Keiko Fujimori

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Keiko Fujimori
ケイコ・フジモリ (藤森 恵子)
Keiko Fujimori 2.jpg
Fujimori in 2010
President of Popular Force
Assumed office
22 July 2009
Preceded byPosition established
Member of Congress
In office
26 July 2006 – 26 July 2011
First Lady of Peru
In role
23 August 1994 – 22 November 2000
PresidentAlberto Fujimori
Preceded bySusana Higuchi
Succeeded byNilda Jara
Personal details
Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi

(1975-05-25) 25 May 1975 (age 48)
Lima, Peru
Political partyPopular Force (2010–present)
Mark Villanella
(m. 2004; div. 2022)
RelativesKenji Fujimori (brother)
Santiago Fujimori (uncle)
EducationStony Brook University
Boston University (BA)
Columbia University (MBA)

Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi (Spanish: [ˈkejko soˈfi.a fuxiˈmoɾi (x)iˈɣutʃi, - fuʝiˈmoɾi -]; born 25 May 1975) is a Peruvian politician. Fujimori is the eldest daughter of former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori and Susana Higuchi. From August 1994 to November 2000, she held the role of First Lady of Peru, during her father's administrations. She has served as the leader of the Fujimorist political party Popular Force since 2010, and was a congresswoman representing the Lima Metropolitan Area, from 2006 to 2011. Fujimori ran for president in the 2011, 2016, and 2021 elections, but was defeated each time in the second round of voting.

Early life[edit]

Early life and education[edit]

Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi was born on 25 May 1975 in the Jesús María district of Lima, the capital of Peru.[1][2] Fujimori's parents are Japanese Peruvians; her father is former President of Peru Alberto Fujimori, who was elected in the 1990 Peruvian general election, and her mother is Susana Higuchi.[3] In addition, Fujimori would come to have three siblings: Kenji Gerardo (born May 1980), Hiro Alberto (born December 1976) and Sachi Marcela (born March 1979).[4] Fujimori, as the eldest child in her family, would often mediate between her parents – who experienced a conflicted marriage – and her siblings.[5] For primary and secondary education, Keiko Fujimori and her siblings attended Peruvian Catholic School Colegio Sagrados Corazones Recoleta [es] (Recoleta Academy of the Sacred Hearts).[4][6] As she became a teenager, she would often feel that she needed to please her father, according to Vásquez de Velasco, and was able to use publicly funded presidential vehicles, including the presidential jet, for her personal events.[7]

When her father was elected president in 1990, he was reportedly approached by the military to implement Plan Verde; a plan for Peru to adopt a neoliberal economy, to ethnically cleanse vulnerable populations and to establish control of the media.[8][9][10][11][12] With backing of the military, he later led a self-coup when he dissolved congress in 1992, violating the independence of the judiciary and the press, and began persecuting opponents.[13][14] Subsequently, with the approval of a new constitution, the president could be re-elected in the following elections.[15] Throughout her father's presidency, the government committed multiple human rights violations[16] that included forced sterilizations, and extrajudicial killings during the internal conflict in Peru.[17][18][3] It was also alleged that Fujimori embezzled between US$600 million and US$2 billion through graft.[19][20][21] Such allegations placed Fujimori seventh in the list of money embezzled by heads of government active within 1984–2004.[20][21] Alberto Fujimori's revitalization of the economy of Peru and defeat of Shining Path, however, has resulted in continued support from some Peruvians, with the former president having a divisive legacy overall in the country.[3][22]

After her father's coup, Fujimori graduated from secondary school and travelled to the United States in 1993 to pursue a bachelor's degree in Business Administration at Stony Brook University.[23] The cost of Fujimori and her sibling's studies in the United States, estimated to be about $918,000 in total, was reportedly funded by Chief of the National Intelligence Service (SIN) Vladimiro Montesinos, with his secretary Matilde Pinchi Pinchi saying Keiko personally received money at SIN facilities while General Julio Salazar would travel to New York to deliver funds on occasion.[24] La Prensa would later report that a foundation in Panama was established, received bank transfers from Montesinos' account and paid for Fujimori's studies at Boston University.[24] She would go on to graduate from the university in May 1997, completing her studies in Business Administration.[2]

First Lady of Peru[edit]

In 1994, Fujimori's father stripped her mother of her title of First Lady of Peru with the intent of silencing her after she accused him publicly and in the Peruvian Judicial Branch[25] of kidnapping, torture and corruption, this led to the two separating in the same year, taking with them the last vestiges of her mother's titles.[26] One day shortly after, Fujimori received a call from her father while studying in the United States, with the president asking his daughter to attend a formal dinner in Miami, though this quickly turned into a multi-day trip.[27] On 23 August 1994, Keiko stopped her studies at Stony Brook[28] and returned to Peru, where her father appointed her as First Lady of Peru,[29] the youngest first lady in the Americas.[30][31] Fujimori's father reportedly used her as an accessory instead of having her perform notable functions, choosing his daughter to fill the office because she was obedient.[32] While serving as First Lady, Fujimori downplayed the allegations raised by her mother, ignoring reports by the press and international groups.[27] On top of her symbolic functions, from April 1994 to November 2000, her father made her head of Fundación por los Niños del Perú [es] (Foundation for the Children of Peru), which is usually led by the first lady,[2][33] and she created Fundación Peruana Cardioinfantil (Peruvian Foundation for Infant Cardiology) for children with congenital heart diseases.[34]

Fujimori's parents formally divorced in 1996.[29] In the years after their separation, Susana said that she was subjected to torture at least five-hundred times between 1992 and 2000, telling the press that Alberto had ordered his partner Vladimiro Montesinos to execute her, though Montesinos said he refused on the ground of being a devout Catholic.[29][35]

As first lady, she received three main accusations: that she diverted clothing donated through charity by Japanese-Peruvians, a controversy that even made it before Supreme Court of Peru;[1] that she ordered the Government Palace's rooms painted pink;[36][37] and the perceived betrayal, as it was seen by many opposition members, when she refused to defend her mother who had been denounced and persecuted by her father.[38][39] Fujimori responded to the last criticism by alleging that the accusations of tortures made by her mother were a "legend."[38][40] She would later reconcile with her mother, who then assisted her with her presidential campaigns.[41][42][43]

In 1998, as her father intended to run for an unprecedented and at that point unconstitutional third term, Fujimori came out in a strong declaration against her father's plan, supporting a plan made by the opposition.[1] She put out a statement: "As a daughter, I would prefer that my father rest, but as a citizen, I believe he is what the country requires."[38] Fujimori still helped her father despite her reservations in his reelection campaign in April 2000, as she had done in his 1995 campaign.[2] In November 2000, her father fled to Japan and resigned from the presidency while visiting Brunei once news came of a massive corruption scandal.[44] Shortly after the scandal broke, Fujimori had asked her father to not renounce anything and to return to Peru to defend himself before a court of law.[1][38]

Fujimori was forced to leave the Government Palace of Peru on 21 November 2000 after the Congress of Peru officially vacated her father Alberto's position as president of Peru.[45] Her mother, now a member of congress, offered Fujimori to stay with her, though Fujimori refused and preferred to stay with her aunt Juana Fujimori beside her father's family.[38]

United States residency and arrest of her father[edit]

In August 2001, Fujimori visited Tokyo to meet with her father who still had dual citizenship, the main reason Japan was reluctant to reject his asylum and extradite him.[38][46] She moved to the United States in 2002 to further pursue her business career, studying at Columbia University.[38] While in New York, she met Mark Vito Villanella and married him in a wedding attended by many Fujimorist officials in the Miraflores district of Lima that was officiated by Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne, Archbishop of Lima and member of Opus Dei.[38] The newlyweds returned to New York where Fujimori would continue her MBA studies.[38]

Fujimori's father arrived in Santiago de Chile in preparation of his return to Peru to run anew as a presidential candidate on 6 November 2005 and was arrested shortly after by Interpol.[38][47] After her father's arrest in Chile, Fujimori's father was blocked from announcing his candidacy for President of Peru in the 2006 Peruvian general election, as was his political coalition Si Cumple.[38][48]

Congress of Peru (2006–2011)[edit]

Fujimori meeting with members of the European Parliament in 2010

As a result of Alberto Fujimori's arrest, those sympathetic to the ex-president created the party Alliance for the Future (Alianza por el Futuro) with the acronym AF recognizing their previous leader.[38] With her father unable to preside over the new party, Keiko Fujimori was chosen as the party's leader and candidate, which resulted with her ending her residency in the United States.[38] It was in this context that she finally returned to the country and ran for Congress in the general elections of 2006.[38] At this time, she would continue to defend the actions of her father and Montesinos.[49]

On 6 January 2006, Keiko managed to get her new party included in the Peruvian Registry of Political Organizations.[50] In that year's legislative elections, she topped the list of her party's candidates.[38] The party's presidential candidate, Martha Chavez Cossio, running with vice presidential candidate Santiago Fujimori (Keiko's uncle), finished in fourth place, with 7.4% of the valid votes.[51] Keiko received the most votes of any congressional candidate that year, with 602,869 votes, more than three times more than the runner up, Mercedes Cabanillas; breaking the national record for most votes received by a legislator up to that point.[52][53][54][55] The Alliance received 1.4 million votes in total, or 13% of all valid votes cast, winning 13 congressional seats and becoming the fourth most powerful party in the Congress.[56][57] In the night of the first vote, 9 April, Fujimori declared, "I believe that much of the support is because I am the daughter of Alberto Fujimori, and it is obvious that I am really the recipient of the caring and gratefulness that the people have for my father."[58] She would serve as a Member of the National Congress from 26 July 2006 – 26 July 2011 for Lima.

