Kazan

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Kazan

Казань
City of republic significance[1]
Other transcription(s)
 • TatarКазан
Left to right, top to bottom: Spasskaya Tower, Söyembikä Tower, Qol Sharif Mosque, Farmers' Palace, Epiphany Cathedral, view of Kazan
Left to right, top to bottom: Spasskaya Tower, Söyembikä Tower, Qol Sharif Mosque, Farmers' Palace, Epiphany Cathedral, view of Kazan
Flag of Kazan
Flag
Coat of arms of Kazan
Coat of arms
Location of Kazan
Kazan is located in Russia
Kazan
Kazan
Location of Kazan
Kazan is located in Tatarstan
Kazan
Kazan
Kazan (Tatarstan)
Coordinates: 55°47′47″N 49°06′32″E / 55.79639°N 49.10889°E / 55.79639; 49.10889Coordinates: 55°47′47″N 49°06′32″E / 55.79639°N 49.10889°E / 55.79639; 49.10889
CountryRussia
Federal subjectTatarstan[1]
Founded1005[2] (see text)
Government
 • BodyCity Duma[3]
 • Mayor[4]Ilsur Metshin[4]
Area
 • Total425.3 km2 (164.2 sq mi)
Elevation
60 m (200 ft)
Population
 • Total1,143,535
 • Estimate 
(2018)[7]
1,243,500
 • Rank8th in 2010
 • Density2,700/km2 (7,000/sq mi)
 • Administratively subordinated tocity of republic significance of Kazan[1]
 • Capital ofRepublic of Tatarstan[8]
 • Administrative center ofcity of republic significance of Kazan[1]
 • Urban okrugKazan Urban Okrug[9]
 • Administrative center ofKazan Urban Okrug[9]
Time zoneMSK (UTC+03:00)[10]
Postal code(s)[11]
420xxx
Dialing code(s)+7 843[12]
City Day30 August[13]
OKATO ID92401000000
Websitewww.kzn.ru

Kazan (/kəˈzæn, -ˈzɑːn/; Russian: Каза́нь, IPA: [kɐˈzanʲ]; Tatar: Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,243,500,[7] it is the sixth most populous city in Russia. Kazan is one of the largest religious, economic, political, scientific, educational, cultural and sports centers in Russia. Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in European Russia, about 715 kilometres (444 mi) east from Moscow. The Kazan Kremlin is a World Heritage Site.

The millennium of Kazan was celebrated in 2005.

In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia.[14] In 2009 it was chosen as the "sports capital of Russia"[15] and it still is referred to as such.[16] In 2011, the European Weightlifting Championships were held here. The city hosted the 2013 Summer Universiade, 2014 World Fencing Championships, the 2015 World Aquatics Championships, and is one of the host cities for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and, for the first time in Russia, the official stage of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship under the auspices of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Kazan has also held the World Wushu Championships. In 2018, Kazan became one of the cities where the 2018 FIFA World Cup was held.

In 2015, 2.1 million tourists visited Kazan, a 20% increase in comparison with 2014. In 2015 1.5 million tourists visited the Kazan Kremlin, and one million visited the city's hotel and entertainment complex with an aquapark called "Kazan Riviera".[17]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the name Kazan is uncertain. The most accepted legends derive it from the Bulgar (and also modern Tatar) word qazan, which means 'boiler' or 'cauldron'. Most often appeal to the version of the boiling boiler: the sorcerer advised the Bulgars to build a city where without any fire will boil dug into the ground boiler with water. As a result, a similar place was found on the shore of lake Kaban. One legend claims that the city was named after the river Kazanka, which was named after the son of a Bulgar governor dropped a copper cauldron into it.[18] Other local legends, including research by the Tatar scholar Shigabetdin Marjani, claim that the city was named for the resemblance of the hill on which it sits to an upturned cauldron.

Qazan/Kazan was a choice name for the male Turkic/Mongol royalty, most notably that of the Ilkhanid Mongol king, Qazan Khan. It is likely that the city was named after a Mongol/Turkic khan by that name when the city was founded or soon after.

History[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

A view of Kazan by Adam Olearius, 1630
A view of the city c. 1767

According to the official version adopted today, the city was founded more than 1000 years ago. The estimated date of the urban settlement on the site of Kazan is 1004-1005 years. The reason for this dating is found during excavations in the Kazan Kremlin Czech coin, dated by the Board of St. Wenceslaus (presumably, coinage 929-930 years) and the earliest Czech coin, the remains of masonry and wooden city fence, handicrafts and utensils (Hungarian type lining, women's beads, etc.), as well as other artifacts with less obvious dating. According to official statements, experts from 20 cities of Russia and 22 countries of the world were involved in the study of findings related to the age of Kazan.[19][20]

Kazan was a border post between Volga Bulgaria and two Finnish tribes-Mari and Udmurt. Another vexatious question is where the citadel was built originally. Archaeological explorations have produced evidence of urban settlement in three parts of the modern city: in the Kremlin; in Bişbalta at the site of the modern Zilantaw monastery; and near the Qaban lake. The oldest of these seems to be the Kremlin.

