MV Wilhelm Gustloff
|Owner:||German Labour Front|
|Port of registry:||Hamburg, Germany|
|Builder:||Blohm & Voss|
|Cost:||25 million Reichsmark|
|Laid down:||1 August 1936|
|Launched:||5 May 1937|
|Acquired:||15 March 1938|
|Identification:||Radio ID (DJVZ)|
|Fate:||Requisitioned into the Kriegsmarine on 1 September 1939|
|Name:||Lazarettschiff D (Hospital Ship D)|
|Operator:||Kriegsmarine (German navy)|
|Acquired:||1 September 1939|
|In service:||22 September 1939 – 20 November 1940|
|Status:||Converted to floating barracks beginning 20 November 1940, including repainting from hospital ship colours to standard navy grey.|
|Acquired:||20 November 1940|
|Out of service:||November 1940 – January 1945|
|Fate:||Torpedoed and sunk 30 January 1945 - War grave|
|Notes:||Used as floating barracks for the Second Submarine Training Division until the vessel returned to active service ferrying civilians and military personnel as part of Operation Hannibal|
|General characteristics |
|Class and type:||Cruise ship|
|Length:||208.5 m (684 ft 1 in)|
|Beam:||23.59 m (77 ft 5 in)|
|Height:||56 m (183 ft 9 in)|
|Draught:||6.5 m (21 ft 4 in)|
|Installed power:||9,500 hp (7,100 kW)|
|Speed:||15.5 kn (28.7 km/h; 17.8 mph)|
|Range:||12,000 nmi (22,000 km) at 15 kn (28 km/h; 17 mph)|
|Capacity:||1,465 passengers (as designed) in 489 cabins|
MV Wilhelm Gustloff was a German military transport ship which was sunk on 30 January 1945 by Soviet submarine S-13 in the Baltic Sea while evacuating German civilians, German officials and military personnel from Gotenhafen (now Gdynia) as the Red Army advanced. By one estimate, 9,400 people died, which makes it the largest loss of life in a single ship sinking in history.
Constructed as a cruise ship for the National Socialist Kraft durch Freude (Strength Through Joy) organisation in 1937, she had been requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine (German navy) in 1939. She served as a hospital ship in 1939 and 1940. She was then assigned as a floating barracks for naval personnel in Gdynia (Gotenhafen) before being put into service to transport evacuees in 1945.
- 1 Construction
- 2 Name
- 3 Cruise liner
- 4 Military career
- 5 Operation Hannibal – evacuation
- 6 Aftermath
- 7 Wreckage
- 8 Books, documentaries and movies
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Wilhelm Gustloff was constructed by the Blohm & Voss shipyards. Measuring 208.5 m (684 ft 1 in) long by 23.59 m (77 ft 5 in) wide, with a capacity of 25,484 gross register tons (GRT), she was launched on 5 May 1937.
The ship was originally intended to be named Adolf Hitler but instead was christened after Wilhelm Gustloff, a leader of the National Socialist Party's Swiss branch, who had been assassinated by a Jewish medical student in 1936. Hitler decided on the name change after sitting next to Gustloff’s widow during his memorial service.
Wilhelm Gustloff was the first purpose-built cruise liner for the German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront, DAF) and used by subsidiary organisation Kraft durch Freude (KdF) (Strength Through Joy). Her purposes were to provide recreational and cultural activities for German functionaries and workers, including concerts, cruises, and other holiday trips, and to serve as a public relations tool, to present "a more acceptable image of the Third Reich." She was the flagship of the KdF cruise fleet, her last civilian role, until the spring of 1939.
During the summer of 1939, the vessel was returned to service to bring the Condor Legion back from Spain after the victory of the Nationalist forces under General Francisco Franco, in the Spanish Civil War.
From September 1939 to November 1940, she served as a hospital ship, officially designated Lazarettschiff D.
Beginning on 20 November 1940, the medical equipment was removed from the ship, and she was repainted from the hospital ship colours of white with a green stripe to standard naval grey. As a consequence of the British blockade of the German coastline, she was used as an accommodations ship (barracks) for approximately 1,000 U-boat trainees of the 2nd Submarine Training Division (2. Unterseeboot-Lehrdivision) in the port of Gdynia, which had been occupied by Germany and renamed Gotenhafen, located near Danzig. In 1942, SS Cap Arcona was used as a stand-in for RMS Titanic in the German film version of the disaster. Filmed in Gotenhafen, the 2nd Submarine Training Division acted as extras in the movie. Wilhelm Gustloff sat in dock for over four years, until she was put back into service to transport civilians and military personnel as part of Operation Hannibal.