With the election of Alan Garcia to the presidency, Fujimori now became the part of the congressional opposition.[38][59] Adopting a moderate tone concerning Garcia, who did not have a majority of parliament, Fujimori announced her willingness to cooperate on certain issues.[38] During her term, she played the role of a discreet legislator who was yet a prominent spokesperson for fujimorismo[60][38] until the role was handed to Carlos Raffo Arce in 2008.[61] Of the only 20 legislative projects she proposed in five years, just 6 were approved.[62][63][64] The majority of her proposals concerned reforms of the legal code. Fujimori and her parliamentary bloc supported various government policies, such as their fruitless reform of the Penal Code to reintroduce the death penalty for terrorists.[65][38] Later, she attempted to reintroduce the death penalty for pedophilia and robbery.[66][64] She authored a law that restricts penitentiary benefits for those who commit serious offenses, and another law that obligates judges to give the highest sanctions to repeat offenders.[63] Similarly, she passed a law that reduces the jail benefits to those who are protected under the "sincere confession" provision.[clarification needed]

In September 2007, she organized demonstrations in support of her father, who was now being judged for his previous crimes.[38][67] She told the press that she was confident of his acquittal because "there is no hard evidence." Fujimori insisted that her father was unaware of the crimes committed by Montesinos and other public functionaries.[38] In December, the ex-president received his first guilty verdict and was convicted of participating in acts of corruption, murder, human rights abuses, and other charges. His daughter considered the ruling an "injustice", the result of "political and judicial persecution", saying that the Peruvian judiciary "inspires no confidence."[38] The next year, she said that if she was elected president, she would "not hesitate" to use her presidential pardon power on her own father.[68][69]

On 13 January 2008, Fujimori announced the creation of a new political party, Fuerza 2011, that would nominate a candidate for 2011. It would nominate her if her father was blocked from running by the law.[38] Other Fujimorista organizations, such as Cambio 90 and New Majority, decided to maintain their organizational independence.[38]

In April 2009, Alberto was convicted for another time, this time sentenced for 25 years of prison for crimes against humanity, specifically referring to various massacres, which left 25 people in total dead.[70] Before the ruling, Fujimori had organized another demonstration that had managed to obtain the attendance of 10,000 people, where she challenged the existence of any evidence against her father.[71][38] She attributed the ruling to "vengeance" against "the best president that we have ever had in the country."[38] In an opinion poll taken at the time, 70% of the population believed that the ex-president was guilty, while just 27% believed he was innocent.[38] At the same time, when asked whether they would support him for president, between 19 and 21% said that they would if he were allowed to run.[38]

Fujimori was criticized for being absent from 500 sessions of Congress, according to the publication La República.[63] During this time, she gave birth to two daughters and needed to take maternity leave. Furthermore, she was outside of the country for a total of 223 days between August 2006 and 2010, with her primary trip destinations being Chile (5 times) and the United States (10 times), where she spent almost 100 days between January and May 2008 finishing her master's degree[72] in Columbia University.[38] According to the same publication, of the 42 sessions of the commission on the economy in which she was a member, she was only present for 7.[73][63]

Presidential campaigns[edit]

2011 general election[edit]

During 2009, Keiko Fujimori began the collection of signatures to create Fuerza 2011, her own political party. Fujimori hired former New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani as an advisor.[74]

On 9 March 2010, the National Jury of Elections formally recognized the political party after more than one million signatures were collected,[75][38] a number that surpassed the requirement by 854,000 signatures. On 19 May, she officially launched this new political organization.[38] On 17 December, she announced her candidacy during a campaign in a Lima neighborhood.[76] Rafael Rey, minister of defense, Peruvian representative to the Andean Parliament and member of the conservative party National Renewal, was the first vice-presidential candidate while Jaime Yoshiyama, her father's former minister during his presidency, was the second.[77][38]

Throughout the entire campaign, Fujimori fiercely defended her various proposals, among them to apply the death penalty to certain crimes, create jobs, fight poverty, control public accounts, sponsor free trade, counter crime, begin an "offensive against corruption", improve the education system via a reward initiative for excellent teachers, and an accompanying system for gauging teacher skills.[78][69][38] Her campaign was fundamentally built upon a defense of her father's government. In her opinion, that government had been responsible for defeating terrorism and stabilizing the economy. However, she also found it necessary to distance herself from the scandals that ended up ending the presidency of her father, trying to blame Montesinos for the violations of human rights and corruption while also promising to not pardon her father, a constitutional power of the president.[79][55][38] Fujimori also recognized "errors" and "excesses" committed during her father's terms and reminded the public of her opposition to her father's third term.[80]

During the campaign for the first ballot, Fujimori became embroiled in a new scandal as she admitted to having received donations from people allegedly involved in drug trafficking during her run for Congress in 2006.[81] She admitted to having received 10,000 dollars from two convicted women who, according to Fujimori, were victims of persecution.[82]

Opinion polls granted her high possibilities to win the presidential elections in 2011;[83] she was leading in presidential election polls as of July 2010.[84] In the first round of the 2011 presidential elections, Fujimori received 23.551% of the votes (3.4 million),[85] second only to Ollanta Humala, a leftist nationalist candidate who received 31.699% of the votes.[86] Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was third with 18.512%, followed by Alejandro Toledo and Luis Castañeda, ex-mayor of Lima.[87] Kuczynski and Castañeda subsequently declared their support for Fujimori while Toledo declared for Humala.[88][89] With 37 representatives, Fuerza 2011 became the second most powerful party in congress.[90] Fujimori's brother, Kenji Gerardo Fujimori, was elected representative for Lima, receiving the most votes of any national candidate.[91]

The second vote was polarized. Near election date, polls indicated effectively a tie due to the margin of error.[92] The election was also marked by fearmongering by both sides of the aisle. According to Sinesio Lopez, professor at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, "Humala's candidacy fed into fears that his political program would kill small businesses. Keiko's candidacy, meanwhile, fed into fears of a return to corruption and violation of human rights that had occurred during her father's government."[93] Humala was also branded by his opponents as a purportedly Chavista authoritarian.[94][95] As a result, both were incredibly polarizing figures, with polls showing that both encountered stern rejection from about 50% of the population during the first round of voting.[95] According to the Barcelona Centre for International Affairs, eight million people, mostly centrists and members of the middle class, said they would be electing the "lesser evil" for the nation.