After the Mongols ravaged the Bolğar and Bilär territories in the 13th century, the surviving Bulgars recovered in numbers and a small number of Kipchaks were assimilated from which they adopted their language (the so-called Bulgarism), or Kipchaks and Bulgars mixed to create a modern Kazan-Tatar population. Some Tatars also went to Lithuania, brought by Vytautas the great. Kazan became the center of the Principality, which was dependent on The Golden Horde. In the XIII—XIV centuries, Kazan was growing, becoming an important trade and political center within The Golden Horde. The growth of the city was also promoted by the successful geographical location at the intersection of major trade routes connecting East and West. During the same period, the minting of currency began with the indication of the place of minting—"Bulgar al-Jadid", that is, a New Bulgar.

In 1438, the Bulgar fortress Kazan (ISKE-Kazan) was captured by the ousted Golden Horde Khan Ulugh Muhammad, who killed the local Prince Swan and moved the fortress to a modern place (according to Russian Chronicles). The city became the capital of the Kazan Khanate. The city Bazaar, Taş Ayaq (stone foot) has become the most important shopping center in the region, especially for furniture. Handicraft production also flourished, as the city gained a reputation for its leather and gold products, as well as the wealth of its palaces and mosques. Kazan had trade relations with Moscow, Crimea, Turkey and other regions.

Russian Tsardom period[edit]

Annunciation Cathedral of Kazan Kremlin, 1561–1562

As a result of the Siege of Kazan in 1552, Tsar Ivan the Terrible conquered the city and massacred the majority of the population.[21] During the subsequent governorship of Alexander Gorbatyi-Shuisky, most of the Kazan's Tatar residents were forcibly Christianized or deported,[22] the Kerashen Tatars.[21] Mosques and palaces were ruined.[21] The surviving Tatar population was moved to a place 50 kilometers (31 mi) away from the city and this place was forcibly settled by Russian farmers and soldiers. Tatars in the Russian service were settled in the Tatar Bistäse settlement near the city's wall. Later Tatar merchants and handicraft masters also settled there. During this period, Kazan was largely destroyed as a result of several great fires. After one of them in 1579, the icon Our Lady of Kazan was discovered in the city.

In the early 17th century, at the beginning of the Time of Troubles in Russia, the Tsardom of Kazan declared independence under the leadership of voyvoda Nikanor Shulgin with the help of the Russian population, but this independence was suppressed by Kuzma Minin in 1612.[citation needed]

Russian Empire period[edit]

Kazan city map from the 19th century, Russian edition

In 1708, the Tsardom of Kazan was abolished, and Kazan became the seat of Kazan Governorate. After Peter the Great's visit, the city became a center of shipbuilding for the Caspian fleet. The major Russian poet Gavrila Derzhavin was born in Kazan in 1743, the son of a poor country squire of Tatar ancestry though himself having a thoroughly Russian identity.

Before the building of modern dams, low-lying areas were regularly flooded in April and May. Kazan suffered major fires in 1595, 1672, 1694, 1742, 1749, 1757 1744, 1815 and 1842.

Kazan was largely destroyed in 1774 as a result of the Pugachev revolt (1774–1776), an uprising by border troops and peasants led by the Don Cossack ataman (Captain) Yemelyan Pugachev, but the city, formerly largely of timber construction, was soon afterwards rebuilt, using stone and according to a grid pattern plan, during the reign of Catherine the Great. Catherine also decreed that mosques could again be built in Kazan, the first being Marjani Mosque.

At the beginning of the 19th century Kazan State University and printing press were founded by Alexander I. It became an important center for Oriental Studies in Russia. The Qur'an was first printed in Kazan in 1801. Kazan became an industrial center and peasants migrated there to join its industrial workforce. In 1875, a horse tramway appeared; 1899 saw the installation of a tramway. After the Russian Revolution of 1905, Tatars were allowed to revive Kazan as a Tatar cultural center. The first Tatar theater and the first Tatar newspaper appeared.

Soviet period[edit]

In 1917, Kazan became one of the revolution centers. In 1918, Kazan was the capital of the Idel-Ural State, which was suppressed by the Bolshevist government. In the Kazan Operation of August 1918, it was briefly occupied by Czechoslovak Legions. In 1920, Kazan became the center of Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. In the 1920s and 1930s, most of the city's mosques and churches were destroyed, as occurred elsewhere in the USSR.[citation needed] After the Treaty of Rapallo (1922) until 1933, the German and the Russian army operated together the Kama tank school in Kazan.

During World War II, many industrial plants and factories to the west were relocated in Kazan, making the city a center of the military industry, producing tanks and planes. After the war Kazan consolidated as an industrial and scientific center. In 1979, the city's population reached one million.

Modern period[edit]

Dmitry Medvedev visits Kazan.

In the late 1980s and in the 1990s, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazan again became the center of Tatar culture and identity, and separatist tendencies intensified. With the return of capitalism, Kazan became one of the most important centers of the Russian Federation. The city went from 10th to 8th position in population ranking of Russian cities. In the early 2000s, the city earned the right to host both the 2013 Summer Universiade and 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Millennium of Kazan[edit]

Since 2000, the city has been undergoing a total renovation. The historical center—including the Kremlin—has been rebuilt, however a large number of the city's historical districts were completely demolished in the renovation. Kazan celebrated its millennium in 2005, after a city-organized historical commission settled on 1005 as the official year of the city's founding.[2] During the millennium celebrations, one of the largest mosque in Russia, Qolsharif, was dedicated in the Kazan Kremlin, the holiest copy of Our Lady of Kazan was returned to the city, the Millennium Bridge was inaugurated that year,[23] and the Kazan Metro began operation. The government of the Russian Federation released the Medal "In Commemoration of the 1000th Anniversary of Kazan". In 2010, for the preparations to the 2013 Universiade, Kazan began even more renovation by modernizing its airport, fixing the streets, enhancing public transport, and adopting Russian, English, and Tatar languages in all transportation, large stores, and shopping centers.