Operation Hannibal – evacuation
Operation Hannibal was the naval evacuation of German troops and civilians from Courland, East Prussia, and Danzig-West Prussia as the Red Army advanced. Wilhelm Gustloff's final voyage was to evacuate German refugees, military personnel, and technicians who worked at advanced weapon bases in the Baltic from Gdynia, then known to the Germans as Gotenhafen, to Kiel.
The ship's complement and passenger lists cited 6,050 people on board, but these did not include many civilians who boarded the ship without being recorded in the official embarkation records. Heinz Schön, a German archivist and Gustloff survivor who extensively researched the sinking during the 1980s and 1990s, concluded that Wilhelm Gustloff was carrying a crew of 173 (naval armed forces auxiliaries), 918 officers, NCOs, and men of the 2 Unterseeboot-Lehrdivision, 373 female naval auxiliary helpers, 162 wounded soldiers, and 8,956 civilians, of which an estimated 5,000 were children, for a total of 10,582 passengers and crew. The passengers besides civilians included Gestapo personnel, members of the Organisation Todt, and Nazi officials with their families. The ship was overcrowded, and due to the temperature and humidity inside many passengers defied orders not to remove their life jackets.
The ship left Danzig at 12:30 pm on 30 January 1945, accompanied by the passenger liner Hansa, also filled with civilians and military personnel, and two torpedo boats. Hansa and one torpedo boat developed mechanical problems and could not continue, leaving Wilhelm Gustloff with one torpedo boat escort, Löwe. The ship had four captains (Wilhelm Gustloff's captain, two merchant marine captains, and the captain of the U-Boat complement housed on the vessel) on board, and they disagreed on the best course of action to guard against submarine attacks. Against the advice of the military commander, Lieutenant Commander Wilhelm Zahn (a submariner who argued for a course in shallow waters close to shore and without lights), Wilhelm Gustloff's captain—Friedrich Petersen—decided to head for deep water which was known to have been cleared of mines. When he was informed by a mysterious radio message of an oncoming German minesweeper convoy, he decided to activate his ship's red and green navigation lights so as to avoid a collision in the dark, making Wilhelm Gustloff easy to spot in the night.
As Wilhelm Gustloff had been fitted with anti-aircraft guns, and the Germans, in obedience to the rules of war, did not mark her as a hospital ship, no notification of her operating in a hospital capacity had been given and, as she was transporting military personnel, she did not have any protection as a hospital ship under international accords.
The ship was soon sighted by the Soviet submarine S-13, under the command of Captain Alexander Marinesko. The submarine sensor on board the escorting torpedo boat had frozen, rendering it inoperable, as had Wilhelm Gustloff's anti-aircraft guns, leaving the vessels defenseless. Marinesko followed the ships to their starboard (seaward) side for two hours before making a daring move to surface his submarine and steer it around Wilhelm Gustloff's stern, to attack it from the port side closer to shore, where the attack would be less expected. At around 9 pm (CET), Marinesko ordered his crew to launch four torpedoes at Wilhelm Gustloff's port side, about 30 km (16 nmi; 19 mi) offshore, between Großendorf and Leba. The first was nicknamed "for the Motherland," the second "for Leningrad," the third "for the Soviet people", and the fourth, which got jammed in the torpedo tubes and had to be dismantled, "for Stalin."  The three torpedoes which were fired successfully all struck Wilhelm Gustloff on her port side.
The first torpedo struck Wilhelm Gustloff's bow, causing the watertight doors to seal off the bow which contained quarters where off-duty crew members were sleeping. The second torpedo hit the accommodations for the women’s naval auxiliary, located in the ship's drained swimming pool, dislodging the pool tiles at high speed, which caused heavy casualties; only three of the 373 quartered there survived. The third torpedo was a direct hit on the engine room located amidships, disabling all power and communications.
Reportedly, only nine lifeboats were able to be lowered; the rest had frozen in their davits and had to be broken free. About 20 minutes after the torpedoes' impact, Wilhelm Gustloff listed dramatically to port so that the lifeboats lowered on the high Starboard side crashed into the ship's tilting side, destroying many lifeboats and spilling their occupants across the ship's side.
The water temperature in the Baltic Sea at that time of year is usually around 4 °C (39 °F); however, this was a particularly cold night, with an air temperature of −18 to −10 °C (0 to 14 °F) and ice floes covering the surface. Many deaths were caused either directly by the torpedoes or by drowning in the onrushing water. Others were crushed in the initial stampede caused by panicked passengers on the stairs and decks. Many others jumped into the icy Baltic. The majority of those who perished succumbed to exposure in the freezing water.