In the 5 June runoff, she lost to Humala, 51.34% (7,937,704 votes) to 48.66% (7,490,647 votes).[96] She had received the majority of her support from the business community, conservatives, the majority of the press, liberal professionals, small businesses, the church, and much of the Lima middle class.[93][78] With 90% of polls closed, Fujimori admitted her defeat and personally congratulated Humala on his win.[97][98]

Post-campaign of 2011[edit]

After her 2011 defeat, Fujimori began to work toward a renewed campaign for 2016.[38] Her strategy began with a small change as on 29 June 2012, she announced a new name for her party: Fuerza Popular,[99][100][38] a change that officially took effect 4 January 2013.[101][102][103] According to her, she had chosen a new name for the party so that it "would be able to last in the times."[38] The logo for her party, orange with a big white "K" (for Keiko), stayed the same. Furthermore, she continued to serve as its president.[104][38] The new party did not present any declaration of ideology for the electoral authorities, but she seemed to maintain the essence of fujimorismo, including the defense of neoliberal economics, financial stability, and strict security.[38] Despite these continuities, she continued to slowly distance herself from the legacy of her father.[38]

In October 2012, Fujimori and her brothers requested a humanitarian pardon for their father, who, according to the defense, was having health problems.[105] Fujimori herself declared "we are submitting a letter to president Ollanta Humala in order to inform him of this request for freedom. It will be personal letter from four children to inform him of the commencement of this process."[106] In June 2013, Humala denied the request for clemency, alleging that according to a medical professional, the ex-president did not suffer from any terminal illness nor any serious and incurable mental illnesses.[107] In January 2015, her father was convicted for a third time, this time sentenced for eight years for having been guilty for misappropriation of public funds to buy off tabloids for his 2000 election.[108]

Between 2011 and 2016, Fujimori intended to strengthen her party, travelling across the country to mitigate the hesitancy many still had toward her because of her connection to Alberto Fujimori, a factor that had been decisive in her 2011 defeat.[109][38][110] She dedicated herself to cutting the association, including by removing corrupt members of her party and reaching out to youth.[111][112][113] Her electoral base continued to be in Lima and the center of the country.[114] Although she did not serve out a single public function during this period that could have increased her visibility, Fujimori led all opinion polls throughout 2015, with more than 30% support.[38] She also benefited from an ongoing political crisis and accusations of corruption against Humala that made his approval ratings drop to just 20%.

2016 general election[edit]

On 4 December 2015, Fujimori officially announced her candidacy for president in the 2016 elections.[115] Her running mates were ex-minister of agriculture and irrigation Jose Chilmper Ackerman for first vice president and Vladimiro Huaroc Portocarrero, ex-regional governor of Junin as the second vice president.[116] Fujimori outlined six "pillars", among them defense of institutions of a higher law, independence of powers, protection of human rights, support for limiting the armed forces, a free market, tax cuts, incentives for small businesses, use of emergency state funds to kickstart the economy, increase in supply of government bonds, and expansion of electrical and internet infrastructure in rural areas.[117][118][119][120]

In January 2016, there were 19 presidential candidates, but by the first vote, nine had been expelled or dropped out. César Acuña and Julio Guzmán, two of the main competitors, had been excluded according to the National Jury of Elections.[121][122] The candidacy of Acuña was interrupted because he gave money to the people during the campaign and Guzmán was forced out of the race because of questions about whether his party functioned democratically.[123][124] Fujimori was not free of accusations as the JNE also requested her removal from the election after it came to light that she had received donations larger than those allowed by the election laws. Fujimori countered that the accusations against her were "irresponsible" and alleged insufficient evidence.[125] The JNE dismissed the claims as unfounded, declaring that "The candidate has not engaged in the prohibited activities of offering or giving money or gifts in the aim of obtaining votes."[126][127][128] The outcome provoked suspicions that the original exclusionary rulings had been made in favor of Fujimori's candidacy, calling into question the clarity of the system for applying the election rules.[122][121]

As the first vote arrived, Fujimori maintained her lead over her competitors.[129] With Acuña and Guzmán's disqualifications, her main opponents were now the center-right economist and former minister Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (PPK), the left-leaning psychologist and congresswoman Veronika Mendoza, and the former delegate Alfredo Barnechea. Also in the ring were Alan Garcia and Alejandro Toledo, ex-presidents whose prospects were dim because of investigations and revelations connecting them to Operation Car Wash.[130][131]

On the anniversary of the self-coup of 1992, more than 50,000 demonstrators, most of them called by the non-profit organization No a Keiko, protested Fujimori's candidacy with chants such as "Fujimori never more" in the Plaza San Martin.[132][133][134] As she had done in the previous elections, she promised to not pardon her father, but promised also to continue the struggle in court for his release;[135][136] she also affirmed that this was a decision taken by the whole family, not just herself.[135] Fujimori maintained a high level of disapproval, approximately 45% according to Ipsos, deriving mainly from the negative legacy of her father who was again seeking freedom and appeals for his sentence.[137][138][139] The appeals process intensified, bringing Keiko to distance herself from the controversial shadow of her father, vowing to not follow his path, to provide reparations to women who were allegedly sterilized under her father, and to promise to not pardon him for his crimes, signing a document during a debate symbolizing her promise.[140][141] She also stated that she would not run for another election if she won the presidency.[141] She also supported the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, responsible for detailing the human rights violations committed between 1980 and 2000 by both the Shining Path Insurgency and the government, for the first time.[142][143][38]

Polls indicated that she placed first in the first round of voting on 10 April, garnering approximately 40% of the vote over opponents Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and Verónika Mendoza who each received approximately 20%.[144][145] Fuerza Popular obtained an absolute majority in the congress, garnering 73 of 130 available seats.[146] After learning of the results, Fujimori said, "The new political map that has been drawn clearly shows us that Peru wants reconciliation and does not want any more violence."[147] However, as no candidate had obtained a majority of votes for president, a second vote would be scheduled for 5 June.[148]

In this next stage of the campaign, Fujimori traveled across the country, especially to where her father continued to maintain a steady level of popularity, while PPK talked about possible allies and intended to present himself as a centrist candidate capable of winning over the antifujimorista vote.[149] Fujimori continued to be the favorite according to polls,[150] but her campaign suffered a major setback: as the election approached, accusations surfaced of connections between drug trafficking and Congressman Joaquín Ramírez, Secretary General of Fuerza Popular and one of Fujimori's principle aids. On 15 May 2016, Peruvian news program Cuarto Poder broadcast a report conducted with Univisión that alleging that Ramírez was being investigated by the DEA for money laundering.[151] According to the report, the DEA had a recording in which Ramirez told a commercial pilot, "Do you know that China [referring to Keiko] gave me 15 million dollars during the last campaign in order to "clean" them for the 2011 campaign, and that I 'cleaned' them through a chain of faucets?"[152] The DEA denied that there was any investigation into Fujimori, who denied any involvement in the case or having in fact ever given any money to Ramirez.[153]

Her image continue to take a hit, primarily due to fears that the country would turn into a narco-state with her election, fears that were stoked by her rival PPK.[149][154][155] At the same time, prosecutors announced they would be investigating suspicions of money laundering and other irregularities in Fujimori's campaign, which she dismissed as simply a smear campaign.[156] In the final days before the vote, the leaders of the left, such as Mendoza, announced their support for PPK.[157][158][149] At the beginning of June, another march organized by several left-leaning organizations against Fujimori garnered thousands of demonstraters in Lima,[159] an event shared considerably via social media under the title "it is not hate, it is love for Peru."[citation needed] According to analysts, this second march was decisive in those not yet decided showing support for the PPK.[149]

In a very contested election, Fujimori trailed Pedro Pablo Kuczynski according to exit polls as ballots were counted late into the evening on 5 June 2016. The recount took up copious amounts of time after election day.[160] Due to the narrow margin involved, the national (and international, to a lesser degree) press only began to consider PPK as the new "virtual president" on 9 June, four days after the original vote.[161][162] At that point, PPK had obtained 50.12% of the vote, compared with 49.88% for Fujimori.[163] On 10 June, Fujimori admitted her defeat, saying that her party had a "vigilant" opposition and wishing the new president elect well.[164] On the other hand, Fujimori also claimed that the PPK had won with the help of "promoters of hatred" and "the political, economic, and media power of the outgoing government."[165][166] Kuczynski had won by a narrow margin of less than half a percentage point, and was sworn in as president on 28 July.