Heraldry[edit]

The historical symbol of Kazan is the mythical dragon-like creature Zilant, often mentioned in legends. For example, when numerous snakes and reptiles severely hampered the development of the city, the hunters went in search of the King of snakes and defeated him, according to another version, the residents of the city bought off the giant snake with gold, after which all the snakes left the city. Another legend says that the giant dragon-like serpent always guarded the Khan's treasures, and that it still protects the hidden wealth before the capture of the city in the secret caves. Historically, it is true that snakes were once numerous in the Kazan region, but then their number has decreased dramatically. The first official coat of arms of Kazan was approved on 18 October 1781 and was described as "black snake under the crown of gold, Kazan, red wings, white field". In 1926, the country introduced a ban on such heraldry. In the 1980s, we again started talking about the coat of arms of Kazan, and in the 1990s Kazan Zilant in various styles began to appear in print media. Modern graphics of the emblem and flag appeared in 2005—in a silver field on the green earth a black dragon with red wings and tongue, with gold paws, claws and eyes, topped with a gold crown. The shield is crowned with a Kazan cap. According to the traditions of heraldry, the dragon symbolizes power, wisdom and invincibility, the earth—life and wealth, the crown-development, and the cap above the shield-the capital of the city.[24][25]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Kazan is the capital of the republic.[citation needed] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of republic significance of Kazan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Kazan is incorporated as Kazan Urban Okrug.[9]

City divisions[edit]

City districts of Kazan

Kazan is divided into seven districts:

No. District Population[6] Area (km²)[citation needed]
1 Aviastroitelny 111,405 38.91
2 Vakhitovsky 86,202 25.82
3 Kirovsky 109,125 108.79
4 Moskovsky 130,537 38.81
5 Novo-Savinovsky 202,997 20.66
6 Privolzhsky 227,755 115.77
7 Sovetsky 275,514 167.00

Economy[edit]

Kazanorgsintez chemical plant
Corston-Kazan with local World trade center
Mil Mi-14/Mil Mi-17 amphibious/middle helicopter
Kazan Ansat light helicopter
Helicopter built by Kazan Helicopters

Kazan is one of the largest industrial and financial centers of Russia, and a leading city of the Volga economic region in construction and accumulated investment.[26] City's Gross Regional Product had reached 380 billion rubles in 2011.[27]

Total banking capital of Kazan banks is third in Russia.[citation needed] The main industries of the city are: mechanical engineering, chemical, petrochemical, light and food industries. An innovative economy is represented by the largest IT-park in Russia which is one of the largest of its kind among Eastern Europe science parks.[28][29] Kazan ranks 174th (highest in Russia) in Mercer’s Worldwide Quality of Living Survey.[30]

Investments[edit]

In 2011, city organisations and businesses attracted more than 87 billion rubles for economy and social sphere development. This was 44% more than in 2010. In 2014, businesses attracted 86 billion rubles. Most of them have been implemented in the real economy sector.

Because of the unstable economic situation within the country, there was a decrease of investment rates in 2015 and—according to the statistics of the first part of the year—it composed 51684.2 million rubles.

There are head offices of six companies that are in the top 500 in terms of revenues in Russia. The total area of city business centres is 330 thousand square metres.

Innovative economy in Kazan is represented by the biggest IT-park in Russia and also the biggest technical park in Europe. The only online platform for governmental trade except the Moscow one is operated in Kazan. During the post-Soviet period Kazan was the leader in terms of house construction in the Volga region, and now it holds the position and implements the Republican program of liquidation of dilapidated housing which was unique for Russia.

According to Forbes, Kazan was ranked 15th among the "Best cities for business in Russia" of 2010.[31] In 2012, Kazan ranked 6th in the quality of city environment rating, which was made by the Russian Federation Ministry of Regional Development, Russian Alliance of Engineers, Federal Construction Agency, Federal Service of Supervision of Consumer Protection and Welfare and Moscow Federal University.[32]

Transportation[edit]

Cycling[edit]

On 1 July 2013, the Veli'k bicycle sharing system was launched in Kazan. The system includes seven self-service bicycle docking stations, and a total of 100 bikes, distributed throughout the centre of Kazan, near the most popular city destinations. The service is open to everyone from 16 years of age. To access the service, riders have to complete a simple sign-up procedure at www.Veli-k.ru, and buy a subscription for a suitable period of time. The first 30 minutes of every journey is free of charge. After the first half-hour, a service charge applies.

Public transit[edit]

Travel cards that work within the metropolitan area reduce the cost of travel to 15 rub on trolley buses and buses, and offer considerable discounts on the metro line. These travel cards can be purchased from the post office.

Bus[edit]

The Kazan Bus system [Wikidata] was totally renovated in 2007. 91 routes have an aggregate length of 1,981 km (1,231 mi). All 1,444 buses are colored red, as in London. A single trip costs 25 rub. Unlike in most Western cities, public bus routes are not municipal, but are operated by private companies. Half of the buses are imported, produced by Golden Dragon, Higer, MAZ, Yutong, and Hyundai. Other buses are mostly Russian made NefAZ.

