Kazi Nazrul Islam
|Kazi Nazrul Islam|
Nazrul in Chittagong, 1926
|Native name||কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম|
25 May 1899|
Churulia, Bengal Presidency, British India (now in West Bengal, India)
|Died||29 August 1976
|Occupation||Poet, short-story writer, song composer, novelist, playwright and essayist.|
|Notable works||Chol Chol Chol, Bidrohi, Dhumketu,Agniveena, Bandhan Hara, Nazrul Geeti|
|Notable awards||Independence Day Award (1977)
Padma Bhushan (India)
|Part of a series on the|
|Part of a series on the|
Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bengali: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম, Urdu: ur:قاضی نذر الاسلام; pronounced: [kadʒi nodʒrul islam]) (25 May 1899 – 29 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, and revolutionary, and is the national poet of Bangladesh. Popularly known as Nazrul, his poetry and music espoused Indo-Islamic renaissance and intense spiritual rebellion against fascism and oppression. Nazrul's impassioned activism for political and social justice earned him the title of The Rebel Poet (Bengali: বিদ্রোহী কবি; Bidrohi Kobi). His compositions form the avant-garde genre of Nazrul Sangeet (Music of Nazrul). Accomplishing a large body of acclaimed works through his life, he is officially recognised as the National Poet of Bangladesh and is highly commemorated and revered in India, especially in West Bengal.
Born into a Bengali Muslim Quazi (Kazi) family, Nazrul received religious education and worked as a muezzin at a local mosque in his early life. He learned of poetry, drama, and literature while working with rural theatrical groups Letor Dal. After serving in the British Indian Army in the Middle East during World War I, Nazrul established himself as a journalist in Calcutta. He assailed the British Raj in India and preached revolution through his poetic works, such as Bidrohi (The Rebel) and Bhangar Gaan (The Song of Destruction), as well as his publication Dhumketu (The Comet). His nationalist activism in the Indian independence movement often led to his imprisonment by British authorities. While in prison, Nazrul wrote the Rajbandir Jabanbandi (Deposition of a Political Prisoner). Exploring the life and conditions of the downtrodden masses of the Indian subcontinent, Nazrul worked for their emancipation. His writings tremendously inspired the Bengalis during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
Nazrul's writings explore themes such as love, freedom, and revolution; he opposed all bigotry, including religious and gender-based. Throughout his career, Nazrul wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best known for his songs and poems, in which he pioneered new forms such as Bengali ghazals. Nazrul wrote and composed music for his nearly 4,000 songs (including gramophone records), collectively known as Nazrul geeti (Songs of Nazrul), which are widely popular today. In 1942 at the age of 43 he began suffering from an unknown disease, losing his voice and memory. It is often said, the reason was slow poisoning by British Government but later a medical team in Vienna diagnosed the disease as Morbus Pick, a rare incurable neurodegenerative disease. It caused Nazrul's health to decline steadily and forced him to live in isolation for many years. Invited by the Government of Bangladesh, Nazrul and his family moved to Dhaka in 1972. Later, he was accorded Bangladeshi citizenship. He died four years later on 29 August 1976.
Kazi Nazrul Islam was born in the village of Churulia in Asansol subdivision in the Burdwan District of Bengal Presidency (now in West Bengal, India). He was born in a Muslim Taluqdar family and was the second of three sons and a daughter, Nazrul's father Kazi Faqeer Ahmed was the imam and caretaker of the local mosque and mausoleum. Nazrul's mother was Zahida Khatun. Nazrul had two brothers, Kazi Saahibjaan and Kazi Ali Hussain, and a sister, Umme Kulsum. Nicknamed Dukhu Miañ (দুখু মিঞা literally "Mr Sad Man" the One with Grief), Nazrul studied at a maktab and madrassa run by a mosque & dargah respectively, where he studied the Quran, Hadith, Islamic philosophy and theology. His family was devastated with the death of his father in 1908. At the young age of ten, Nazrul began working in his father's place as a caretaker of the mosque to support his family, as well as assisting teachers in school. He later had to work as the muezzin at the mosque.
