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Working as a docker in Gdańsk, he rose through the ranks of the trade union movement to become a key figure in the Communist Party of Poland. In 1925, he left the party in the face of what he saw as an increasingly Stalinist ideological outlook. He became a leading Polish Trotskyist, founding the International Revolutionary Current, an informal network of various anti-Stalinist, Trotskyist and other Marxist organisations. He was able to survive all of the Nazi's concentration camps, only to be imprisoned by Stalin again the early 1950s and again from 1962-1964.
He died in 1990, living his later years paralysed and unable to communicate.
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