Tram[edit]

The Kazan Tram [Wikidata] system was founded in 1899. Six routes use 187 km (116.20 mi) of tracks and 197 tramcars. All trams are dark red.[33] A single trip costs 25 rub. Rolling stock: LM-99, 71-608, 71-605.

Trolleybus[edit]

The Kazan trolleybus [Wikidata] electric bus system was founded in 1948. 355 km (220.59 mi) of lines are used for 14 routes. All trolleybuses are green[34] Single trip costs 25 rub. Vehicles: ZIU-682, Trolza-5275-05 "Optima", VMZ-5298.01-50 "Avangard".

Metro[edit]

A single-line Kazan Metro (running north to south-east), opened on 27 August 2005, the first and only metro system built in a post-soviet state after the collapse of the USSR. As of 2018, the Kazan Metro now has ten stations, and crosses the Kazanka River.

Railways[edit]

Main railway station

Kazan is connected with Moscow, Ulyanovsk, Yoshkar-Ola and Yekaterinburg by train.

The main railway station Kazan–Passazhirskaya is located in the city centre and includes a main building (built in 1896), a commuter trains terminal, a ticket office building and some other technical buildings. The station serves 36 intercity trains and more than eight million passengers per annum.[35] The second terminus called "Kazan-2" is situated in the northern part of the city. Kazan also has 19 platforms for commuter trains.

Waterways[edit]

Bolaq channel

This station serves intercity ships and commuter boats. Pneumocushion boats are used in winter. Daily passenger turnover reaches six thousand.

Highways[edit]

There are federal highway connections to Moscow and Ufa (E-22), Orenburg (R-239), Ul'yanovsk (R-241) and Igra (R-242). There are also the R-175 federal highway and "Northern Europe – Western China" (in construction) route near the city.

There are five bridges across the Kazanka (Qazansu) river in the city, and one bridge connecting Kazan with the opposite bank of the Volga.

Intercity buses[edit]

There are two bus stations in Kazan—Central and Southern. Bus routes connect Kazan with all districts of Tatarstan, Samara, Ufa, Tolyatti, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Cheboksary, Sterlitamak, Buzuluk, Baki, and Aktobe. It is planned to build new stations in the East, West and North districts instead of Central for relieving city centre.

Kazan International Airport[edit]

Kazan International Airport

Kazan International Airport is located 26 kilometers (16 mi) from the city center. It is a hub for Tatarstan Airlines and Kazan Air Enterprise and hosts eleven air companies. The airport is connected with the city by bus route #97 and by a suburban train line.

There is also the Kazan Borisoglebskoye airfield, home to Kazan Aircraft Production Association, a major aircraft factory, famous in the past as "Aircraft Plant 22" ("22nd Zavod").

Adjacent to it lies a huge aircraft engines plant ("16th Zavod"). It produces versions of Tupolev 204 and 214 aircraft. In the past an Ilyushin-62, four-engine Russian mainliner, Tupolev-160 "Black Jack" supersonic strategic bomber and Tu-22M tactic bomber were also produced here. Both these plants and adjacent workers' housing make a whole city district known as "Aviastroitelny" ("Aircraft Builders").

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Population of Kazan since 1800

Population: 1,143,535 (2010 Census);[6] 1,105,289 (2002 Census);[36] 1,094,378 (1989 Census).[37] Kazan metropolitan area's population is 1.65 million.

Year Population
1550 5,000
1557 7,000
1800 40,000
1830 43,900
1839 51,600
1859 60,600
1862 63,100
1883 140,000
1897 130,000
1917 206,600
1926 179,000
1939 398,000
1959 667,000
1979 989,000
1989 1,094,378 (census)
1997 1,076,000
2000 1,089,500
2002 1,105,289 (census)
2008 1,120,200
2009 1,130,717
2010 1,143,535 (census)
2016 1,216,965

Ethnicity[edit]

Young women in the street, outside Kazan University

The city's population consists mostly of ethnic Tatars (48.3%) and ethnic Russians (47.9%). The other ethnicities are Chuvash, Ukrainians, Azerbaijanis, Vietnamese,[38][39][40] and Jews.[41]

Religion[edit]

Predominant faiths of Kazan city are Sunni Islam and Orthodox Christianity, with Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith also represented.

Languages[edit]

The Tatar language is widely spoken in the city mainly by Tatars. Russian language is also widely spoken, mainly by Russians.

Geography[edit]

Climate[edit]

Kazan has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) with long, cold winters (colder than Moscow), and warm, often dry summers. As a result of its far inland position, summers are extremely warm for its latitude and winters are quite cold compared to areas further west in Europe.[citation needed]

The warmest month is July with daily mean temperature near 20.2 °C (68.4 °F), and the coldest month is January, with a daily mean of −10.4 °C (13.3 °F).[citation needed]

The city set its two hottest days on record during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat waves. Temperatures reached +39 °C (102 °F) in the hottest days during that time.[citation needed]