Less than 40 minutes after being struck, Wilhelm Gustloff was lying on her side. She sank bow-first 10 minutes later, in 44 m (144 ft) of water.
German forces were able to rescue 996 of the survivors from the attack: torpedo boat T36 rescued 564 people; torpedo boat Löwe, 472; minesweeper M387, 98; minesweeper M375, 43; minesweeper M341, 37; the steamer Göttingen, 28; torpedo recovery boat (Torpedofangboot) TF19, seven; the freighter Gotenland, two; and patrol boat (Vorpostenboot) V1703, one baby.
All four captains on Wilhelm Gustloff survived her sinking, but an official naval inquiry was started only against Wilhelm Zahn. His degree of responsibility was never resolved, however, because of Nazi Germany's collapse in 1945.
The figures from Heinz Schön's research make the loss in the sinking to be 9,343 total, including about 5,000 children. Schön's more recent research is backed up by estimates made by a different method. An Unsolved History episode that aired in March 2003, on the Discovery Channel, undertook a computer analysis of her sinking. Using maritime EXODUS software, it was estimated 9,600 people died out of more than 10,600 on board. This analysis considered the passenger density based on witness reports and a simulation of escape routes and survivability with the timeline of the sinking.
Many ships carrying civilians were sunk during the war by both the Allies and Axis Powers. However, based on the latest estimates of passenger numbers and those known to be saved, Wilhelm Gustloff remains the largest loss of life resulting from the sinking of one vessel in maritime history. Günter Grass said in an interview published by The New York Times in April 2003, "One of the many reasons I wrote Crabwalk was to take the subject away from the extreme Right... They said the tragedy of Wilhelm Gustloff was a war crime. It wasn't. It was terrible, but it was a result of war, a terrible result of war."
About 1,000 German naval officers and men were aboard during, and died in, the sinking of Wilhelm Gustloff. The women on board the ship at the time of the sinking were inaccurately described by Soviet propaganda as "SS personnel from the German concentration camps". There were, however, 373 female naval auxiliaries amongst the passengers.
On the night of 9–10 February, just 11 days after the sinking, S-13 sank another German ship, General von Steuben, killing about 4,500 people.
Before sinking Wilhelm Gustloff, Alexander Marinesko was facing a court martial due to his problems with alcohol and for being caught in a brothel while he and his crew were off duty, so Marinesko was thus deemed "not suitable to be a hero" for his actions. Therefore, instead of gaining the title "Hero of the Soviet Union," he was awarded the lesser Combat Order of the Red Banner. Although widely recognized as a brilliant commander, he was downgraded in rank to lieutenant and dishonorably discharged from the navy in October 1945.
In 1960, he was reinstated as captain third class and granted a full pension. In 1963, Marinesko was given the traditional ceremony due to a captain upon his successful return from a mission.
Noted as "Obstacle No. 73" on Polish navigation charts, and classified as a war grave, Wilhelm Gustloff rests at , about 19 nmi (35 km; 22 mi) offshore, east of Łeba and west of Władysławowo (the former Leba and Großendorf respectively). It is one of the largest shipwrecks on the Baltic Sea floor and has been attracting much interest from treasure hunters searching for the lost Amber Room. In order to protect the property on board the war grave-wreck of Wilhelm Gustloff and to protect the environment, the Polish Maritime Office in Gdynia has forbidden diving within a 500 m (1,600 ft) radius of the wreck.
In 2006, a bell recovered from the wreck and subsequently used as a decoration in a Polish seafood restaurant was lent to the privately funded "Forced Paths" exhibition in Berlin.
Books, documentaries and movies
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Books in German
The most prolific German author and historian on the subject of Wilhelm Gustloff is Heinz Schön, one of the shipwreck's survivors, whose books (in German) include:
- Der Untergang der "Wilhelm Gustloff". Tatsachenbericht eines Überlebenden. (The sinking of the "Wilhelm Gustloff". Factual account of a survivor.) Karina-Goltze-Verlag K.-G., Göttingen 1952;
- SOS Wilhelm Gustloff. Die größte Schiffskatastrophe der Geschichte. (SOS Wilhelm Gustloff. The biggest shipping disaster in history.) Motorbuch Verlag Pietsch, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-613-01900-0;
- Die Gustloff – Katastrophe. Bericht eines Überlebenden über die größte Schiffskatastrophe im Zweiten Weltkrieg. (The Gustloff catastrophe. Account of a survivor of the biggest shipping disaster in the Second World War.) Motorbuch Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-613-01027-5;
- Die letzte Fahrt der Wilhelm Gustloff. Dokumentation eines Überlebenden. (The last trip of Wilhelm Gustloff. Account of a survivor.) Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 3-613-02897-2.