Attracted to folk theatre, Nazrul joined a leto (travelling theatrical group) run by his uncle Fazle Karim. He worked and travelled with them, learning acting, as well as writing songs and poems for the plays and musicals. Through his work and experiences, Nazrul began learning Bengali and Sanskrit literature, as well as Hindu scriptures such as the Puranas. Nazrul composed many folk plays for his group, which included Chāshār Shōng ("the drama of a peasant"), plays about characters from Mahabharata Shokunībōdh ("the Killing of Shakuni,"), Rājā Judhisthirer Shōng ("the drama of King Yudhishthira" ), Dātā Kōrno ("the philanthropic Karna"), Ākbōr Bādshāh ("Akbar the emperor"), Kobi Kālidās ("poet Kalidas"), Bidyan Hutum ("the learned owl"), and Rājputrer Shōng ("the prince's sorrow"),
In 1910, Nazrul left the troupe and enrolled at the Searsole Raj High School in Raniganj. Here he was influenced by his teacher revolutionary and Jugantar activist Nibaran Chandra Ghatak, and initiated lifelong friendship with fellow author Sailajananda Mukhopadhyay, who was his classmate. He later transferred to the Mathrun High English School, studying under the headmaster and poet Kumudranjan Mallik. Unable to continue paying his school fees, Nazrul left the school and joined a group of kaviyals. Later he took jobs as a cook and at the well known bakery of the region Wahid's/Abdul Wahid and tea stall in the town of Asansol. In 1914, Nazrul studied in the Darirampur School (now Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University) in Trishal, Mymensingh District. Amongst other subjects, Nazrul studied Bengali, Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian literature and Hindustani classical music under teachers who were impressed by his dedication and skill.
Nazrul Studied up to Class 10 but Nazrul did not appear for the matriculation pre-test examination instead he enlisted in the Indian Army in 1917 at the age of eighteen. He had two primary motivation for joining the British Indian army first, a youthful desire for adventure and, secondly, an interest in the politics of the time. Attached to the 49th Bengal Regiment, he was posted to the cantonment in Karachi, where he wrote his first prose and poetry. Although he never saw active fighting, he rose in rank from corporal to havildar, and served as quartermaster for his battalion. During this period, Nazrul read extensively, and was deeply influenced by Rabindranath Tagore and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, as well as the Persian poets Hafez, Rumi and Omar Khayyam. He learnt Persian poetry from the regiment's Punjabi moulvi, practiced music and pursued his literary interests. His first prose work, "Baunduler Atmakahini" ("Life of a Vagabond") was published in May, 1919. His poem "Mukti" "মুক্তি" ("Freedom") was published by the "Bengali Muslim Literary Journal" ("বাংলা মুসলিম সাহিত্য পত্রিকা") in July 1919.
Nazrul left the army in 1920 and settled in Calcutta, which was then the "cultural capital" of India (it had ceased to be the political capital in 1911). He joined the staff of the “Bangiya Mussalman Sahitya Samiti” ("Bengali Muslim Literary Society") and roomed at 32 College Street with colleagues. He published his first novel "Bandhan-hara" "বাঁধনহারা" ("Freedom from bondage") in 1920, which he kept working on over the next seven years. His first collection of poems included "Bodhan", "Shat-il-Arab", "Kheya-parer Tarani" and "Badal Prater Sharab" and received critical acclaim.
