Top: A panoramic view of downtown Keelung and Keelung Port
Second left: Main gate of Chung Cheng Park
|Nickname(s): The Rainy Port (雨港)|
|Country||Taiwan (Republic of China)|
|City seat||Zhongzheng District|
|• Mayor||Lin Yu-chang (DPP)|
|• Deputy Mayor||Lin Yong-fa|
|• Total||132.7589 km2 (51.2585 sq mi)|
|Area rank||18 of 22|
|• Rank||16 of 22|
|• Density||2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (National Standard Time)|
|- Flower||Common crepe myrtle|
|- Tree||Formosan Sweet-gum|
|Taiwanese Hokkien Name|
Keelung (Standard Mandarin Pīnyīn: Jīlóng; Hokkien POJ: Ke-lâng), officially known as Keelung City, is a major port city situated in the northeastern part of Taiwan. It borders New Taipei with which it forms the Taipei–Keelung metropolitan area, along with Taipei itself. Nicknamed the Rainy Port for its frequent rain and maritime role, the city is Taiwan's second largest seaport (after Kaohsiung).
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Administration
- 5 Demographics and culture
- 6 Economy
- 7 Education
- 8 Energy
- 9 Tourist attractions
- 10 Transportation
- 11 International relations
- 12 People from Keelung
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
According to early Chinese accounts, this northern coastal area was originally called Pak-kang (Chinese: 北港; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Pak-káng). By the early 20th century, the city was known to the Western world as Kelung, as well as the variants Kiloung, Kilang and Keelung. In his 1903 general history of Taiwan, US Consul to Formosa (1898–1904) James W. Davidson related that "Kelung" was among the few well-known names, thus warranting no alternate Japanese romanization.
However, the Taiwanese people have long called the city Kelang (Chinese: 雞籠; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Ke-lâng/Koe-lâng; literally: "rooster cage" or "hencoop"). It has been proposed that this name was derived from the local mountain that took the shape of a rooster cage. However, it is more probable that the name was derived from the first inhabitants of the region, as are the names of many other Taiwanese cities. In this case, the Ketagalan people were the first inhabitants, and early Han settlers probably approximated "Ketagalan" with Ke-lâng (Hokkien phonetics).
In 1875, during the late Qing era, a new official name was given (Chinese: 基隆; pinyin: Jīlóng; literally: "base prosperous"). In Mandarin, probably the working language of Chinese government at the time, both the old and new names were likely pronounced Kīlóng (hence "Keelung").
In Standard Chinese, which became the official language of Taiwan after its handover to the Republic of China, the newer name is read Jīlóng (the shift from initial K to J is a recent development in the Beijing dialect, see Old Mandarin). However, the locals continue to call the city Ke-lâng across the changes in government.
Keelung was first inhabited by the Ketagalan, a tribe of Taiwanese aborigine. The Spanish expedition to Formosa in the early 17th century was its first contact with the West; by 1624 the Spanish had built San Salvador de Quelung, a fort in Keelung serving as an outpost of the Manila-based Spanish East Indies. The Spanish ruled it as a part of Spanish Formosa. From 1642 to 1661 and 1663–1668, Keelung was under Dutch control. The Dutch East India Company took over the Spanish Fort San Salvador at Santissima Trinidad. They reduced its size and renamed it Fort Noort-Hollant. The Dutch had three more minor fortifications in Keelung and also a little school and a preacher.
Kingdom of Tungning
When Ming Dynasty loyalist Koxinga successfully attacked the Dutch in southern Taiwan (Siege of Fort Zeelandia), the crew of the Keelung forts fled to the Dutch trading post in Japan. The Dutch came back in 1663 and re-occupied and strengthened their earlier forts. However, trade with Qing China through Keelung was not what they hoped it would be and, in 1668, they left after getting harassed by aboriginals.