- Günter Grass: Im Krebsgang, which has also been translated (by Miguel Sáenz) from German to Spanish as A Paso de Cangrejo. Alfaguara – Santillana Ediciones Generales, S.L. 2002 (Madrid), ISBN 9788420464589.
Books in English
Recent years have seen increased interest in Wilhelm Gustloff disaster in countries outside Germany, with various books either written in or translated into English, including:
- Ruta Sepetys: Salt to the Sea, Philomel Books, Penguin Random, New York, 2016, ISBN 9780399160301. Salt to the Sea is an account of several fictional young adults who were upon the Gustloff during its sinking.
- Cathryn Prince: Death in the Baltic: The World War II Sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2013, ISBN 978-0230341562
- Christopher Dobson, John Miller, and Ronald Payne: The Cruellest Night, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1979, ISBN 0-340-22720-6.
- A.V. Sellwood: The Damned Don't Drown. The Sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD, 1973, ISBN 1-55750-742-2 (fiction). In Sellwood's own words, this is a "reconstruction of the tragedy", with material drawn from "interviews with some of the survivors and official documents".
- Günter Grass: Im Krebsgang, which has been translated into English as Crabwalk. Steidl Verlag, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-88243-800-2 (fiction). Combines historical elements, such as the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff, with fictional elements, such as the book's major characters and events.
- Clive Cussler & Paul Kemprecos: Polar Shift, Puttnam, New York, 2005, ISBN 978-0399152719. Novel containing lengthy sequences set on the Gustloff.
- John Ries: "History's Greatest Naval Disasters. The Little-Known Stories of the Wilhelm Gustloff, the General Steuben and the Goya". In the controversial Journal of Historical Review, 1992, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 371–381.
- Philip Sayers: "The Search for Baltic Gold", 2012, novel, Desperation, disaster and discovery - the secret of Hitler's doomed flagship. ISBN 978-1-905492-27-5
- Guy Saville: The Madagaskar Plan, 2015, ISBN 978-1-444-71068-7. In this alternate history novel, the Gustloff is salvaged after being torpedoed and moored off the coast of Madagascar. It has become the depository for the records of the Jews deported to the island. An extended sequence is set on the ship.
- Roger Weston: Fatal Return, 2012. Novel linked to the history and sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff.
- Philip Kerr: The Other Side of Silence, one of his Bernie Gunther novels, includes the tragedy of the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff woven into the fabric of the novels' fictionalized heroes and other characters.
- Roger Moorhouse: Ship of Fate: The Story of the MV Wilhelm Gustloff (Kindle Single) Kindle Edition. Endeavour Press, 2016. ASIN: B01E7EEGG8. Ship of Fate: The Story of the MV Wilhelm Gustloff explains the history of the ship from its construction in 1930 until the sinking in 1945.
Books in French
- Nacht fiel über Gotenhafen (Night fell over Gotenhafen), feature film, 1959
- Die Gustloff (The Gustloff), two-part telemovie by Joseph Vilsmaier, 2008 (Ship of No Return: The Last Voyage of the Gustloff, Australian title)
- Killer Submarine, 1999.
- Die große Flucht. Der Untergang der Gustloff (The Great Escape. The sinking of Wilhelm Gustloff), 2001.
- "The Sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff", The Sea Hunters (television program), 2002.
- "Wilhelm Gustloff: World's Deadliest Sea Disaster", Unsolved History (television program), 2003.
- Ghosts of the Baltic Sea, 2006.
- Sinking Hitler's Supership, 2008. National Geographic documentary using extensive footage from the 2008 German miniseries.
- Sinking the Gustloff, 2009
- The Nazi Titanic (television program), 2010.
- MV Goya Part of Operation Hannibal, the Goya was also sunk by a Soviet submarine with just 183 survivors from its 7,000 passengers and crew.
- SS Cap Arcona
- MV Awa Maru
- Iosif Stalin
- Soviet hospital ship Armenia
- List by death toll of ships sunk by submarines
- List of maritime disasters
- List of shipwrecks
- Eric Braeden, a survivor
- Gröner 1988, pp. 33-35.