Climate data for Kazan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
5.2
(41.4)
14.0
(57.2)
29.5
(85.1)
33.5
(92.3)
37.5
(99.5)
38.9
(102)
39.0
(102.2)
32.3
(90.1)
23.4
(74.1)
15.0
(59)
6.1
(43)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) −7.2
(19)
−6.7
(19.9)
−0.2
(31.6)
10.2
(50.4)
19.0
(66.2)
23.6
(74.5)
25.5
(77.9)
22.9
(73.2)
16.3
(61.3)
8.1
(46.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
−5.8
(21.6)
8.7
(47.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −10.4
(13.3)
−10.1
(13.8)
−3.9
(25)
5.5
(41.9)
13.3
(55.9)
18.1
(64.6)
20.2
(68.4)
17.6
(63.7)
11.7
(53.1)
4.8
(40.6)
−3.4
(25.9)
−8.6
(16.5)
4.6
(40.3)
Average low °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−13.3
(8.1)
−7.2
(19)
1.7
(35.1)
8.3
(46.9)
13.4
(56.1)
15.5
(59.9)
13.3
(55.9)
8.2
(46.8)
2.2
(36)
−5.6
(21.9)
−11.4
(11.5)
1.0
(33.8)
Record low °C (°F) −46.8
(−52.2)
−39.9
(−39.8)
−31.7
(−25.1)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−6.5
(20.3)
−1.4
(29.5)
2.6
(36.7)
1.6
(34.9)
−5.4
(22.3)
−23.4
(−10.1)
−36.6
(−33.9)
−43.9
(−47)
−46.8
(−52.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
34
(1.34)
33
(1.3)
30
(1.18)
41
(1.61)
63
(2.48)
67
(2.64)
59
(2.32)
52
(2.05)
53
(2.09)
46
(1.81)
43
(1.69)
562
(22.13)
Average rainy days 3 2 4 11 15 18 16 16 18 17 10 5 135
Average snowy days 26 22 16 6 1 0 0 0 1 7 20 24 123
Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 76 67 58 65 68 70 75 80 85 84 74
Mean monthly sunshine hours 49 89 150 205 282 293 291 254 160 84 41 33 1,931
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[42]
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[43]

Central Kazan[edit]

Qolşärif Mosque grand mosque
Belltower of Epiphany Church

Kremlin[edit]

The city has a citadel (Russian: кремль, tr. kreml', or sometimes Tatar: kirman), which was declared a World Heritage Site in 2000. Major monuments in the Kremlin are the five-domed, six-columned Annunciation Cathedral (1561–62) and the mysterious, formerly leaning Söyembikä Tower, named after the last queen of Kazan and regarded as the city's most conspicuous landmark.

Also of interest are the towers and walls, erected in the 16th and 17th centuries but later reconstructed; the Qol-Şarif Mosque, which has been rebuilt inside the citadel; remains of the Saviour Monastery (a 16th-century cathedral demolished by the Bolsheviks) with the Spasskaya Tower; and the Governor's House (1843–53), designed by Konstantin Thon, now the Palace of the President of Tatarstan.

Next door, the ornate baroque Sts-Peter-and-Paul's Cathedral on Qawi Nacmi Street and Marcani Mosque on Qayum Nasiri Street date back to the 18th century.

Towers[edit]

The Spasskaya Tower was built in two floors by 16th century Pskov architects Ivan Shiryai and Postnik Yakovlev. From the inside, the northern side of the fortress to the Spasskaya Tower adjoined the gate to Spasskaya Church, which has now merged with the tower. The typical Pskovian architectural elements of the facade face the main street of the Kremlin. At the end of the 17th century, instead of three tiers, the tower was built with two brick eight-sided tiers with a brick roof, getting its present, familiar appearance. Until 1917, the tower was crowned with the double-headed coat of arms of the Russian state. In the 18th century, a ringing clock was installed in the upper tier, and even earlier a large bell was moved from a small belfry (now lost, located on the castle wall on the left side of the tower). Until the middle of the 19th century, there was a moat with a stone bridge in front of the tower.

The South-Western Tower was built simultaneously with the Spasskaya tower by Pskov masters and is a classic example of the Pskov style of defensive structures.

The name of the Transfiguration Tower comes from the Transfiguration Monastery of the Savior, which was fenced from the north-west. The tower was also built by Pskov architects Postnik and Barma, but it was significantly rebuilt later, as it has strong traces of the architectural influence of the Moscow defensive architecture. The territory from the Transfiguration Tower to the Spasskaya pass was added to the old Khan's fortress by Pskov masters.

There are unnamed round brick towers, presumably built by Moscow architects in the 17th century.

The Tainitskaya Tower was built in its present form in the 1550s by Postnik Yakovlev. It was named after a secret source from which it was possible to take water during a siege. The entrance to the tower is in the form of a "knee", which increased the defense of the Kremlin. It replaced a tower from the time of the khanate, Nur Ali (in Russian transcription Muraleeva). The 22-year-old Tsar Ivan the Terrible entered the conquered city through the Nur Ali tower.

The North-Eastern Round Tower was demolished after the Pugachev's assault.

The Consistor Tower was built in brick by Moscow architects in the 17th century, its name was given in the 18th century from the Spiritual Consistory located near the tower in the Kremlin. Near the tower, archaeological excavations revealed the so-called Tezitsky (Arabic for "merchant") Moat, which went from the Consistor Tower to the Transfiguration. Archaeologist N. Kalinin and a number of scientists believed that the moat was the southern border of the Khan's fortress.

The Southeast Round Tower is an example of Pskov architecture of the 16th century.