Post-campaign of 2016[edit]

Fujimori meeting with President of Peru Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and vice president Martín Vizcarra in July 2017

After the 2016 elections, Fujimori continued to be the main leader of the opposition against PPK's government presiding over the parliamentary majority, while defending herself from accusations of having maintained a controversial relationship with the Odebrecht conglomerate.[167] In December 2017, she supported the first impeachment process against Pedro Pablo Kuczynski,[168] though he pardoned her father Alberto Fujimori on 24 December 2018 three days after the impeachment process failed.[169]

Her brother, Kenji Fujimori, declared his opposition to such a move, which worsened a growing rift between the siblings over their father's legacy and control of the opposition.[170] In March 2018, PPK resigned having been accused of buying votes against his impeachment. At the time, Kenji was recorded negotiating for votes in favor of PPK's acquittal, dubbed his kenjivideos, in return for a pardon for his father, a deal which PPK ended up following through with.[171][172][173] When she found out about the videos, Keiko, accused of being partly responsible for the leak of the recordings, condemned her brother's actions. Upon his expulsion from Congress in June 2018, Kenji responded, "Keiko, congratulations! Here you have my head on a platter."[174][175] During the second round of elections in 2016, Kenji did not vote for his own sister because he refused to compromise on the freedom of their father or have a discourse on his errors.[176][177] When he lost a challenge to become leader of Fuerza Popular, Kenji promised to run for president in 2021, something that his sister was also planning to do for the third time,[178][179][180] this time in a new party that would split from Fuerza Popular along with other dissidents in the party.[181]

When PPK resigned on 23 March 2017, the presidency was passed to civil engineer Martín Vizcarra, with Fujimori welcoming him and wished for his "success" through a tweet the same day.[182] Nevertheless, she heavily criticized Vizcarra's 2018 Peruvian constitutional referendum since included on the ballot was whether citizens supported the re-election of congressmen and the return of a bicameral legislature. She claimed that the ballot items "are evidence of centrist populism", asked the president to "stop seeing congress members as your enemies", and was empowered to make as the parliamentary majority leader to attempt to defeat the measures through the referendum.[183][184]

Arrest and temporary imprisonment[edit]

On 10 October 2018, Fujimori was arrested and placed in provisional detention on charges of money laundering days after the Supreme Court of Peru nullified the pardon of her father, ordering him back to prison.[185][186][187] The arrest came at the request of the Public Ministry,[188] who accused her of illegally receiving money from Odebrecht during her campaign in 2011 as part of the Lava Jato corruption scandal.[185] The arrest order stated that she led a "criminal organization inside of Fuerza 2011 [today Fuerza Popular]."[189] In response, Fujimori wrote, "this is what we call political persecution ... without evidence against me, I am deprived of liberty, but still with my head held high and my spirit intact."[190] On 18 October, she was let go as her appeal was accepted by the National Audience.[191] On 31 October, she was arrested again when she was again sentenced to 3 years of pretrial detention for money laundering and "a high risk of escaping", as per the decision by judge Richard Concepcion Carhuancho.[192]

Fujimori appealed yet again to be set free but the appeal was rejected by the Superior Court of Justice in January 2019.[193] By August of that year, the Supreme Court, due to an impasse between its members, delayed their decision on her appeal.[194] During the investigations, in September, the publication La Republica revealed that Fujimori had used a pseudonym together with the rest of her party's leadership in a Telegram group chat called "Titanic Group" where she made the most important party decisions under the name Ruth.[195][196] By the beginning of December, Jose Camayo, a businessman investigated for the "White Collar Port" case involved with Fuerza Popular, declared before the Operation Car Wash Special Team that Señora K, a person accused of corruption, was in fact Keiko Fujimori herself, something that was later denied by her,[197] and yet still had a significant impact on the ongoing investigation.[198][199][200]

In January 2020, the tribunal decided, four votes to three, to grant her habeas corpus on the grounds that the preventative detention sentence was invalid for its violation of her liberty. Shortly afterward, her husband Mark Vito began a hunger strike in a camp installed in front of the prison where she was detained. On 28 January, the judge Victor Zuniga Urday re-imposed a preventive prison for 15 months on the charges of money laundering from the Odebrecht company.[201][202] On 30 April 2020, a Peruvian appeals court overturned her 15-month detention order and granted her a conditional release from prison.[203] She was finally released on bail on 5 May 2020.[204]

2021 general election[edit]

After a few months out of the spotlight despite still leading her party, on 25 September 2020, she announced her total return to politics.[205] A month later, 30 November, still under investigation by the Operation Car Wash team, she tweeted that she was officially announcing her candidacy as the Fuerza Popular's presidential candidate with her ballot partners ex-congressional president Luis Galarreta as first vice president and the former lawyer and director of National Solidarity, Patricia Juarez as second vice president.[206] Fujimori's party helped lead[207] the controversial removal of Martín Vizcarra and his replacement by Manuel Merino,[208] which resulted with the peaceful 2020 Peruvian protests. The protests were violently put down, resulting in the deaths of Brian Pintado and Inti Sotelo.[209][210] Shortly after their deaths, Fujimori lamented what had happened and also considered the current situation as "unsustainable", calling for Merino to step down or else he "should be censured right here right now", a move she believed a majority of Congress would support.[211]

On 9 December, she officially won the internal party elections to be come Fuerza Popular's candidate for the 2021 election.[212] The campaign got off to a rocky start as on the same day as a victory, a poll by Peru21 released a national Datum poll which revealed that 63% of Peruvians said they would "never vote" for her.[213] Then, on 21 December, the National Jury of Elections declared that Fuerza Popular's presidential board was "inadmissible" and gave them two days to follow their instructions.[214] In the end, the board was finally revised and admitted.[215]

Ballot paper for the second round of the 2021 presidential election

She has said that she wanted to be a president with a "heavy hand" and "authority", proposing increased legal protection on law enforcement.[216][217] She has called for the construction of more prisons to reduce overcrowding and to offer more instances of probation for small crime offenders.[217] In a break with previous elections in which she promised not to pardon her father, Fujimori emphasized her closeness to his legacy during this election, stating that "after conversations that I have had with my father, through letters and during the year he's recently had in freedom, we've been able to get much closer and understand things about each other" as well as expressing that his presidency "was not a dictatorship, despite some moments of authoritarianism", and making clear a renewed promise to pardon her father if elected.[218][219] She proposed a large stimulus to voters that would represent three percent of Peru's annual gross domestic product, possibly increasing the low national debt that exists in Peru.[217]

Throughout the presidential campaign, she was among the frontrunners in opinion polling.[220] Following the first round election, Fujimori gave a speech in which she framed the runoff as a battle between "markets and Marxism", framing her second round opponent Pedro Castillo as a communist.[221] Americas Society/Council of the Americas wrote that a Fujimori presidency would bring the appearance of maintaining the status quo in Peru, but it would make the nation "far from stable."[217]

Election aftermath[edit]

After Castillo took the lead during the ballot-counting process in the second round of elections, Fujimori disseminated unsubstantiated claims of electoral fraud.[222][223] According to The Guardian, various international observers countered Fujimori's claims, stating that the election process was conducted in accordance with international standards,[222] with electoral observers from the Inter-American Union of Electoral Organizations, the Organization of American States, and the Progressive International denying any instances of widespread fraud while also praising the accuracy of the elections.[224][225]

Fujimori's statements about possibly overturning the election were described as being inspired by the attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election by former U.S. president Donald Trump.[226][227][228] The Guardian also reported that analysts and political observers criticized Fujimori's remarks, noting that it made her appear desperate after losing her third presidential run in a ten-year period.[222] If elected into the presidency, criminal investigations against Fujimori would have been suspended until July 2026, with Anne Applebaum writing in The Atlantic that "the personal stakes are high. ... Fujimori previously spent a year in jail while awaiting trial for allegedly collecting illegal campaign contributions, and she could conceivably be sent back."[228][229]

In December 2021, prosecutor José Domingo Pérez reported that Fujimori received one million dollars from the Odebrecht Department of Structured Operations that was delivered through offshore intermediary accounts of Gonzalo Monteverde's company Construmaq.[230][231] Domingo stated that he held 1,900 pieces of evidence to determine that a criminal group existed within Popular Force.[230]

Next general election[edit]

On 27 December 2022, General Secretary of Popular Force Luis Galarreta suggested that Fujimori is preparing to be a candidate in Peru's next presidential election, despite her denial of interest in running. The statement was seen as a possible accidental admission of her plans, since she had previously denied interest in running again after her losses in 2011 and 2016 before ultimately doing so.[232]

Public and political image[edit]

Fujimori has continued to promote her father's ideology of Fujimorism within Peru and her political career was her father's idea.[233][234] The New York Times wrote that her political movement was created "to help whitewash" her father Alberto's legacy.[234] She has been described as having an authoritarian,[235][236][237] centre-right,[238][239] right-wing populist,[240][241][242] and far-right[243][244][245] political ideology. According to Fujimori, she believes in leading Peru with a "heavy hand" and that democracy "cannot be weak ... must be supported by a solid principle of authority."[216] If on one hand fujimoristas have the support of at least 10.9% of the population,[246] on the other there also exists "antifujimorismo", a group of activists who strongly reject the legacy of her father and see in his daughter not only a threat but a complete reversal of democracy,[158] and that is considered one of the most important political forces in Peru,[247] despite her attempts to craft her image as a moderate.[248][249]

