Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline
|Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline|
|Passes through||Aktobe, Kenkiyak, Kumkol, Atasu|
|Partners||China National Petroleum Corporation, KazMunayGas|
|Length||2,228 km (1,384 mi)|
|Maximum discharge||20 million tonnes per year|
The Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline is China's first direct oil import pipeline allowing oil import from Central Asia. It runs from Kazakhstan's Caspian shore to Xinjiang in China. The pipeline is owned by the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and the Kazakh oil company KazMunayGas.
The construction of pipeline was agreed between China and Kazakhstan in 1997. The first section of pipeline from the Aktobe region's oil fields to the Atyrau was completed in 2003. The construction of pipeline from Atasu, Kazakhstan to Alashankou started in September 2004 and was completed in December 2005. The construction of Kenkiyak–Kumkol section was agreed between Kazakhstan and China on 18 August 2007. This section was completed on 11 July 2009.
The pipeline was developed by the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and the Kazakh oil company KazMunayGas.
Currently capacity is at 14 million tons per year. The pipeline is expected to reach nominal capacity of 20 million tons per year in 2014. 
The 2,228 kilometres (1,384 mi) long pipeline runs from Atyrau in Kazakhstan to Alashankou in China's Xinjiang. The Kenkiyak-Atyrau section of the pipeline is 449 kilometres (279 mi) long and has a capacity of 120 thousand barrels per day (~6.0×106 t/a). Capacity of the pipeline maybe upgraded to 180 thousand barrels per day (~9.0×106 t/a) in the future. The pipeline was built and is operated by MunaiTas a joint venture between CNPC and KazMunayGas.
The Atasu-Alashankou section of the pipeline cost US$700 million. It is 987 kilometres (613 mi) long and has a capacity of 200 thousand barrels per day (~1.0×107 t/a). Capacity of this section might be upgraded to 400 thousand barrels per day (~2.0×107 t/a) by 2011. The pipeline includes an oil metering station at the Alataw Pass. The pipeline was built and is operated by a joint venture between CNODC and KazTrans Oil JSC. The first oil through this pipeline reached the refinery in August 2006.
Alashankou–Dushanzi Crude Oil Pipeline
In Alashankou, the pipeline is connected with the Alashankou–Dushanzi Crude Oil Pipeline, which is a 246 kilometres (153 mi) long pipeline connecting the Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline with Dushanzi District. The capacity of pipeline is 10 million tons of oil per year and it supplies mainly the Dushanzi refinery. The pipeline became operational on 21 December 2005 and the first oil through this pipeline reached to the refinery on 29 July 2006. The pipeline is constructed and operated by the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC).
The Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline is supplied from the Aktobe region's fields and from the Kumkol field. In the future, the main supply source will be Kashagan field. The pipeline is used also for the transportation of oil from Russia's western Siberia by connection with the Omsk (Russia)–Pavlodar (Kasakhstan)–Shymkent–Türkmenabat (Turkmenistan) pipeline in Atasu oil terminal. Oil is transported through this pipeline by Russian companies TNK-BP and Gazprom Neft.
- Central Asia – China gas pipeline
- Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
- Lanzhou–Zhengzhou–Changsha product oil pipeline
- "Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline opens to operation". Xinhua. 2006-07-12. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- "China starts work on Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline". People's Daily Online. 2005-03-25. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- "Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline to open in May". People's Daily Online. 2006-02-27. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- Maria Golovnina (2007-08-18). "Kazakhstan, China agree on pipeline from Caspian". Reuters. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- "CNPC announces Kenkiyak-Kumkol section of Kazakhstan-China Oil Pipeline becomes operational" (Press release). China National Petroleum Corporation. 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2009-07-15.
- "Kazakhstan-China oil pipeline could start operating at its full capacity by 2014". energy global. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- "China-Kazakhstan pipeline starts to pump oil". China Daily. 2005-12-25. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- "Beijing digs in with Kazakh pipes". Upstream Online. NHST Media Group. 2008-04-09. Retrieved 2008-04-19.
- Sébastien Peyrouse (September 2007). "Economic Aspects of the Chinese–Central Asia Rapprochement" (PDF). Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program – A Joint Transatlantic Research and Policy Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-02-07. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- "Pipeline carries Kazakh oil to China". China Daily. Xinhua. 2006-07-30. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- "Major events 2006". China National Petroleum Corporation. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- Alexander Sukhanov (2005-02-09). "Caspian oil exports heading east". Asian Times. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- "Gazprom Neft asks to send more oil to China". Reuters. 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
- Chow, Edward, "Central Asia’s Pipelines: Field of Dreams and Reality," in Pipeline Politics in Asia: The Intersection of Demand, Energy Markets, and Supply Routes (National Bureau of Asian Research, 2010)
- The Geopolitics of Oil Pipelines in Central Asia, Article on the Kazakhstan-China pipelines featured in Vestnik, the Journal of Russian and Asian Studies Winter 2007