First Opium War
Given the strategic and commercial value of Taiwan, there were British suggestions in 1840 and 1841 to seize the island. In September 1841, during the First Opium War, the British transport ship Nerbudda became shipwrecked near Keelung Harbour due to a typhoon. The brig Ann also became shipwrecked in March 1842. Most of the crew were Indian lascars. Survivors from both ships were transferred by authorities to the capital Tainan. The Taiwan Qing commanders, Ta-hung-ah and Yao Ying, filed a disingenuous report to the emperor, claiming to have defended against an attack from the Keelung fort. In October 1841, HMS Nimrod sailed to Keelung to search for the Nerbudda survivors, but after Captain Joseph Pearse found out that they were sent south for imprisonment, he ordered the bombardment of the harbour and destroyed 27 sets of cannon before returning to Hong Kong. Most of the survivors—over 130 from the Nerbudda and 54 from the Ann—were executed in Tainan in August 1842.
In 1863, the Qing Empire opened up Keelung as a trading port and the city enjoyed rapid development due to the abundant commodities such as placer gold and high quality coal found in the drainage area of Keelung River. In 1875, Taipeh Prefecture was created and included Keelung. In 1878, Keelung was formed into a ting or sub-prefecture. Around the same time, the name was changed from Ke-lang (雞籠廳) to Kilong (基隆廳), which means "rich and prosperous land".
During the Sino-French War (1884–85), the French attempted an invasion of Taiwan during the Keelung Campaign. Liu Mingchuan, who led the defence of Taiwan, recruited Aboriginals to serve alongside the Chinese soldiers in fighting against the French of Colonel Jacques Duchesne's Formosa Expeditionary Corps. The French were defeated at the Battle of Tamsui and the Qing forces pinned the French down at Keelung in an eight-month-long campaign before the French withdrew.
Empire of Japan
A systematic city development started during the Japanese Era, after the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki, which handed all Taiwan over to Japan. A five-phase construction of Keelung Harbor was initiated, and in by 1916 trade volume had exceeded even those of Tamsui and Kaohsiung Harbors to become one of the major commercial harbors of Taiwan.
Keelung was governed as Kīrun Town (基隆街), Kīrun District, Taihoku Prefecture in 1920 and was upgraded to a city in 1924. The Pacific War broke out in 1941, and Keelung became one of the first targets of Allied bombers and was nearly destroyed as a result.
Republic of China
After the withdrawal of the Japanese, Taiwan became part of the Republic of China (ROC) in October 1945, Keelung was established as a provincial city of Taiwan Province. The Keelung City Government worked with the harbor bureau to rebuild the city and the harbor and in 1984, the harbor became the 7th largest container harbor in the world.
Keelung City is located in the northern part of Taiwan Island. It occupies an area of 132.76 km2 (51.26 sq mi) and is separated from its neighboring county by mountains in the east, west and south. The northern part of the city faces the ocean and is a great deep water harbor since early times.
Keelung has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with a yearly rainfall average upwards of 3,700 millimetres (146 in). It has long been noted as one of the wettest and gloomiest cities in the world; the effect is related to the Kuroshio Current. Although it is one of the coolest cities of Taiwan, winters are still short and warm, whilst summers are long, relatively dry and hot, temperatures can peek above 26 °C during a warm winter day, while it can dip below 27 °C during a rainy summer day, much like the rest of northern Taiwan. However its location on northern mountain slopes means that due to orographic lift, rainfall is heavier during fall and winter, the latter during which a northeasterly flow prevails. During summer, southwesterly winds dominate and thus there is a slight rain shadow effect. Fog is most serious during winter and spring, when relative humidity levels are also highest.
|Climate data for Keelung|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.1
|Average high °C (°F)||18.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.0
|Average low °C (°F)||13.9
|Record low °C (°F)||3.9
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||335.8
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||21.0||19.6||21.1||17.2||18.8||14.2||9.2||11.5||15.0||17.7||19.9||20.1||205.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81.2||82.5||83.6||81.6||81.7||79.6||75.1||76.7||78.6||79.2||79.0||78.5||79.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54.5||48.0||65.6||83.4||90.3||125.4||203.0||192.5||149.1||94.3||58.7||52.6||1,217.4|
Keelung has seven (7) districts:
|Map||Name||Chinese||Taiwanese||Hakka||Population (2016)||Area (km²)|
Demographics and culture
|Source: "Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census.|
|Decrease due to Allied air bombings|
|28,000 Mainlander influx|
One of the most popular festivals in Taiwan is the Mid-Summer Ghost Festival. The Keelung Ghost Festival is among the oldest in Taiwan, dating back to 1851 after bitter clashes between rivaling clans, which claimed many lives before mediators stepped in. The Ghost Festival of Keelung City is a reflection of Taiwan's rich cultural history that is very much alive today.