Defeated in the 1990 elections by Alberto Fujimori, writer and politician Mario Vargas Llosa has been one of the voices most critical of Keiko, although his opinion of her has evolved over time. During her candidacy in the 2011 Peruvian general election, Vargas Llosa said "the worst option is that of Keiko Fujimori because it means the legitimation of one of the worst dictatorships that Peru has had in its history",[250] while during her candidacy for the 2016 Peruvian general election, he stated that "Keiko is the daughter of a murderer and a thief who is imprisoned, tried by civil courts with international observers, sentenced to 25 years in prison for murderer and thief. I do not want her to win the elections."[251] When Fujimori faced far-left candidate Pedro Castillo in 2021, Vargas Llosa endorsed her as the "lesser of two evils",[252] a position criticized as being "the neoliberal right ... allied with authoritarian Fujimori" by Argentine newspaper Página/12, who said the writer was "betting on fear and resuscitating an anti-communist coalition."[253]

Michael Shifter, professor and president of Interamerican Dialogue, admitted that Fujimori has "definite political skill" and "has constructed a base of support."[254][255] However, he considers the holdover of many of her father's officials in her own team as something that "generates resistance in parts of society that still have very bad memories from years defined by violation of human rights, corruption, and a polarized political climate."[256]

According to a poll taken by Ipsos in March 2016, 27% of voters "definitely would not vote" for her.[257] Fujimori's Popular Force party, which held a plurality within the Congress of the Republic of Peru until its dissolution in 2019, has little public support in Peru.[258] In early 2018, Fujimori saw approval rating of about 30%.[258] By July 2018, her public approval had dropped to 14% and her disapproval had increased to more than 88%, with the drop in her approval rating being correlated with allegations that placed her in the midst of the Odebrecht scandal.[259] Prior to first round presidential elections in 2021, Ipsos polls found that 66.3% of respondents definitely would not vote for her, 7.1% probably would not vote for her, 16.3% probably would vote for her, and 7% definitely would vote for her.[260]


