Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta
Kebayoran Baru is a subdistrict of South Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia. Kebayoran Baru was the last residential area to be developed by the Dutch colonial administration. The urban planning was laid in a concept of the Garden city movement, consisting of a well-planned residential area, a shopping center, and a business district, supported with civic facilities e.g. schools, places of worship, hospitals, and parks. Many important governmental institutions are located in Kebayoran Baru, such as the Indonesia Stock Exchange building, the City Hall of South Jakarta, and the ASEAN Secretariat building.
The rough boundaries of Kebayoran Baru are Jendral Sudirman Main Road to the northwest, Gatot Subroto Main Road to the northeast, Krukut River to the east, Cipete Utara Road - Haji Nawi Road to the south, and Grogol River to the west.
Kebayoran Baru consists of the word Kebayoran (from kabayuran, meaning "stockpiles of bayur wood (Pterospermum javanicum)") and Baru (Indonesian for "new"). Several stockpiles of timber (including bayur wood) were built there in earlier time. Bayur wood is known for its strength and resistance to termite attack.
Development of Kebayoran Baru was a relatively quick one. The idea to build a satellite town Kebayoran Baru to accommodate the growing population of Jakarta was launched in 1948; the plan was approved in September 1948, just two months after it was first presented. Immediately thereafter the government began to purchase the land; and by 17 January 1949 the whole area had been purchased. On February 1949, Moh. Soesilo completed the first draft of the town plan and a month later construction work started. Soesilo was a student of Thomas Karsten, a Dutch engineer who gave major contributions to architecture and town planning in Indonesia during the colonial era. Soesilo designed both Kebayoran Baru and Pejompongan in 1948, both are considered to be the first urban center to be designed by an Indonesian.
The first area to be designed is now located around Kebayoran station, on the east side of Grogol River. The construction was done by a Dutch construction company Centrale Stichting Wederopbouw (CSW), whose office was established near the current Attorney General building (Kejaksaan Agung) on June 1, 1948. The construction of Kebayoran Baru was started on March 8, 1949, and was completed in 1955. The office building of CSW was located near the Judicial Palace building (Kejaksaan Agung).
At its completion, Kebayoran Baru was still a satellite city of Jakarta located outside the city boundary. The Thamrin and Sudirman Road were constructed since 1949 to connect Kebayoran Baru with Central Jakarta. It would only be opened in 1953. Access from Central Jakarta to Kebayoran Baru before the completion of the Thamrin and Sudirman Roads were via Jalan Palmerah Utara and Jalan Palmerah Selatan (now Jalan Asia Afrika).
Kebayoran Baru is designed following the principle of a garden city.
Kebayoran Baru was divided into several blocks (blok A to S) based on its land use and the size of the building:
- Blok A, Blok O, and Blok P are now Pulo Administrative Village.
- Blok B is the area bounded by Jalan Melawai, Jalan Gandaria Tengah III, and Jalan Kramat Pela. The area is designed as a residential area west of Jalan Panglima Polim Raya. The old cemetery Kuburan Wakaf Sebrang is located within Blok B. Blok B is part of Kramat Pela Administrative Village.
- Blok C is the area bounded by Jalan Kyai Maja, Jalan Barito II, Jalan Melawai, and Jalan Panglima Polim Raya. The area is designed as a residential area west of Jalan Panglima Polim Raya. The office complex of the Attorney General (Kejaksaan Agung) is located within Blok C. Blok C is part of Kramat Pela Administrative Village.
- Blok D is the area bounded by Jalan Kyai Maja, Jalan Gandaria I, Jalan Gandaria Tengah III, and Jalan Barito II. The area is designed as a residential area west of Jalan Panglima Polim Raya. The park Taman Barito and Jakarta Labschool is located in Blok D. Blok D is part of Kramat Pela Administrative Village.
- Blok K was initially designed as a park (Taman Pusat, "Central Park"). It remained a park during the course of the 1950s to 1970s. It is now occupied by the high-rise complex of the Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing.