- Kriegsmarine Coastal Forces Gordon Williamson, page 39, Osprey Publishing 2009
- "Wilhelm Gustloff: World's Deadliest Sea Disasters". Unsolved History, The Discovery Channel. Season 1, Episode 14. (Original air date: 26 March 2003)
- Begley, Sarah (2016-01-29). "The Forgotten Maritime Tragedy That Was 6 Times Deadlier Than the Titanic". Time. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
- "DID YOU KNOW?". wilhelmgustloff.com. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Williams, David, Wartime Disasters at Sea, Patrick Stephens Limited, Nr Yeovil, UK, 1997, p. 227.
- CONVERSION TO FLOATING U-BOAT BARRACKS
- Submarines of the Russian and Soviet navies, 1718–1990 Von Norman Polmar, Jurrien Noot, page 190 Naval Institute Press 1991
- Pipes, Jason. A Memorial to the Wilhelm Gustloff
- Prince, Cathryn J. (2012). Death in the Baltic: The World War II Sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 119.
- Template:Author= Kosiarz, E.
- M.S. Wilhelm Gustloff – SINKING
- Löwe Torpedoboot 1940–1959 Sleipner Class
- The Avalon Project – Laws of War: Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention (Hague X); 18 October 1907 Archived 12 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Roger Moorhouse (19 June 2013): Death in the Baltic History Today, retrieved 19 June 2013
- M.S. Wilhelm Gustloff – FACTS – Glossary | Individuals
- Pipes, Jason. In A Memorial to the Wilhelm Gustloff Pipes cites Heinz Schön as reporting in Die Gustloff Katastrophe that the loss of life was 9,343, almost 5000 of whom were children.
- Fire Safety Engineering Group, University of Greenwich. maritime EXODUS software. Current exodus products. Specifically: maritimeEXODUS The Evacuation Model for the Marine Environment (pdf)
- Michael Leja, References (a source in German)
- George Martin Maritime Disasters of World War II Archived 27 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Riding, Alan. Still Intrigued by History's Shadows; Günter Grass Worries About the Effects of War. New York Times, 04/08/2003
- Потопленный миф
- Translation of Marinesko page from www.warheroes.ru
- Irwin J. Kappes References
- [ZARZĄDZENIE PORZĄDKOWE NR 9 DYREKTORA URZĘDU MORSKIEGO W GDYNI z dnia 23 maja 2006 r. w sprawie zakazu nurkowania na wrakach statków-mogiłach wojennych http://www.umgdy.gov.pl/pium/stronajednostki/podglad?id=28135[permanent dead link]]
- Mark Landler Poles riled by Berlin exhibition originally published in The New York Times, 30 August 2006
- The Cruellest Night by Christopher Dobson, John Miller & Ronald Payne (1979, Hodder & Stoughton, London) ISBN 0-340-22720-6 (a book on Germany's Dunkirk, estimates c7,000 dead).
- Gröner, Erich (1988). Hilfsschiffe II: Lazarettschiffe, Wohnschiffe, Schulschiffe, Forschungsfahrzeuge, Hafenbetriebsfahrzeuge (I). Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815–1945 (in German). V. Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. ISBN 3-7637-4804-0.
- Kappes, Irwin J.; The Greatest Marine Disaster in History...and why you probably never heard of it, 2003.
- Leja, Michael; Die letzte Fahrt der "Wilhelm Gustloff"; ZDF (1 August 2005), reports that earlier estimates of approximately 6000 drowned have been revised upwards by more recent sources to about 9300. An article in German.
- Pipes, Jason; A Memorial to the Wilhelm Gustloff
- Schön, Heinz; Die Gustloff Katastrophe (Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart, 2002)
- Williams, David; Wartime Disasters at Sea (Patrick Stephens Limited, Nr Yeovil, UK, 1997) ISBN 1-85260-565-0.
- Bishop, Leigh; Shipwreck Expedition May 2003, led by Mike Boring, 2003
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wilhelm Gustloff.|
- Details, map and position info on www.wrecksite.eu (in English) (in German) (in French) (in Dutch)
- Location of the wreck
- Schiff ohne Klassen - Die Wilhelm Gustloff 1938 propaganda film
- MV Wilhelm Gustloff on Facebook
- Maritimequest Wilhelm Gustloff Photo Gallery
- National Geographic Channel Timeline
- Sinking the Gustloff (Film about Gustloff survivors)
- The Wilhelm Gustloff Museum – The Ultimate Visual Record
- Wilhelm Gustloff hi-rez images gallery
- Wilhelm Gustloff Cruise Ship History