 73,403
Qinggil county 75.61 40,709 53,843
Jiminay county 61.39 21,771 35,462

Culture[edit]

Some Kazakhs are nomadic herders and raise sheep, goats, cattle, and horses. These nomadic Kazakhs migrate seasonally in search of pasture for their animals. During the summer, the Kazakhs live in yurts while in winter, they are settled and live in modest houses made out of adobe or cement blocks. Others live in the urban areas and tend to be highly educated and hold much influence in integrated communities. The Islam practiced by the Kazakhs in China contains many elements of shamanism, ancestor worship, and other traditional beliefs and practices.[17]

Notable Kazakh Chinese[edit]

  • Osman Batur, Kazakh chieftain who fought both for and against the Nationalist Chinese government in the 1940s and early 1950s.
  • Nazaerbieke Bieken, pro cyclist.
  • Dalelkhan Sugirbayev, Kazakh chieftain who fought against the Nationalist Chinese government and sought to join the Chinese Communists in 1949.
  • Jumabieke Tuerxun, mixed martial arts fighter. He previously fought as a Bantamweight in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.[18]
  • Kanat Islam former Chinese Boxer, now Boxer for Kazakhstan
  • Mamer, Kazakh folk singer
  • Yerjet Yerzat, Chinese footballer Chongqing Dangdai Lifan FC.
  • Ashat KerimbayRazdykov (Kazakh: Асхат Керімбай) is a Chinese politician.
  • Mayra Muhammad-kyzy (Maira Kerey, Kazakh: Maıra Muhamedqyzy) is a Kazakh opera singer. She was the first Kazakh at the Parisian Grand Opera. She is a Honored Artist of the Republic.
  • Qazhyghumar Shabdanuly (Kazakh: Қажығұмар Шабданұлы) was a Kazakh Chinese political activist and an author writing in Kazakh language. For more than forty years, Shabdanuly was imprisoned by the People's Republic of China for his political views.
  • Xiakaini Aerchenghazi (Kazakh: Шакен Аршынғазы) speed skater. He competed in the 2018 Winter Olympics.
  • Yeljan Shinar (Kazakh: Елжан Шынар) is a footballer currently playing as a defender for Shenzhen.
  • Mukhtar Kul-Mukhammed (Kazakh: Мұхтар Абрарұлы Құл-Мұхаммед) is a politician and a public figure of Kazakhstan, First Deputy Chairman of "Nur Otan" party.
  • Yeerlanbieke Katai (Kazakh: Ерланбек Кәтейұлы) is a freestyle wrestler. He competed in the men's freestyle 65 kg event at the 2016 Summer Olympics, in which he was eliminated in the round of 16 by Ganzorigiin Mandakhnaran.
  • Yushan Nijiati is amateur boxer best known for winning the bronze medal at the 2007 World Championships in the 201 lb/91 kg division.
  • Janabil Jänäbil Smağululı (Kazakh: Жәнәбіл Смағұлұлы) is a male Chinese politician.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Kazakh Ethnic Group", China.org.cn, 2005-06-21, retrieved 2009-02-06
  2. ^ Smagulova, Anar. "XVIII - XIX CENTURIES. IN THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE KAZAKHS OF CHINA". East Kazakhstan State University. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Alexander Douglas Mitchell Carruthers; Jack Humphrey Miller (1914). Unknown Mongolia: A Record of Travel and Exploration in North-west Mongolia and Dzungaria. Hutchinson & Company. p. 345.
  4. ^ Alex Marshall (22 November 2006). The Russian General Staff and Asia, 1860-1917. Routledge. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-1-134-25379-1.
  5. ^ Sydykova, Zamira (20 January 2016). "Commemorating the 1916 Massacres in Kyrgyzstan? Russia Sees a Western Plot". The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst.
  6. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (9 October 1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. CUP Archive. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
  7. ^ Genina, Anna (2015). Claiming Ancestral Homelandsː Mongolian Kazakh migration in Inner Asia (PDF) (A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Anthropology) in The University of Michigan). p. 113.
  8. ^ Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2008). Community Matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. BRILL. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-90-04-16675-2.
  9. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  10. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volumes 276–278. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  11. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 2012-09-29. A group of Kazakhs, originally numbering over 20000 people when expelled from Sinkiang by Sheng Shih-ts'ai in 1936, was reduced, after repeated massacres by their Chinese coreligionists under Ma Pu-fang, to a scattered 135 people.
  12. ^ Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. UBC Press. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  13. ^ Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. UBC Press. pp. 231–. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  14. ^ Blackwood's Magazine. William Blackwood. 1948. p. 407.
  15. ^ DEVLET, NADİR (2004). "STUDIES IN THE POLITICS,HISTORY AND CULTURE OF TURKIC PEOPLES". Yeditepe University: 192. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. ^ Linda Benson (1988). The Kazaks of China: Essays on an Ethnic Minority. Ubsaliensis S. Academiae. p. 195. ISBN 978-91-554-2255-4.
  17. ^ Elliot, Sheila Hollihan (2006). Muslims in China. Philadelphia: Mason Crest Publishers. pp. 62–63. ISBN 1-59084-880-2.
  18. ^ "Jumabieke Tuerxun: From The Rural Edges of China to the UFC". Fightland. Retrieved 24 October 2014.

External links[edit]