Bistä, or Posad[edit]

Central Kazan is divided into two districts by the Bolaq canal and Lake Qaban. The first district (Qazan Bistäse or Kazanskiy Posad), historically Russian, is situated on the hill, the second (İske Tatar Bistäse or Staro-Tatarskaya Sloboda), historically Tatar, is situated between the Bolaq and the Volga. Mosques, such as Nurullah, Soltan, Bornay, Apanay, Äcem, Märcani, İske Taş, Zäñgär are in the Tatar district. Churches, such as Blagoveschenskaya, Varvarinskaya, Nikol'skaya, Tikhvinskaya, are mostly in the Russian part of the city. The main city-centre streets are Bauman, Kremlyovskaya, Dzerzhinsky, Tuqay, Puşkin, Butlerov, Gorkiy, Karl Marx and Märcani.

An old legend says that in 1552, before the Russian invasion, wealthy Tatars (baylar) hid gold and silver in Lake Qaban.

Wooden Kazan[edit]

In the beginning of the 1900s most of Central Kazan was covered by wooden buildings, usually consisting of two floors. There was a historical environment of Kazan citizens, but not the best place to live in. During the Republican program "The liquidation of ramshackle apartments" most of them (unlike other Russian cities), especially in Central Kazan, where the land is not cheap, were destroyed and their population was moved to new areas at the suburb of the city (Azino, Azino-2, Quartal 39). Nearly 100,000 citizens resettled by this programme.

Other major buildings[edit]

Another significant building in central Kazan is the former "Smolentzev and Shmelev" tea house and hotel, now the Shalyapin Palace Hotel. It is located at 7/80 Universitetskaya Street, at the corner of Universitetskaya and Bauman. A major landmark of late-19th and early-20th century commercial architecture, it consists of two portions. The original portion, built for a merchant named Usmanov in the 1860s, was bought by the inter-related families of Efim Smolentzev and Pavel and Nikolai Shmelev in 1899.[44] They operated a store selling, among other things, tea. In 1910, the Smolentevs and Shmelevs constructed another portion, designed by architect Vasili Trifonov, and operated a hotel there.[45] After the Russian Revolution, the building eventually became the Hotel Soviet and after 2000 it was heavily renovated to reopen as the Shalyapin Palace Hotel.

Cityscape[edit]

A panoramic view of Kazan Kremlin, Vernicle temple and Kazanka river right bank
Kazanka right bank
Both banks of Kazanka

Education and science[edit]

Primary and secondary education[edit]

Primary and secondary education system of Kazan includes:

  • 282 nurseries, most of which are municipal
  • 178 schools, 2 of which are private
  • 28 vocational technical schools
  • 15 colleges
  • 10 special colleges

There are also 49 music schools, 43 sports school, and 10 fine-arts schools, including the Kazan Art School founded in 1895.

Higher education[edit]

There are 44 institutes of higher education in Kazan, including 19 branches of universities from other cities. More than 140,000 students are educated in the city. Kazan Federal University (founded in 1804) is third oldest university in Russia after Saint Petersburg State University (1724) and Moscow State University (1755). In 2009 KFU got Federal status as main university of Volga Region. Some other prominent universities are:

Science[edit]

Main building of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences

Kazan is a major scientific centre in Russia. Kazan formed a big number of scientific areas and schools (mathematical, chemical, medical, linguistic, geological, geobotanical, etc.). Scientific discoveries are a subject of special pride, including: the creation of non-Euclidean geometry (Nikolai Lobachevsky), the discovery of the chemical element ruthenium (Karl Ernst Claus), the theory about the structure of organic compounds (Aleksandr Butlerov), the discovery of the electron paramagnetic resonance (Yevgeny Zavoisky) and acoustic paramagnetic resonance (Altshuler) and many others. The city hosts:

Public health[edit]

1814 year is considered to be an official year of the beginning of scientific medicine in Kazan. Exactly at that time University Hospital was open. In 1930 Faculty of Medicine is separated from the Kazan Federal University and holds a lot of specialized hospitals under its patronage. Nowadays Kazan becomes the largest public health center in Russia. 120 medical organisations are operated in the city. Kazan Interregional clinical-diagnostic center is the largest in Volga region in cardiovascular and neurological diseases. The largest hospital in Kazan is Republican Clinical Hospital.

Government and administration[edit]

Kazan town hall (before 1917 - the Hall of Nobility)
Cabinet of Ministers
Presidential Palace

Mayor[edit]

City Duma[edit]

Kazan City Duma is a representative body of the city, elected every four years and holds its sessions in Kazan City Hall.

Executive committee[edit]

Executive committee is a municipal body of the executive organs .[clarification needed] The committee's head is Denis Kalinkin.[47]

Government of the Republic of Tatarstan[edit]

Kazan hosts Tatarstan President's residence and administration (in Kremlin), Tatarstan's Cabinet of Ministers and Council of State (on Freedom square).