Working at the literary society, Nazrul grew close to other young Muslim writers including Mohammad Mozammel Haq, Afzalul Haq, Kazi Abdul Wadud and Muhammad Shahidullah. He was a regular at clubs for Calcutta's writers, poets and intellectuals like the Gajendar Adda and the Bharatiya Adda. Despite many differences, Nazrul looked to Rabindranath Tagore as a mentor. Nazrul and Muhammad Shahidullah remained close throughout their life. In 1921, Nazrul was engaged to be married to Nargis, the niece of a well-known Muslim publisher Ali Akbar Khan, in Daulatpur, Comilla. On 18 June 1921, the day of the wedding, upon public insistence by Ali Akbar Khan that the term "Nazrul must reside in Daulatpur after marriage" be included in the marriage contract, Nazrul walked away from the ceremony.
Nazrul reached the peak of fame in 1922 with Bidrohi ("The Rebel"), which remains his most famous work, winning the admiration of India's literary classes by his description of the rebel whose impact is fierce and ruthless even as their spirit is deep: Published in the "Bijli" "বিজলি" (Lightning) magazine, the rebellious language and theme was well received, coinciding with the Non-cooperation movement — the first, mass nationalist campaign of civil disobedience against British rule. Nazrul explores a synthesis of different forces in a rebel, destroyer and preserver, expressing rage as well as beauty and sensitivity. Nazrul followed up by writing "Pralayollas" ("Destructive Euphoria"), and his first anthology of poems, the "Agniveena" "অগ্নিবীনা" ("Lyre of Fire") in 1922, which enjoyed commercial and critical success. He also published his first volume of short stories, the "Byather Dan" "ব্যাথার দান" ("Gift of Sorrow") and "Yugbani" "যুগবানী", an anthology of essays.
Nazrul started a bi-weekly magazine, publishing the first "Dhumketu" "ধূমকেতু" (Comet) on 12 August 1922. Earning the moniker of the "rebel poet”, Nazrul also aroused the suspicion of British authorities. "Anondomoyeer Agomone" a political poem published in "Dhumketu" in September 1922 led to a police raid on the magazine's office. Arrested, Nazrul entered a lengthy plea before the judge in the court.
On 14 April 1923 he was transferred from the jail in Alipore to Hooghly in Kolkata. He began a 40-day fast to protest mistreatment by the British jail superintendent. Nazrul broke his fast more than a month later and was eventually released from prison in December 1923. Nazrul composed a large number of poems and songs during the period of imprisonment and many of his works were banned in the 1920s by the British authorities.
Kazi Nazrul Islam became a critic of the Khilafat struggle, condemning it as hollow, religious fundamentalism. Nazrul's rebellious expression extended to rigid orthodoxy in the name of religion and politics. Nazrul also criticised the Indian National Congress for not embracing outright political independence from the British Empire. He became active in encouraging people to agitate against British rule, and joined the Bengal state unit of the Congress party. Nazrul also helped organise the Sramik Praja Swaraj Dal, along with Muzaffar Ahmeda socialist political party committed to national independence and the service of the peasant masses. On 16 December 1925 Nazrul began publishing the weekly "Langal” (Plough), and served as chief editor.
During his visit to Comilla in 1921, Nazrul met a young Hindu woman, Pramila Devi, with whom he fell in love and they married on 25 April 1924. Pramila belonged to the Brahmo Samaj, which criticised her marriage to a Muslim. Nazrul in turn was condemned by Muslim religious leaders and continued to face criticism for his personal life and professional works, which attacked social and religious dogma and intolerance. Despite controversy, Nazrul's popularity and reputation as the "rebel poet" rose significantly.