- Blok M is a shopping center, together with the high-class residential area of Blok N, it is now Melawai Administrative Village.
- Blok Q is now part of Petogogan Administrative Village.
- Blok R and Blok S are now Rawa Barat Administrative Village.
Most buildings in Kebayoran Baru were designed following the principle of functionalism, that is making use of the latest building material (reinforced concrete) and taking into consideration the principle of tropical design - to maximize natural lighting while minimizing the heat without the use of electricity. Post-war modernism style e.g. the so-called Yankee-type or Jengki style were popular in Kebayoran Baru, so called because of its heavy influence from the American post-war modernism. For example, middle class houses in Kebayoran were designed with square or rectangular layout, but the first floor is tilted forward to protect the facade of the lower level from the sun. Lower-level official houses in Kebayoran make use of front patio. Larger villas in Kebayoran were usually designed by well-known Indies architects at that time such as Job & Sprey and Liem Bwan Tjie. The current Kebayoran Baru Subdistrict also includes some villages which is not part of the original plan. This additions are now located in Radio area, Gandaria Utara, and Cipete Utara.
Being a design older than 50 years, Kebayoran Baru is considered a cultural heritage (Cagar Budaya) according to Law no. D.IV-6099/d/33/1975. New modern international style developments in the area has been a threat to the historic tropical residential character of Kebayoran Baru.
Compared to the situation of subdistricts in Jakarta, Kebayoran Baru is a well-planned subdistrict, both in term of its urban planning and its infrastructure. The Jendral Sudirman main road connects Kebayoran Baru to the city center in Central Jakarta.
The southern quarter of the Semanggi Junction is located in Kebayoran Baru.
Kebayoran Baru is one of the most affluent areas of Jakarta, where many wealthy citizens reside. Many prominent Indonesians live in the district, including Jusuf Kalla (Vice President of Indonesia and business tycoon), Guruh Soekarnoputra (son of Soekarno and an artist), Hary Tanoesoedibjo (Indonesian media tycoon), and Tomy Winata (businessman and the owner of Artha Graha Bank), among others. Kebayoran Baru, along with the subdistrict of Menteng, are the most expensive residential districts in Indonesia, having very high land prices per square foot.
Although Kebayoran Baru, in the Soekarno era, was solely a residential area, the district now harbors many commercial ventures, being known for its lifestyle businesses. The southern part of the neighborhood is filled with large mansions with lots ranging from 500 square meters to 6000 square meters. The northern part of the city is dominated by luxury apartments and office buildings. Senayan is notable for its large concentration of businesses run by Korean expatriates in Indonesia, a trend which began as early as 1982.
Kelurahan (Administrative Villages)
The subdistrict of Kebayoran Baru is divided into ten kelurahan or administrative villages:
- Selong - area code 12110
- Gunung - area code 12120
- Kramat Pela - area code 12130
- Gandaria Utara - area code 12140
- Cipete Utara - area code 12150
- Pulo - area code 12160
- Melawai - area code 12160
- Petogogan - area code 12170
- Rawa Barat - area code 12180
- Senayan - area code 12190
List of important places
- ASEAN Secretariat Building
- Blok M central market and bus terminal, which contains the Blok M mall
- City Hall of South Jakarta
- Darmawangsa Square shopping center
- Department of Public Works Building
- Indonesia Stock Exchange
- ITC Fatmawati
- Kejaksaan Agung
- Pasar Mayestik
- Pasaraya Grande shopping center
- Pertamina Central Hospital
- State Electricity Company building
- Police Headquarters Metro Jaya (Polda Metro Jaya)
- Residence of D.I. Pandjaitan
- Residence of Sukarno
- Sudirman Central Business District which contains the Pacific Place shopping center.
- Sudirman Tower
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- Al-Azhar Mosque and school complex
- Jakarta International School Pattimura Campus
- Harapan Ibu Islamic School
- SMP-SMA Labschool Kebayoran
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