Education in Keelung City is governed by the Department of Education of Keelung City Government.
Universities and colleges
Twin towns — Sister cities
Keelung is twinned with:
- Bacolod City and Davao City, Philippines
- Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands
- Campbell, California, U.S.
- Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.
- East London, South Africa
- Marrickville, New South Wales, Australia
- Miyakojima, Okinawa, Japan
- Rosemead, California, U.S.
- Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.
- Sangju, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
- Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
- Yakima, Washington, U.S.
People from Keelung
- Chen Ti, Taiwanese tennis player
- Zero Chou, Taiwanese director
- Jiang Yi-huah, Premier of the Republic of China
- Show Lo, Taiwanese entertainer
- Danson Tang, Taiwanese Mandopop singer
- Yi Huan, Taiwanese comic creator/animator
- Feng-hsuing Hsu, American-Taiwanese computer scientist
- Hsie Zhen-Wu, Taiwanese TV presenter/lawyer
- Kuo Fu-Chieh, American-Taiwanese computer scientist
- Asteroid 237164 Keelung named for the city in 2018
- List of cities in the Republic of China (Taiwan)
- Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
- "Deputy Mayor". Keelung City Government. Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- 人口統計. www.klcg.gov.tw (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- Campbell, William (1903). "Explanatory Notes". Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. pp. 538–557. OCLC 644323041.
- for example: Smith, D. Warres (1900). European settlements in the Far East: China, Japan, Corea, Indo-China, Straits Settlements, Malay States, Siam, Netherlands, India, Borneo, the Philippines etc. S. Low, Marston & company. p. 38. OCLC 3110223. OL 6905314M.
- Davidson (1903), Index p.20.
- Davidson (1903), p. iii.
- "Welcome to Keelung City: The Beginning". Keelung City Government. Archived from the original on 26 September 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- "Ching Dynasty". Keelung City Government. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-24.
- Terry, Thomas Philip (1914). Terry's Japanese Empire. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 774. OCLC 51414323. OL 18847607M.
- Governor-General of Taiwan (1931–1932). "koe-lâng (基隆)". In Ogawa Naoyoshi. 臺日大辭典 [Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese and Hokkien). 1. Taihoku: 同府 [Dōfu]. p. 466. OCLC 25747241. .
- "Entry #35351 (基隆市)". 臺灣閩南語常用詞辭典 [Dictionary of Frequently-Used Taiwan Minnan] (in Chinese and Hokkien). Ministry of Education, R.O.C. 2011.
- Altares, Guillermo (November 12, 2016). "Una excavación aporta una nueva visión de la colonización de Asia". El País (in Spanish). Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780521243339. OCLC 613665518.
- "Ming Dynasty and Cheng Cheng kung's Era". Keelung City Government. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- Shepherd (1993), p. 95.
- Shih-Shan Henry Tsai (2009). Maritime Taiwan: Historical Encounters with the East and the West. Routledge. pp. 66–67. ISBN 978-1-317-46517-1.
- Leonard H. D. Gordon (2007). Confrontation Over Taiwan: Nineteenth-Century China and the Powers. Lexington Books. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7391-1869-6.
- Davidson (1903), p. 211.
- "Japanese Occupation". Keelung City Government. Archived from the original on 24 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "The Republic of China". Keelung City Government. Archived from the original on 25 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "Introduction". Keelung City Government. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Davidson, James W. (1903). "Appendix IV: Climate". The Island of Formosa, Past and Present : history, people, resources, and commercial prospects : tea, camphor, sugar, gold, coal, sulphur, economical plants, and other productions. London and New York: Macmillan. OL 6931635M.
- "Statistics > Monthly Mean". Central Weather Bureau.
- Takekoshi, Yosaburō (1907). "Chapter XI II: Population and future development of the island resources". Japanese rule in Formosa. London, New York, Bombay and Calcutta: Longmans, Green, and co. p. 200. OCLC 753129. OL 6986981M.
- "Keelung: Mid-summer ghost festival". Taiwan Tourism. Retrieved 2017-03-10.