With his wife and young son Bulbul, Nazrul settled in Krishnanagar in 1926. His work began to transform as he wrote poetry and songs that articulated the aspirations of the downtrodden classes, a sphere of his work known as "mass music." Nazrul assailed the socio-economic norms and political system that had brought misery. From his poem 'Daridro' Bengali: দারিদ্র (poverty or pain):
In what his contemporaries regarded as one of his greatest flairs of creativity, Nazrul began composing the very first ghazals in Bengali, transforming a form of poetry written mainly in Persian and Urdu. Nazrul became the first person to introduce Islam into the larger mainstream tradition of Bengali music. The first record of Islamic songs by Nazrul Islam was a commercial success and many gramophone companies showed interest in producing these. A significant impact of Nazrul was that it drew made Muslims more comfortable in the Bengali Arts, which used to be dominated by Hindus. His Islamic songs are popular during Ramadan in Bangladesh. He wrote devotional songs on the Hindu Goddess Kali. Nazrul also composed a number of notable Shamasangeet, Bhajan and Kirtan, combining Hindu devotional music. Arousing controversy and passions in his readers, Nazrul's ideas attained great popularity across India. In 1928, Nazrul began working as a lyricist, composer and music director for His Master's Voice Gramophone Company. The songs written and music composed by him were broadcast on radio stations across the country. He was also enlisted/attached with the Indian Broadcasting Company.
Nazrul professed faith in the belief in the equality of women — a view his contemporaries considered revolutionary. From his poem Nari (Woman):
However, Nazrul's poems strongly emphasise the confluence of the roles of both sexes and their equal importance to life. He stunned society with his poem "Barangana" ("Prostitute"), in which he addresses a prostitute as "mother". Nazrul accepts the prostitute as a human being, reasoning that this person was breast-fed by a noble woman and belonging to the race of "mothers and sisters"; he assails society's negative notions of prostitutes.
Nazrul was an advocate of the emancipation of women; both traditional and non-traditional women were portrayed by him with utmost sincerity. Nazrul's songs are collectively called as Nazrul geeti.
Nazrul's mother died in 1928, and his second son Bulbul died of smallpox the following year. His first son, Krishna Mohammad had died prematurely. His wife gave birth to two more sons — Sabyasachi in 1928 and Aniruddha in 1931 — but Nazrul remained shaken and aggrieved for a long time. His works changed significantly from rebellious expositions of society to deeper examination of religious themes. His works in these years led Islamic devotional songs into the mainstream of Bengali folk music, exploring the Islamic practices of namaz (prayer), roza (fasting), hajj (pilgrimage) and zakat (charity). This was regarded by his contemporaries as a significant achievement as Bengali Muslims had been strongly averse to devotional music. Nazrul's creativity diversified as he explored Hindu devotional music by composing Shyama Sangeet, bhajans and kirtans, often merging Islamic and Hindu values. Nazrul's poetry and songs explored the philosophy of Islam and Hinduism.
Nazrul's poetry imbibed the passion and creativity of Shakti, which is identified as the Brahman, the personification of primordial energy. He wrote and composed many bhajans, shyamasangeet, agamanis and kirtans. He also composed large number of songs on invocation to Lord Shiva, Goddesses Lakshmi and Saraswati and on the theme of love of Radha and Krishna.
In another article entitled Hindu Mussalman published in Ganabani on 2 September 1922 he wrote -
Nazrul assailed fanaticism in religion, denouncing it as evil and inherently irreligious. He devoted many works to expound upon the principle of human equality, exploring the Qur'an and the life of Islam's prophet Muhammad. Nazrul has been compared to William Butler Yeats for being the first Muslim poet to create imagery and symbolism of Muslim historical figures such as Qasim, Ali, Umar, Kamal Pasha, Anwar Pasha and Muhammad. His vigorous assault on extremism and mistreatment of women provoked condemnation from Muslim and Hindu fundamentalists.
In 1920, Nazrul expressed his vision of religious harmony in an editorial in Joog Bani,
Come brother Hindu! Come Musalman! Come Buddhist! Come Christian! Let us transcend all barriers, let us forsake forever all smallness, all lies, all selfishness and let us call brothers as brothers. We shall quarrel no more.