  1. ^ a b c d Salvador, Susana (28 January 2016). "Keiko quer afastar a sombra do apelido Fujimori e chegar à presidência". (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d "Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi". Jurado Nacional de Elecciones (Perú) (in Spanish). Infogob. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b c "Alberto Fujimori profile: Deeply divisive Peruvian leader". BBC News. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  4. ^ a b Crespo, Silvia (14 April 2016). "Memorias de una Recoletanao". Caretas (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  5. ^ Vásquez de Velasco et al. 2020, p. 21.
  6. ^ Vásquez de Velasco et al. 2020, p. 15.
  7. ^ Vásquez de Velasco et al. 2020, pp. 29–31.
  8. ^ "El "Plan Verde" Historia de una traición". Oiga. 647. 12 July 1993.
  9. ^ Burt, Jo-Marie (September–October 1998). "Unsettled accounts: militarization and memory in postwar Peru". NACLA Report on the Americas. Taylor & Francis. 32 (2): 35–41. doi:10.1080/10714839.1998.11725657. the military's growing frustration over the limitations placed upon its counterinsurgency operations by democratic institutions, coupled with the growing inability of civilian politicians to deal with the spiraling economic crisis and the expansion of the Shining Path, prompted a group of military officers to devise a coup plan in the late 1980s. The plan called for the dissolution of Peru's civilian government, military control over the state, and total elimination of armed opposition groups. The plan, developed in a series of documents known as the "Plan Verde," outlined a strategy for carrying out a military coup in which the armed forces would govern for 15 to 20 years and radically restructure state-society relations along neoliberal lines.
  10. ^ Gaussens, Pierre (2020). "The forced serilization of indigenous population in Mexico in the 1990s". Canadian Journal of Bioethics. 3 (3): 180+. doi:10.7202/1073797ar. S2CID 234586692. a government plan, developed by the Peruvian army between 1989 and 1990s to deal with the Shining Path insurrection, later known as the 'Green Plan', whose (unpublished) text expresses in explicit terms a genocidal intention
  11. ^ Cameron, Maxwell A. (June 1998). "Latin American Autogolpes: Dangerous Undertows in the Third Wave of Democratisation". Third World Quarterly. Taylor & Francis. 19 (2): 228. doi:10.1080/01436599814433. the outlines for Peru's presidential coup were first developed within the armed forces before the 1990 election. This Plan Verde was shown to President Fujimorti after the 1990 election before his inauguration. Thus, the president was able to prepare for an eventual self-coup during the first two years of his administration
  12. ^ Back, Michele; Zavala, Virginia (2018). Racialization and Language: Interdisciplinary Perspectives From Perú. Routledge. pp. 286–291. Retrieved 4 August 2021. At the end of the 1980s, a group of military elites secretly developed an analysis of Peruvian society called El cuaderno verde. This analysis established the policies that the following government would have to carry out in order to defeat Shining Path and rescue the Peruvian economy from the deep crisis in which it found itself. El cuaderno verde was passed onto the national press in 1993, after some of these policies were enacted by President Fujimori. ... It was a program that resulted in the forced sterilization of Quechua-speaking women belonging to rural Andean communities. This is an example of 'ethnic cleansing' justified by the state, which claimed that a properly controlled birth rate would improve the distribution of national resources and thus reduce poverty levels. ... The Peruvian state decided to control the bodies of 'culturally backward' women, since they were considered a source of poverty and the seeds of subversive groups
  13. ^ "Acossado por escândalos de corrupção, Alberto Fujimori renuncia à Presidência e se exila no Japão, pondo fim a dez anos de poder". Época (in Portuguese). 1 July 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  14. ^ "Peru lembra 15 anos do "autogolpe" que deu poder absoluto a Fujimori". (in Portuguese). 4 April 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  15. ^ Müller, Beat. "Peru, 31. Oktober 1993 : Verfassung – [in German]". Sudd. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
  16. ^ Emery, Alex (7 April 2009). "Peru's Fujimori Found Guilty on Human Rights Charges". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  17. ^ "Mass sterilization scandal shocks Peru". BBC News. 24 July 2002. Retrieved 30 April 2006.
  18. ^ Barbier, Chrystelle (6 July 2011). "Victims of Alberto Fujimori's death squads unearthed in Peru". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  19. ^ Forero, Juan. Peruvians Fight Graft One Case At a Time. The New York Times, 5 April 2004.
  20. ^ a b Global Corruption Report 2004, Transparency International, 25 March 2004. Retrieved 26 September 2006.
  21. ^ a b "Suharto Tops World Corruption League". Archived from the original on 17 July 2004. Retrieved 2 April 2005.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link), 25 March 2004, Laksamana.Net, Jakarta.
  22. ^ "El Gein y la captura de Abimael Guzmán". Diario Expreso. 19 August 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  23. ^ "Keiko Fujimori pagaba estudios al "cash"" (in Spanish). La República. 30 May 2009. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  24. ^ a b Vásquez de Velasco et al. 2020, pp. 45–46.
  25. ^ Peruvian Judicial Branch (7 April 2009). "EXP. Nº 10–2001" (PDF).
  26. ^ "Página/12 :: El mundo :: Nada de eso fue un error". (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  27. ^ a b Vásquez de Velasco et al. 2020, p. 16-17.
  28. ^ Espinoza, Carlos (11 April 2016). "¿Quién es Keiko Fujimori y cómo llega a segunda vuelta?". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  29. ^ a b c "Former Peruvian agent backs Fujimori's ex-wife on torture allegations". Associated Press. 24 February 2002. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  30. ^ Reyes, Víctor (14 July 2017). "La historia de las primeras damas del Perú en el siglo XXI". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  31. ^ "Elecciones 2016: Keiko Fujimori y las postales de cuando fue primera dama | Foto galeria 1 de 15 | El Comercio Peru". 26 April 2016. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  32. ^ Vásquez de Velasco et al. 2020, p. 26.
  33. ^ "Revela que Fundación por los Niños del Perú está sin fondos; Eliane Karp instalará oficinas". 1 August 2001. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  34. ^ "Keiko Fujimori admite que carece de una experiencia laboral sólida". 15 December 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  35. ^ "Fujimori's Ex-Wife Says He Ordered Her Killed". Lima, Peru: Fox News. Associated Press. 29 July 2001.
  36. ^ "Keiko Fujimori, a bênção e a condenação de um sobrenome". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  37. ^ "Keiko pintó Palacio de Gobierno de color rosado". (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Ortiz de Zárate, Roberto (6 June 2016). "Keiko Fujimori Higuchi". Barcelona Centre for International Affairs. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  39. ^, Redacción (13 February 2016). "Alfredo Barnechea sobre Keiko: ¿No defendió a su mamá y va a defender el Perú?". (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  40. ^ "Keiko Fujimori calificó de "leyenda" la denuncia de torturas a su madre". La República. 17 January 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  41. ^ Ortíz de Zarate, Roberto (24 March 2016). "Keiko Fujimori Higuchi". Barcelona Centre for International Affairs. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  42. ^ Gryzinsky, Vilma (11 April 2016). "Delírio no Peru: a incrível história de Keiko Fujimori e sua família" (in Portuguese). Veja. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  43. ^ "Nuestra Labor". Fundación Peruana Cardioinfantil. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  44. ^ "La huida de Fujimori duró 81 meses". El Periódico de Catalunya. Agence France-Presse. 22 September 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  45. ^ "Keiko Fujimori: postales desde su inicio en la vida política". El Comercio. 19 January 2016. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  46. ^ "Japón advierte de que no extraditará a Fujimori a Perú". El País (in Spanish). 3 August 2001. ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  47. ^ "Candidata Fujimori 'jura' que não anistiará pai se eleita". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 19 April 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  48. ^ "Candidata Fujimori 'jura' que não anistiará pai se eleita – Jornal O Globo". 10 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  49. ^ Vásquez de Velasco et al. 2020, pp. 48.
  50. ^ «ALIANZA POR EL FUTURO». Instituto de Iberoamerica / Universidad de Salamanca. 6 de enero de 2006. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020.
  51. ^ «PERÚ: Elecciones Generales 2006». Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales. Diciembre de 2006. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020.
  52. ^ «ELECCIONES PARLAMENTARIAS EN EL PERÚ [1931–2011]». Jurado Nacional de Elecciones: p. 135. Noviembre de 2015. Consultado el 22 de octubre de 2020.
  53. ^ PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (29 January 2020). "Los más votados en estas elecciones y las votaciones históricas de los últimos 20 años | ONPE | POLITICA". El Comercio Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  54. ^ "Filho mais novo de Fujimori é o deputado mais votado do Peru". Extra Online (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  55. ^ a b "Keiko Fujimori: candidata presidencial em nome do pai – 02/06/2011 – AFP – Internacional". Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  56. ^,, ONPE. "Elecciones Presidenciales, Congresales y de Parlamento Andino Peru 2006". Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  57. ^ "Fujimori Nostalgia Makes Daughter a Peru Presidential Contender". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 30 June 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2010.
  58. ^ Forero, Juan (9 April 2006). "Fujimori's Daughter Polishes Her Jailed Father's Image on the Road to Congress in Peru (Published 2006)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  59. ^ Online, Agências internacionais/Globo. "Alan García vence segundo turno da eleição presidencial". Gazeta do Povo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  60. ^ EFE (5 June 2011). "Keiko Fujimori, una candidata presidencial a la sombra de su padre". (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  61. ^ PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Fujimorismo buscará mecanismos de diálogo para mantener Comisión de Justicia". (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  62. ^ Espectador, El. "ELESPECTADOR.COM". ELESPECTADOR.COM (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  63. ^ a b c d "Keiko se ausentó 500 días del Congreso | Noticias del Perú |". 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  64. ^ a b "Perú: Fujimorismo votó en contra de la Ley de Consulta | Servindi – Servicios de Comunicación Intercultural". Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  65. ^ "Keiko Fujimori: "Ha llegado el momento de evaluar la pena de muerte" | Gobierno | Política | El Comercio Peru". 10 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  66. ^ "Keiko quiere restituir la pena de muerte – Perú 21". 25 December 2017. Archived from the original on 25 December 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  67. ^ "Alberto Fujimori". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  68. ^ "¿Heredera de una dictadura? | Voice of America – Spanish". (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 October 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  69. ^ a b "Passado familiar pauta a campanha da conservadora Keiko Fujimori, no Peru – Internacional – R7". 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  70. ^ "Fujimori é condenado a 25 anos de prisão no Peru". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 7 April 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  71. ^ "Milhares participam de manifestação em defesa de Fujimori – BOL Vídeos". Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  72. ^ "Keiko Fujimori presentó 17 proyectos de ley y cobró un millón de soles | Noticias del Perú |". 21 January 2017. Archived from the original on 21 January 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  73. ^ "Keiko Fujimori tuvo 500 faltas en sus cinco años de congresista |". 1 April 2018. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  74. ^ Alexander Burns. "Giuliani loses election – in Peru". Politico. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  75. ^ Urrutia, Adriana (2 May 2011). "Hacer campaña y construir partido: Fuerza 2011 y su estrategia para (re)legitimar al fujimorismo a través de su organización". Revista Argumentos (in Spanish).