Communication[edit]

Agency works 84 post offices belonging to the branch of "Russian Post", UFPS "Tatarstan pochtasy". The official opening of the Kazan city telephone network took place on 27 (15) November 1888. At the moment, there are four operators of wired telephone in Kazan. The total capacity of the telephone network in Kazan is about 456,000 numbers. Services of IP-telephony operators in addition to the basic wired connection is also supported by the five companies.[48] The city has six mobile operators (Beeline, MegaFon, MTS, Tele2 Russia, Letai, Yota, and also operates virtual mobile operator "Mobile public communication"). By the number of Internet users—428 thousand people—Kazan takes the 4th place in Russia. According to the General Director of Google Russia Vladimir Dolgov, Kazan is the largest center of information technology development, the level of Internet penetration is 75%, which is a record figure for Russia. Access to the world wide web in Kazan is provided by 15 operators.[49] The most popular forms of Internet access are cable networks and ADSL. Previously popular Dial-up has almost lost its position, at the same time actively developing wireless technology Wi-Fi and Wi-Max. Scartel launched the first LTE network in Russia.[50]

On 30 August 2012 in Kazan, IT Park was held a launch ceremonyfor the fourth generation network (4G, LTE). LTE network in Kazan was launched by three operators - Scartel LLC (Yota trademark), MegaFon OJSC and MTS OJSC. On 27 June 2014, the LTE network of mobile operator Fly was launched.

Sports[edit]

The Kazan Arena hosted the 2018 FIFA World Cup games
"Basket-hall"
Kazan rowing center

Kazan now is one of the most developed cities in Russia in terms of sport. The city has hosted two Bandy World Championships, in 2005 and 2011, the World Summer Universiade 2013, the World Championship in fencing in 2014, the Aquatics Championship FINA 2015, 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and other international competitions of various levels. In the future the city will hold the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

The city of Kazan is a leader in terms of winnings in various sports including its most popular sports teams.

Men's teams:

Club Sport Founded Current league League
rank
Stadium
Rubin Kazan Football 1958 Russian Premier League 1st Kazan Arena
Ak Bars Kazan Ice Hockey 1956 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Tatneft Arena
Bars Kazan Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Tatneft Arena
Irbis Kazan Ice Hockey 2011 Minor Hockey League Division B Jr. 2nd Tatneft Arena
Dynamo-Kazan Bandy 1958 Bandy Super League 1st Raketa Stadium
UNICS Kazan Basketball 1991 Professional Basketball League 1st Basket-Hall Arena
Zenit Kazan Volleyball 2000 Volleyball Super League 1st Kazan Volleyball Centre
Sintez Kazan Water Polo 1974 Water Polo Championship 1st Orgsintez

Notable athletes[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

Important events[edit]

International relations[edit]

Kazan is actively engaged in international activities. The city has foreign diplomatic, trade and cultural representations, the Kazan Kremlin and the Institute of culture of peace are under the auspices of UNESCO, the city participates in partner movements, is a member of the world organizations of cities. The summit of the CIS heads, the Summit of the world security services and other important forums, conferences and events of the world level were held in Kazan. The head of China, the us Secretary of state, about three dozen presidents and Prime Ministers of foreign States paid visits to the capital of the Republic, as to few other cities of the country. Renovated in 2005, the international airport provides flights to dozens of cities in different countries, including the largest Airliners (class Boeing 747), and is gradually being rebuilt into a potential hub for the Universiade 2013 and the World Cup 2018; international rail links from the city.

Branch offices of embassies[edit]

Consulates[edit]

Four consulates general are found in Kazan.[52]

Visa centers[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Kazan is twinned with:[55]

Kazan has also partner relations with the following cities and regions:

International organizations membership[edit]