Later life and illness
In 1933, Nazrul published a collection of essays titled "Modern World Literature", in which he analyses different styles and themes of literature. Between 1928 and 1935 he published 10 volumes containing 800 songs of which more than 600 were based on classical ragas. Almost 100 were folk tunes after kirtans and some 30 were patriotic songs. From the time of his return to Kolkata until he fell ill in 1941, Nazrul composed more than 2,600 songs, many of which have been lost. His songs based on baul, jhumur, Santhali folksongs, jhanpan or the folk songs of snake charmers, bhatiali and bhaoaia consist of tunes of folk-songs on the one hand and a refined lyric with poetic beauty on the other. Nazrul also wrote and published poems for children.
Nazrul's success soon brought him into Indian theatre and the then-nascent film industry. The film "Vidyapati" ("Master of Knowledge") was produced based on his recorded play in 1936, and Nazrul served as the music director for the film adaptation of Tagore's novel Gora. Nazrul wrote songs and directed music for Sachin Sengupta's bioepic play "Siraj-ud-Daula". In 1939, Nazrul began working for Calcutta Radio, supervising the production and broadcasting of the station's musical programmes. He produced critical and analytic documentaries on music, such as "Haramoni" and "Navaraga-malika". Nazrul also wrote a large variety of songs inspired by the raga Bhairav.
Nazrul's wife Pramila Devi fell seriously ill in 1939 and was paralysed from waist down. To provide for his wife's medical treatment, he resorted to mortgaging the royalties of his gramophone records and literary works for 400 rupees. He returned to journalism in 1940 by working as chief editor for the daily newspaper "Nabayug" ("New Age"), founded by the eminent Bengali politician A. K. Fazlul Huq.
Nazrul also was shaken by the death of Rabindranath Tagore on 8 August 1941. He spontaneously composed two poems in Tagore's memory, one of which, "Rabihara" (loss of Rabi or without Rabi) was broadcast on the All India Radio. Within months, Nazrul himself fell seriously ill and gradually began losing his power of speech. His behaviour became erratic, and spending recklessly, he fell into financial difficulties. In spite of her own illness, his wife constantly cared for her husband. However, Nazrul's health seriously deteriorated and he grew increasingly depressed. He underwent medical treatment under homeopathy as well as Ayurveda, but little progress was achieved before mental dysfunction intensified and he was admitted to a mental asylum in 1942. Spending four months there without making progress, Nazrul and his family began living a silent life in India. In 1952, he was transferred to a mental hospital in Ranchi. With the efforts of a large group of admirers who called themselves the "Nazrul Treatment Society" as well as prominent supporters such as the Indian politician Syama Prasad Mookerjee, the treatment society sent Nazrul and Promila to London, then to Vienna for treatment. Examining doctors said he had received poor care, and Dr. Hans Hoff, a leading neurosurgeon in Vienna, diagnosed that Nazrul was suffering from Pick's disease. His condition judged to be incurable, Nazrul returned to Calcutta on 15 December 1953. On 30 June 1962 his wife Pramila died and Nazrul remained in intensive medical care.
On 24 May 1972, the newly independent nation of Bangladesh brought Nazrul to live in Dhaka with consent of the Government of India. In January 1976, he was accorded the citizenship of Bangladesh. Despite receiving treatment and attention, Nazrul's physical and mental health did not improve. In 1974, his youngest son, Kazi Aniruddha, an eminent guitarist died, and Nazrul soon succumbed to his long-standing ailments on 29 August 1976. In accordance with a wish he had expressed in one of his poems, he was buried beside a mosque on the campus of the University of Dhaka. Tens of thousands of people attended his funeral; Bangladesh observed two days of national mourning and the parliament of India observed a minute of silence in his honour.
Nazrul's poetry is characterised by an abundant use of rhetorical devices, which he employed to convey conviction and sensuousness. He often wrote without care for organisation or polish. His works have often been criticized for egotism, but his admirers counter that they carry more a sense of self-confidence than ego. They cite his ability to defy God yet maintain an inner, humble devotion to Him. Nazrul's poetry is regarded as rugged but unique in comparison to Tagore's sophisticated style. Nazrul's use of Persian vocabulary was controversial but it widened the scope of his work.
