Kazakhs in China
|Regions with significant populations|
|Xinjiang (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County, Mori Kazakh Autonomous County)|
|Sunni Islam ·|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Kazakhs, Turkic peoples|
Kazakhs, called Hāsàkè Zú in Chinese (哈萨克族; literally "Kazakh ethnic group") are among 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. During the fall of the Dzungar Khanate, the Manchus massacred the native Dzungar Oirat Buddhists of Dzungaria in the Dzungar genocide and filled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria. Dzungaria was subjected to mass Kazakh settlement after the defeat of the Dzungars. In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. In China there is one Kazakh autonomous prefecture, the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, three Kazakh autonomous counties, Aksai Kazakh Autonomous County in Gansu, Barkol Kazakh Autonomous County and Mori Kazakh Autonomous County in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Many Kazakhs in China are not fluent in Standard Chinese, instead speaking the Kazakh language.
Russians originally referred to Kazakhs as Kirghiz.
In the 19th century, Russian settlers on traditional Kirghiz land drove a lot of the Kirghiz over the border to China, causing their population to increase in China. Compared to Russian controlled areas, more benefits were given to the Muslim Kirghiz on the Chinese controlled areas. Russian settlers fought against the Muslim nomadic Kirghiz, which led the Russians to believe that the Kirghiz would be a liability in any conflict against China. The Muslim Kirghiz were sure that in an upcoming war, that China would defeat Russia.
To escape Russians slaughtering them in 1916, Kazakhs escaped to China. Xinjiang became a sanctuary for fleeing Kazakhs escaping the Russians after the Muslims faced conscription by the Russian government.
Soviet persecution of Kazakhs led to Kazakhs from Soviet Kazakhstan moving to Xinjiang.
An estimate of 65,000 Kirghiz, 92,000 Hui, 326,000 Kazakh, 187,000 Han, and 2,984,000 Uyghur adding up to a total population of 3,730,000 in all of Xinjiang in 1941 was estimated by Toops, and 4,334,000 people lived in Xinjiang according to Hoppe in 1949.
The Kazakhs had settled in the Dzungaria area of Xinjiang after the Dzungar genocide by the Manchus wiped out most of the native Dzungar Oirats and fleeing from Soviet engineered famines against the Kazakhs like the Kazakh famine of 1919–1922 and Kazakhstan famine of 1932-1933. The Kazakhs had defected to the Republic of China and fought against the Soviet Communist backed Uyghur Second East Turkestan Republic in the Ili Rebellion.
From Northern Xinjiang over 7,000 Kazakhs fled to the Tibetan-Qinghai plateau region via Gansu and were wreaking massive havoc so Ma Bufang solved the problem by relegating the Kazakhs into designated pastureland in Qinghai, but Hui, Tibetans, and Kazakhs in the region continued to clash against each other.
Tibetans attacked and fought against the Kazakhs as they entered Tibet via Gansu and Qinghai.
In northern Tibet Kazakhs clashed with Tibetan soldiers and then the Kazakhs were sent to Ladakh.
In 1934, 1935, 1936-1938 from Qumil Eliqsan led the Kerey Kazakhs to migrate to Gansu and the amount was estimated at 18,000, and they entered Gansu and Qinghai.
Tibetan troops serving under the Dalai Lama murdered the American CIA agent Douglas Mackiernan and his two White Russian helpers because he was dressed as a Kazakh, their enemy.
- County-level distribution of the Kazakh
(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >1% of county population. 2000 )
|Сounty/Сity||% Kazakh||Kazakh pop||Total pop|
|Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region||6.74||1,245,023||18,459,511|
|Akesai Kazak autonomous county||30.5||2,712||8,891|
|Balikun Kazak autonomous county||34.01||29,236||85,964|
|Changji Hui autonomous prefecture||7.98||119,942||1,503,097|
|Mulei Kazak autonomous county||25.41||19,866||78,172|
|Boertala Mongolian autonomous prefecture||9.14||38,744||424,040|
|Yili Kazak autonomous prefecture||1.78||5,077||285,299|
|Chabuchaer Xibo autonomous county||20.00||32,363||161,834|
|Hebukesaier Mongolian autonomous county||22.59||13,051||57,775|
Famous Chinese Kazakhs
- Osman Batur, Kazakh chieftain who fought both for and against the Nationalist Chinese government in the 1940s and early 1950s.
- Mamuer Rayeskan, a young Kazakh musician from Qitai, Xinjiang now living in Beijing, who achieved some renown for his reworking of Kazakh folk songs with his group IZ, with which he sings and plays acoustic guitar, dombra, and jaw harp. "In that place wholly faraway", based on a Kazakh folk song, is very popular outside the Kazakh regions, especially in the Far Eastern countries of China, Japan and Korea.
- Dalelkhan Sugirbayev, Kazakh chieftain who fought against the Nationalist Chinese government and sought to join the Chinese Communists in 1949.
- Jumabieke Tuerxun, mixed martial arts fighter. He currently fights as a Bantamweight in the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
- "The Kazakh Ethnic Group", China.org.cn, 2005-06-21, retrieved 2009-02-06
- Smagulova, Anar. "XVIII - XIX CENTURIES. IN THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE KAZAKHS OF CHINA". East Kazakhstan State University.
- Alexander Douglas Mitchell Carruthers; Jack Humphrey Miller (1914). Unknown Mongolia: A Record of Travel and Exploration in North-west Mongolia and Dzungaria. Hutchinson & Company. p. 345.
- Alex Marshall (22 November 2006). The Russian General Staff and Asia, 1860-1917. Routledge. pp. 85–. ISBN 978-1-134-25379-1.
- Sydykova, Zamira (20 January 2016). "Commemorating the 1916 Massacres in Kyrgyzstan? Russia Sees a Western Plot". The Central Asia-Caucasus Analyst.
- Andrew D. W. Forbes (9 October 1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. CUP Archive. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1.
- Genina, Anna (2015). Claiming Ancestral Homelandsː Mongolian Kazakh migration in Inner Asia (PDF) (A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Anthropology) in The University of Michigan). p. 113.
- Ildikó Bellér-Hann (2008). Community Matters in Xinjiang, 1880-1949: Towards a Historical Anthropology of the Uyghur. BRILL. pp. 64–. ISBN 90-04-16675-0.
- American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volumes 276–278. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- American Academy of Political and Social Science (1951). The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277. American Academy of Political and Social Science. p. 152. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
A group of Kazakhs, originally numbering over 20000 people when expelled from Sinkiang by Sheng Shih-ts'ai in 1936, was reduced, after repeated massacres by their Chinese coreligionists under Ma Pu-fang, to a scattered 135 people.
- Hsaio-ting Lin (1 January 2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49. UBC Press. pp. 112–. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2. Cite error: Invalid
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- Blackwood's Magazine. William Blackwood. 1948. p. 407.
- DEVLET, NADİR (2004). "STUDIES IN THE POLITICS,HISTORY AND CULTURE OF TURKIC PEOPLES". Yeditepe University: 192.
- Linda Benson (1988). The Kazaks of China: Essays on an Ethnic Minority. Ubsaliensis S. Academiae. p. 195. ISBN 978-91-554-2255-4.
- "Jumabieke Tuerxun: From The Rural Edges of China to the UFC". Fightland. Retrieved 24 October 2014.