Other organizations[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Order #01-02/9
  2. ^ a b Шаймиев, Минтимер Шарипович; Исхаков, Камиль; Хәсәнов, Мансур Х (10 September 1999). "Выступления Президента РТ М. Шаймиева, мэра г.Казани К.Исхакова и президента АН РТ, академика М.Хасанова на торжественном собрании по случаю установления даты основания г.Казани". Гасырлар авазы/Эхо веков (in Russian) (3/4). Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  3. ^ Official website of Kazan. Kazan City Duma Archived 4 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Official website of the Mayor of Kazan Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian)
  5. ^ площадь собственно города, Федеральная служба государственной статистики Archived 15 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. ^ a b Численность населения муниципальных образований Республики Татарстан (Population of the Republic of Tatarstan municipalities report, per 1st Jan. 2018) Archived 15 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ "Welcome to the Republic of Tatarstan". tatarstan.ru. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  9. ^ a b c Law #46-ZRT
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №368-ФЗ от 11 октября 2018 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 5 Федерального закона "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #368-FZ of October 11, 2018 On Amending Article 5 of the Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  11. ^ "Kazan Russia - a thousand-year Russian city travel guide". aboutkazan.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  12. ^ "Current Local Time in Kazan, Russia". www.timeanddate.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  13. ^ "ARCHIVED COPY". Archived from the original on 8 December 2009.
  14. ^ "Kazan officially becomes Russia's Third Capital". Pravda. 3 April 2009. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  15. ^ Komsomolskaya Pravda: Kazan - sports capital of Russia 14.12.2009 Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ "List of Best Tatars". Mytopdozen.com. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
  17. ^ "2,1 млн. туристов посетили Казань в 2015 году" (in Russian). tatar-inform.ru. Archived from the original on 9 February 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  18. ^ "InTourist Kazan'". Legends about Kazan's foundation. Archived from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
  19. ^ Ярмила Хаскова (1999). "Древнечешская монета из Казани" (in Russian) (1/2) (Гасырлар авазы / Эхо веков ed.).
  20. ^ "Кто сказал, что Казани - 1000 лет? Аргументы и факты о возрасте города" (in Russian). www.1000kzn.ru. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  21. ^ a b c ХУДЯКОВ. "Очерки по истории КАЗАНСКОГО ХАНСТВА" (in Russian).
    Google translation: M.G. Khudyakov. "Essays on the history of KAZAN HOSPITAL".
  22. ^ Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience. Hoover Press. 2017. ISBN 0817983937.
  23. ^ Putin joins Tatarstan festivities Archived 6 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine. BBC News 2005-08-26
  24. ^ История гербов города Казани и городов Казанской губернии
  25. ^ "Герб города Казань". Геральдика.ру (in Russian). geraldika.ru. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  26. ^ "БГД". www.gks.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 29 January 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  27. ^ Катаргин, Дмитрий. "Казань побила рекорд по инвестициям". БИЗНЕС Online (in Russian). Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  28. ^ "В строительство IT-парка вложили 3 миллиарда". www.arendator.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  29. ^ Инновационный технопарк Идея Archived 2 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ NZ cities excel in quality of living - Mercer worldwide survey finds Archived 25 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ "30 лучших городов для бизнеса—2010". Forbes (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  32. ^ Мысько, Сергей Афанасьев, Влас. "Казань оценили на "6 с плюсом"". БИЗНЕС Online (in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 August 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  33. ^ "Выступление А. К. Абдулхакова на аппаратном совещании 09.02.2009 «Об итогах работы городского пассажирского транспорта за 2008 год»". Сайт города Казани (in Russian). Archived from the original on 12 March 2010.
  34. ^ "В 2008 году в Казани всеми видами городского транспорта перевезено 319,9 млн. пассажиров". Tatar-inform (in Russian). 9 February 2009. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  35. ^ ГЖД в 2006 году больше всего пассажиров отправила со станции Горький-Московский Archived 24 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  37. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  38. ^ Massive fire breaks out in Kazan market Archived 25 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  39. ^ Funds raised to support Vietnamese people in Kazan Archived 25 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  40. ^ Donation to Vietnamese people in Kazan. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
  41. ^ (RUS) Новый облик Казани Archived 1 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Kazan" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  43. ^ "Kazan Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  44. ^ "ИЗДАНИЯ ЦБС "Прогулки по городу"" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  45. ^ "До тысячелетия Казани осталось 36 дней. Гостиница "Совет"" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2013-04-17. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  46. ^ Структура АНРТ Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  47. ^ "ORIGINAL COPY". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  48. ^ "IP телефония (VoIP) (Казань)" (in Russian).
  49. ^ "Провайдеры - Подключить интернет вы можете, оставив заявку одному из провайдеров своего города в нашем каталоге" (in Russian). prov.nag.ru. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  50. ^ "Самый быстрый мобильный Интернет в мире запущен в Казани" (in Russian). www.tatar-inform.ru. 2010-08-30. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  51. ^ "Посольство Беларуси в России – Отделения". www.embassybel.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  52. ^ Offices in Kazan Archived 24 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  53. ^ Visa Management Service. Filiali Archived 5 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  54. ^ Embassy of Finland Archived 4 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  55. ^ "Официальный портал Казани". www.kzn.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 19 May 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  56. ^ "Braunschweigs Partner und Freundschaftsstädte" [Braunschweig - Partner and Friendship Cities]. Stadt Braunschweig [City of Braunschweig] (in German). Archived from the original on 1 December 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  57. ^ "American Corners and Centers in Russia". Amcorners.ru. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.

Sources[edit]

  • Министерство юстиции Республики Татарстан. Приказ №01-02/9 от 4 февраля 2014 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан», в ред. Приказа №01-02/160 от 11 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Приказ Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан от 04.02.2014 №01-02/9 "Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов в Республике Татарстан"». Опубликован: Официальный сайт правовой информации Министерства юстиции Республики Татарстан (http://pravo.tatarstan.ru), 27 февраля 2014 г. (Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan. Order #01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan, as amended by the Order #01-02/160 of March 11, 2015 On Amending the Order of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Tatarstan #01-02/9 of February 4, 2014 "On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units and Inhabited Localities in the Republic of Tatarstan". ).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Татарстан. Закон №46-ЗРТ от 15 сентября 2004 г. «О границах территории и статусе муниципального образования города Казани», в ред. Закона №132-ЗРТ от 26 декабря 2014 г. «Об изменении границ территорий отдельных муниципальных образований и внесении изменений в Законы Республики Татарстан "О границах территории и статусе муниципального образования города Казани" и "Об установлении границ территорий и статусе муниципального образования "Лаишевский муниципальный район" и муниципальных образований в его составе"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика Татарстан", №191, 21 сентября 2004 г. (State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan. Law #46-ZRT of September 15, 2004 On the Borders of the Territory and the Status of the Municipal Formation of the City of Kazan, as amended by the Law #132-ZRT of December 26, 2014 On Changing the Borders of the Territories of Various Municipal Formations and on Amending the Laws of the Republic of Tatarstan "On the Borders of the Territory and the Status of the Municipal Formation of the City of Kazan" and "On Establishing the Borders of the Territories and the Status of the Municipal Formation of "Laishevsky Municipal District" and of the Municipal Formations It Comprises". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Álvarez Veinguer, Aurora (July 2007). "(Re)Presenting Identities: National Archipelagos in Kazan". Nationalities Papers. 35 (3): 457–476. doi:10.1080/00905990701368704.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]