Nazrul's works for children have won acclaim for his use of rich language, imagination, enthusiasm and an ability to fascinate young readers. Nazrul is regarded for his secularism. He was the first person to cite of Christians of Bengal in his novel Mrityukshuda. He was also the first user of folk terms in Bengali literature. Nazrul pioneered new styles and expressed radical ideas and emotions in a large body of work. Scholars credit him for spearheading a cultural renaissance in Muslim-majority Bengal, "liberating" poetry and literature in Bengali from its medieval mould. Nazrul was awarded the Jagattarini Gold Medal in 1945 — the highest honour for work in Bengali literature by the University of Calcutta — and awarded the Padma Bhushan, one of India's highest civilian honours in 1960. The Government of Bangladesh conferred upon him the status of being the "national poet". He was awarded the Ekushey Padak by the Government of Bangladesh. He was awarded Honorary D.Litt. by the University of Dhaka. Many centres of learning and culture in India and Bangladesh have been founded and dedicated to his memory. The Nazrul Endowment is one of several scholarly institutions established to preserve and expound upon his thoughts and philosophy, as well as the preservation and analysis of the large and diverse collection of his works. The Bangladesh Nazrul Sena is a large public organization working for the education of children throughout the country. Nazrul Sanskriti Parishad is working with Nazrul 's life and works since 2000 in India.
Renowned Nazrul Sangeet singers
Renowned Nazrul Sangeet/Geeti singers include Firoza Begum, Suprava Sarkar, Angurbala, Indubala, Anjali Mukerjee, Jnanendra Prasad Goswami, Nilufar Yasmin, Manabendra Mukherjee, Kanika Majumder, Dipali Nag, Sukumar Mitra, Dhirendra Chandra Mitra, Dhiren Basu, Purabi Dutta, Nashid Kamal, Ferdous Ara, Fatema-tuz Zohra, Jaheda Begum, Shahin Samad, Rahman Mehmud (Benu Bhai), Ramanuj Dasgupta and Susmita Goswami.
- List of works of Kazi Nazrul Islam
- Kazi Nazrul University, Asansol, West Bengal
- Kazi Nazrul Islam Sarani, Kolkata, West Bengal
- Kavi Nazrul Metro Station, Kolkata, West Bengal
- Kazi Nazrul Islam International Airport, Andal, Bardhaman, West Bengal
- Islam, Rafiqul (2012). "Kazi Nazrul Islam". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
- Talukdar, Rezaul Karim (1994). Nazrul, the gift of the century. Dhaka: Manan. p. 121. ISBN 9848156003.
In 1976 Nazrul was awarded the citizenship of Bangladesh.
- Mahmudul Hasan Hemal (May 28, 2015). "Nazrul’s humanist vision". Dhakacourier.
- "India-Bangladesh Joint Celebration, 113th birth anniversary of Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam and 90th year of his poem `Rebel'". Prime Minister's Office, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- Hossain, Quazi Motahar (2000). "Nazrul Islam, the Singer and Writer of Songs". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 55. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Kazi Nazrul Islam: Illness and Treatment
- "Kazi Nazrul Islam: A Chronology of life". Nazrul Institute, Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Government of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
- Chaudhuri, Dilip (22 September 2006). "Nazrul Islam: The unparalleled lyricist and composer of Bengal". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. Retrieved 2006-09-22.
- Bose, Buddhadeva (2000). "Modern Bengali Poetry and Nazrul Islam". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 80. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Kabir, Choudhary. "Rebel". Retrieved 2006-07-08.
- Hall, P (2002). Cities of Tomorrow. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 198–206. ISBN 0-631-23252-4.
- Nurul Huda, Muhammad (2001). Nazrul's Aesthetics and Other Aspects. Bangladesh: Nazrul Institute. p. 124.
- Muzaffar Ahmad (1998). Kazi Nazrul Islam Smritikatha. Kolkata, India: National Book Agency. pp. 66–67.
- Amin, Sonia (1996). The World of Muslim Women in Colonial Bengal, 1876-1939. p. 106. ISBN 90-04-10642-1.
- Choudhury, Serajul Islam (1 June 2006). "The Blazing Comet". New Age. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 2006-09-22.
- Rushd, Abu (2000). "Nazrul Islam's 'The Rebel'". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 100. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Chowdhury, Serajul Islam (2000). "The Blazing Comet". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 141. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Islam, Rafiqul (2000). "Nazrul". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 113. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Kabir Chowdhury (Translator) (8 July 2006). "Poverty". Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-07-08.
- Kamal, Nashid (11 July 2015). "Nazrul Islam's Islamic songs". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- Islam, Rafiqul (2000). "Nazrul". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 115. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Haque, Asadul. 1999. Nazrul Jakhan Betare (A Study on various performance of poet Kazi Nazrul Islam in Radio with Documents. Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy, Dhaka. 1999. pp. 28-30
- The Daily Star. 24 May 2003
- Huda, Mohammad Nurul (2000). "Nazrul's Personlore". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 314. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- "The Courtesan", translation of "Barangana", page52-54, Google Books Preview from 'Rebel and Other Poems' by Basudha Chakravarthy, ISBN 81-260-0607-2
- Huda, Mohammad Nurul (2000). "Nazrul's Personlore". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. pp. 314–315. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Nazrul geeti okhndo ,Published from Halima prokashoni 1st publish Ekushey Boimela 2004
- Kamrunnessa Azad. 2001. Dharmiya Chetonay Nazrul. Nazrul Institute, Dhaka. 1999. pp. 173-174
- Kamrunnessa Azad. 2001. Dharmiya Chetonay Nazrul. Nazrul Institute, Dhaka. 1999. pp. 19-20
- Moniruzzaman, Mohammad (2000). "Interaction of Cultures and Kazi Nazrul Islam". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. pp. 153–54. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Moniruzzaman, Mohammad (2000). "Interaction of Cultures and Kazi Nazrul Islam". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 149. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Huda, Mohammad Nurul (2000). "Nazrul's Personlore". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. pp. 306–307. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Islam, Rafiqul (2000). "Nazrul Islam". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 117. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Kamal, Sajed (2000). "Kazi Nazrul Islam: A Chronology of Life". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 325. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- Kamal, Sajed (2000). "Kazi Nazrul Islam: A Chronology of Life". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 326. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- "References to demise of Heads of foreign States or eminent international personalities". 16 October 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
- "A unique symbol of secularism, President says of the rebel poet Nazrul`s birthday celebrated". Banglanews24.com. 25 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-11-10.
- Kamal, Sajed (2000). "Kazi Nazrul Islam: A Chronology of Life". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 326. ISBN 984-555-167-X.
- "Bangladesh Nazrul Sena". Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2008-05-13.
- Karunamaya Goswami, Kazi Nazrul Islam: A Biography, (Nazrul Institute; Dhaka, 1996)
- Rafiqul Islam, Kazi Nazrul Islam: A New Anthology, (Bangla Academy; Dhaka, 1990)
- Basudha Chakravarty, Kazi Nazrul Islam, (National Book Trust; New Delhi, 1968)
- Abdul Hakim, The Fiery Lyre of Nazrul Islam, (Bangla Academy; Dhaka, 1974)
- Priti Kumar Mitra, The Dissent of Nazrul Islam: Poetry and History (New Delhi, OUP India, 2009).
- Chira Unnata Shir':editor Manik Mukherjee
- Recitation of Nazrul Poems
- Shompurno Nazrul: Biographical Series on Nazrul
- Kazi Nazrul Islam Page
- Kazi Nazrul Islam
- Page about Television Series on Nazrul