  76. ^ "Rafael Rey acompañará a Keiko Fujimori en su plancha presidencial". 10 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  77. ^ PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Rafael Rey y Jaime Yoshiyama integran plancha presidencial de Keiko Fujimori". (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  78. ^ a b "Conheça as propostas de Keiko Fujimori e Ollanta Humala". VEJA (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  79. ^ ""Eu governarei no Peru, não meu pai", diz Keiko Fujimori". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  80. ^ "Filha de Fujimori aposta em legado do pai para avançar em eleições no Peru". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 7 April 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  81. ^ "Keiko recibió US$10 mil de familia de sentenciado por narcotráfico". El Comercio (in Spanish). 21 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  82. ^ "Sombra do tráfico marca corrida presidencial no Peru". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  83. ^ "Fujimori Nostalgia in Peru Fuels Daughter's Candidacy – BusinessWeek". 12 November 2010. Archived from the original on 12 November 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  84. ^ "Fujimori Nostalgia in Peru Fuels Daughter's Candidacy – Businessweek". 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 15 December 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  85. ^ Batlle, Margarita (Margarita). «Perú: Elecciones Presidenciales y Legislativas (1980–2011)». Instituto de Iberoamerica / Universidad de Salamanca. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020.
  86. ^ "Peru: Humala obteve 31,69% dos votos e Keiko Fujimori, 23,55% – Portal Vermelho". 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  87. ^ "Elecciones Presidenciales, Congresales y de Parlamento Andino Peru 2011". Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  88. ^ "Grupo de líderes políticos peruanos ratifica apoio a Fujimori". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  89. ^ "Alejandro Toledo anuncia apoio a Humala para 2º turno no Peru". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  90. ^ «Elecciones generales 2011». Jurado Nacional de Elecciones. Archivado desde el original el 4 de marzo de 2016. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020.
  91. ^ "Kenji Fujimori: perfil del congresista que alcanzó la mayor votación". América Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  92. ^ "Humala lidera el último sondeo antes de las elecciones presidenciales de Perú |". El Mundo. Spain. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  93. ^ a b "Eleições presidenciais do Peru são marcadas pelo medo". VEJA (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  94. ^ "Peru: nacionalista Humala lidera campanha presidencial". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  95. ^ a b "Pesquisas apontam 2º turno entre Humala e Keiko no Peru". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  96. ^ «Elecciones Generales 2011 Segunda Elección Presidencial». Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales. 15 de junio de 2011. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020.
  97. ^ "Peru: Keiko Fujimori admite derrota para Humala". Extra Online (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  98. ^ Semana (5 June 2011). "Keiko Fujimori se reunió con Ollanta Humala". Últimas Noticias de Colombia y el Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  99. ^ Huamaní, Diana (29 July 2012). "Fuerza 2011 cambia de denominación por Fuerza Popular". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  100. ^ "Keiko postulará en el 2016 con 'Fuerza Popular'". 26 April 2016. Archived from the original on 26 April 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  101. ^ Asian, Cintya (4 January 2013). "Fuerza 2011 oficializa cambio de nombre a Fuerza Popular". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  102. ^ PERU21, NOTICIAS (4 January 2013). "Fuerza 2011 ahora es Fuerza Popular | POLITICA". Peru21 (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  103. ^ enero, AFP|4 de; 2013 – 17h49 (4 January 2013). "Partido fujimorista cambia de nombre a Fuerza Popular en Perú". El Universo (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  104. ^ «La carrera política de Keiko Fujimori». Semana Económica. 12 de enero de 2016. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020.
  105. ^ "Los hijos de Fujimori piden su indulto". El Diario Vasco (in European Spanish). 11 October 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  106. ^ «Filhos de Fujimori apresentam pedido de indulto humanitário» (en portugués). Última Hora News. 10 de octubre de 2012. Archivado desde el original el 24 de abril de 2016. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020
  107. ^ "Presidente peruano nega indulto humanitário a Fujimori". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  108. ^ Welle (, Deutsche. "Fujimori é condenado a oito anos de prisão por desvio de dinheiro | DW | 9 January 2015" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  109. ^ "Eleitor anti-Fujimori vai decidir 2º turno no Peru". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 12 April 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  110. ^ "Keiko Fujimori tenta superar pesada herança do sobrenome do pai preso". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  111. ^ "Keiko Fujimori busca se livrar de estigma do pai". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 3 April 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  112. ^ "Keiko Fujimori tenta superar pesada herança do sobrenome do pai preso – Internacional – BOL Notícias". 10 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  113. ^, Redacción (2 March 2016). "Keiko y la maldición del apellido: lidera encuesta y crece antivoto". (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  114. ^ "Keiko Fujimori, la hija del ex dictador que quiere reivindicar a su dinastía". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 12 April 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  115. ^ "Keiko Fujimori lança candidatura à Presidência do Peru" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Yahoo!. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  116. ^ Forero, Juan (9 April 2006). "Fujimori's Daughter Polishes Her Jailed Father's Image on the Road to Congress in Peru (Published 2006)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  117. ^ «PLAN DE GOBIERNO DE FUERZA POPULAR: PLAN PERÚ». Telesur. Consultado el 20 de septiembre de 2020.
  118. ^ "Filha de Fujimori tem de ir à segunda volta nas eleições". (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  119. ^ "Profile of Keiko Fujimori". Perú Reports. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  120. ^ "A versão feminina do "fujimorismo"". GZH (in Brazilian Portuguese). 16 January 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  121. ^ a b G1, Do; Paulo, em São (10 April 2016). "Eleições no Peru terão 2º turno com Keiko Fujimori, aponta boca de urna". Mundo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  122. ^ a b AFP, Da (9 April 2016). "Peru tem eleições presidenciais neste domingo; veja sete curiosidades". Mundo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  123. ^ "La Justicia aparta a Julio Guzmán y César Acuña de la Presidencia". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 9 March 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  124. ^ Collyns, Dan (9 March 2016). "Leading candidate for Peru presidency barred from election over technical error". The Guardian.
  125. ^ "Eleições no Peru: Keiko Fujimori pode sair da disputa – Portal Vermelho". 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  126. ^ "Exonerated, Keiko Fujimori to continue in Peru's 2016 elections". Peru Reports. 24 March 2016. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016.
  127. ^ "No Peru, tribunal decide manter Keiko Fujimori na disputa pela presidência – Diário do Grande ABC – Notícias e informações do Grande ABC: peru,eleições,keiko fujimori". Jornal Diário do Grande ABC (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  128. ^ "Favorita, Keiko Fujimori pode ser excluída de disputa ao governo do Peru". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 30 March 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  129. ^ "Peruanos vão às urnas amanhã definir rival de Keiko Fujimori no 2º turno". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  130. ^ "Peru escolhe novo presidente. Quem são os candidatos e o que pode mudar". Nexo Jornal (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  131. ^ "Fique por dentro das últimas notícias, vídeos, esportes, entretenimento e mais no Portal iG". iG Home (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  132. ^ Comércio, Jornal do. "Apesar da rejeição, filha de Fujimori deve vencer primeiro turno no Peru". Jornal do Comércio. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  133. ^ Presse, Da France (6 April 2016). "Passeata contra Keiko Fujimori reúne 50 mil em Lima". Mundo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  134. ^ "70.000 personas marchan para decir No a Keiko Fujimori en Perú". ELMUNDO (in Spanish). 1 June 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  135. ^ a b "Favorita no Peru, filha de Fujimori nega que concederá indulto ao pai". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 14 February 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  136. ^ "Jornal do Brasil – Internacional – Keiko Fujimori disputará segundo turno no Peru". 9 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  137. ^ "Keiko Fujimori revê tática para superar rejeição em 2º turno no Peru – Internacional". Estadão (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  138. ^ "Peru pode tornar-se o próximo país latino-americano a rumar à direita – 02/01/2016 – Mundo". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  139. ^ PÚBLICO. "Fujimori enfrenta o economista Kuczynski na segunda ronda das presidenciais no Peru". PÚBLICO (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  140. ^ "Peru's Fujimori signs pledge to avoid authoritarian ways of father". Reuters. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  141. ^ a b Leon, Adriana; Kraul, Chris (10 April 2016). "Keiko Fujimori looks like a winner in the first round of Peru's presidential election". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  142. ^ "Keiko Fujimori busca se livrar de estigma do pai". Extra Online (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  143. ^ "'Me trataram como um animal': como centenas de milhares de mulheres sofreram esterilização forçada no Peru". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 22 November 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  144. ^ "ONPE – Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales". Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  145. ^ "Peru election: Keiko Fujimori leads in first round". BBC News. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
  146. ^ LR, Redacción (22 July 2016). "Estos son los 130 congresistas electos para el periodo 2016–2021". (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  147. ^ PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Keiko Fujimori: El pueblo ha votado por el cambio y la reconciliación". (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  148. ^ "Keiko Fujimori vence primeiro turno no Peru". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  149. ^ a b c d "Peru encerra apuração, e Pedro Pablo Kuczynski é o novo presidente do país – 09/06/2016 – Mundo". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  150. ^ "Fujimorismo é derrotado, mas continua sendo força decisiva no Peru". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  151. ^ Roncagliolo, Santiago (2 June 2016). "Keiko Fujimori: a pele de cordeiro". EL PAÍS (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  152. ^ Univision. "DEA investiga grabación en la que se menciona a Keiko Fujimori en un presunto esquema de lavado de dinero". Univision (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  153. ^ "DEA nega que Keiko Fujimori esteja sob investigação". GZH (in Brazilian Portuguese). 17 May 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  154. ^ Fowks, Carlos E. Cué, Jacqueline (4 June 2016). "Keiko Fujimori perde vantagem e pesquisas dão empate técnico no Peru". EL PAÍS (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  155. ^ Fowks, Jacqueline (30 May 2016). "El narco y el lavado surcan el debate presidencial en Perú". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  156. ^ "Peru investiga lavagem de dinheiro nas finanças da campanha de Keiko – 21/05/2016 – Mundo". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  157. ^ LR, Redacción (30 May 2016). "Verónika Mendoza: "Solo queda marcar por PPK" | VIDEO". (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  158. ^ a b "¿Por qué la izquierda de Perú hace campaña para que gane un candidato de derecha?". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). 2 June 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  159. ^ "Manifestantes protestam contra Keiko Fujimori a dias da eleição no Peru – 01/06/2016 – Mundo". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  160. ^ "¿Por qué demora tanto el conteo de votos para presidente en Perú?". El Comercio. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  161. ^ Chuquillanqui, Fernando (9 June 2016). "PPK dará su primer mensaje como presidente electo". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  162. ^ "Noticias de América – Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, nuevo presidente virtual de Perú". Radio France Internationale. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  163. ^ "Após apuração de 100% dos votos no Peru, Kucynski conquista 50,12%" (in Brazilian Portuguese). Radio France Internationale. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  164. ^ Soto, Claudia (10 June 2016). "Elecciones en Perú: Keiko Fujimori reconoce derrota y desea "suerte" a PPK". La Tercera. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  165. ^ G1, Do; Paulo, em São (10 June 2016). "Keiko Fujimori reconhece derrota nas eleições presidenciais no Peru". Mundo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  166. ^ "Keiko Fujimori reconhece derrota na eleição presidencial do Peru". ISTOÉ DINHEIRO (in Brazilian Portuguese). 10 June 2016. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  167. ^ "Os laços com a Odebrecht que o presidente do Peru havia negado e que agora podem derrubá-lo". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  168. ^ OJO, NOTICIAS (22 December 2017). "Keiko Fujimori luego que PPK no fuera vacado: "Fuerza Popular no se vende ni negocia" | ACTUALIDAD". Ojo (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  169. ^ "UPDATE 6-Peru president pardons ex-leader Fujimori; foes take to streets". MSN. Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  170. ^ Azevedo, Wagner Fernandes de. "Peru. A "democracia" dos Fujimoris". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  171. ^ Lynch, Nicolás. "O que significa a renúncia de PPK?". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  172. ^ "Con una llamada Alberto Fujimori salvó a PPK de su destitución". PanAm Post (in Spanish). 22 December 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  173. ^ "'Indulto humanitário' ou 'pacto por impunidade'? Por que perdão a Fujimori no Peru é polêmico". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  174. ^ Urbano, Jorge (6 June 2018). "Kenji Fujimori: "Keiko, felicitaciones, aquí tienes mi cabeza en bandeja"". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  175. ^ "Análise: Guerra entre irmãos no 'Rei Lear' peruano". O Globo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 8 June 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  176. ^ "Kenji Fujimori não votou na irmã Keiko por divergências de opinião". Radar Global (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  177. ^ Fowks, Jacqueline (7 June 2016). "Kenji Fujimori não foi votar na sua irmã". EL PAÍS (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  178. ^ "Guerra aberta entre filhos de Fujimori pode pôr Keiko contra Kenji em 2021". (in Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  179. ^ Cué, Jacqueline Fowks, Carlos E. (31 December 2017). "Os Fujimori, um drama familiar que domina o Peru". EL PAÍS (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  180. ^ "La entrada en la cárcel de Keiko Fujimori complica su aspiración a la presidencia en 2021". abc (in Spanish). 1 November 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  181. ^ "Kenji Fujimori formaría 'Nuevo Amanecer' para postular a la presidencia". TVPerú (in Spanish). 19 April 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  182. ^ «Keiko Fujimori saludó y felicitó a Martín Vizcarra por asumir la presidencia». Correo. 23 de marzo de 2018. Consultado el 10 de noviembre de 2020.
  183. ^ Barrenechea, Melissa (23 August 2018). "Keiko Fujimori critica referéndum sobre no reelección de congresistas: "Evidencia un populismo centralista"". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  184. ^ PERÚ, NOTICIAS EL COMERCIO (9 December 2018). "Referéndum 2018| Aprueban la no reelección de congresistas y rechazan bicameralidad | PERU". El Comercio Perú (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  185. ^ a b "Keiko Fujimori, filha de ditador, é presa no Peru". Terra (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  186. ^ "La detención de Keiko Fujimori, un nuevo golpe al fujimorismo (Published 2018)". The New York Times (in Spanish). 10 October 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  187. ^ Collyns, Dan (3 October 2018). "Peru's high court overturns pardon of former strongman Fujimori". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  188. ^ "Keiko Fujimori, detenida por presunto lavado de activos". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 10 October 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  189. ^ "Keiko Fujimori é detida por suposta lavagem de dinheiro no Peru". Agência Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 10 October 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  190. ^ "Presa preventivamente, Keiko Fujimori se diz vítima de perseguição política". (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  191. ^ "Justiça do Peru manda soltar Keiko Fujimori". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  192. ^ "Keiko Fujimori é detida no Peru por caso Odebrecht". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  193. ^ Minas, Estado de (4 January 2019). "Tribunal peruano rejeita apelacao e Keiko Fujimori continuara presa". Estado de Minas (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  194. ^ "Keiko Fujimori continuará en prisión en Perú" (in Spanish). CNN. 9 August 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  195. ^ LR, Redacción (21 September 2019). ""Titanio", el grupo duro del fujimorismo que actúa en secreto | Fuerza Popular | Keiko Fujimori | Ana Herz | Pier Figari | Miguel Torres | Ángel Páez | José Chlimper | Úrsula Letona". (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  196. ^ "Partido Fuerza Popular estaría controlado por cúpula denominada 'Grupo Titanio'". América Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  197. ^ PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Keiko Fujimori reitera que no es la "señora K" y niega influenciar al PJ". (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  198. ^ Flores, José (13 November 2019). "Mark Vito se declara en huelga de hambre por la libertad de Keiko Fujimori". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  199. ^ GESTIÓN, NOTICIAS (14 November 2019). "Keiko Fujimori | Mark Vito Villanella: Haré huelga de hambre "hasta las últimas consecuencias" | PERU". Gestión (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  200. ^ "Justiça peruana liberta Keiko Fujimori, investigada no caso Odebrecht | EXAME". 29 November 2019. Archived from the original on 29 November 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  201. ^ LR, Redacción (28 January 2020). "Keiko Fujimori HOY audiencia EN VIVO: Poder Judicial dicta 15 meses de prisión preventiva contra lideresa de Fuerza Popular por caso Odebrecht Perú vía Justicia TV | José Domingo Pérez". (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  202. ^ "Un juez de Perú ordena nuevamente prisión preventiva para Keiko Fujimori". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  203. ^ LR, Redacción (30 April 2020). "Keiko Fujimori sale libre tras revocación de prisión preventiva | Fuerza Popular | Poder Judicial". (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  204. ^ "Keiko Fujimori sale en libertad bajo fianza y se somete a la prueba del Covid-19". abc (in Spanish). 5 May 2020. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  205. ^ Acosta, Sebastián (25 September 2020). "Elecciones 2021 | Keiko Fujimori anunció su "retorno 100% activo" a Fuerza Popular". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  206. ^ "Keiko Fujimori oficializó su precandidatura presidencial en comicios internos de Fuerza Popular". Gestión (in Spanish). 31 October 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  207. ^ "Perú afronta nueva crisis tras vacancia de presidente Vizcarra aprobada por el Congreso". Ojo Público (in Spanish). 9 November 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  208. ^ "Perú afronta nueva crisis tras vacancia de presidente Vizcarra aprobada por el Congreso". Ojo Público (in Spanish). 9 November 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  209. ^ "Jack Bryan Pintado Sánchez y Jordan Inti Sotelo Camargo, los dos jóvenes que salieron a protestar y que merecen justicia". El Comercio (in Spanish). 15 November 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  210. ^ "Perú: las historias de los dos jóvenes asesinados por la represión policial | Este domingo, cientos de personas homenajearon a Inti Sotelo Camargo y Jack Pintado Sánchez". Página 12. 16 November 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  211. ^ "Keiko Fujimori: "Si el presidente Merino no renuncia, debe ser censurado hoy mismo" Marcha nacional". Gestión (in Spanish). 15 November 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  212. ^ "Arranca la campaña presidencial en Perú con Keiko Fujimori y Ollanta Humala entre los 23 candidatos". (in Spanish). 9 December 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  213. ^ LR, Redacción (9 December 2020). "Datum: 63% de peruanos nunca votaría por Keiko Fujimori para ser presidenta". (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  214. ^ Palacios, Oswaldo (21 December 2020). "Elecciones 2021 | Plancha presidencial de Keiko Fujimori es declarada inadmisible por el JEE". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  215. ^ "Elecciones 2021: Jurado Electoral Especial de Lima Centro 1 admitió plancha presidencial de Keiko Fujimori". Gestión (in Spanish). 25 December 2020. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  216. ^ a b "'Mano dura', el plan de gobierno de Keiko Fujimori para Perú". The Chicago Tribune (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  217. ^ a b c d Sonneland, Holly K. (1 June 2021). "Contrasting Platforms in Peru's Presidential Runoff". AS/COA. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  218. ^ "Keiko Fujimori: "El gobierno de mi padre no fue dictadura, pero por momentos fue autoritario" | Alberto Fujimori Elecciones 2021". Gestión (in Spanish). 28 January 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  219. ^ "Keiko Fujimori: Keiko Fujimori: "yo estoy a favor de un indulto a mi padre y prefiero decirlo así abiertamente"". Gestión (in Spanish). 18 January 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  220. ^ Aquino, Marco (18 January 2021). "Peru's Keiko Fujimori says would pardon father if elected president". Reuters. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  221. ^ Aquino, Marco (13 April 2021). "Peru's Fujimori says election battle between 'markets and Marxism'". Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  222. ^ a b c Collyns, Dan (8 June 2021). "Peru elections: Fujimori's fraud claims criticised as rival's narrow lead widens". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  223. ^ "Keiko Fujimori alleges fraud in tight Peru election". France 24. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  224. ^ ""We must defend popular sovereignty in Peru"". Progressive International. 8 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  225. ^ "Perú: Castillo se proclama vencedor sin los resultados definitivos del conteo oficial". France 24. 9 June 2021. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  226. ^ "Peru: Fujimori cries electoral fraud – and unleashes torrent of racism". The Guardian. 20 June 2021. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  227. ^ "With election fraud claims, Peru's Keiko Fujimori takes a page from the Trump playbook. She's not alone". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  228. ^ a b Applebaum, Anne (17 June 2021). "Democracy Is Surprisingly Easy to Undermine". The Atlantic. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  229. ^ "Court rejects call to return Keiko Fujimori to jail for graft". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 June 2021.
  230. ^ a b "José Domingo Pérez: Keiko Fujimori recibió millón de dólares de Odebrecht como congresista (VIDEO)". El Búho (in Spanish). 10 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  231. ^ GrupoRPP (17 December 2021). "Keiko Fujimori: Fiscal Pérez sustentó la ruta de los aportes para financiar la campaña presidencial en el 2011". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  232. ^ "Keiko Fujimori postularía por cuarta vez en las próximas elecciones presidenciales, desliza Fuerza Popular". infobae (in European Spanish). 27 December 2022. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  233. ^ "Fujimori 'to run for presidency'". BBC. 20 September 2004. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  234. ^ a b Forero, Juan (9 April 2006). "Fujimori's Daughter Polishes Her Jailed Father's Image on the Road to Congress in Peru". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  235. ^ Maldonado, Arturo (2020). "Threats and sympathy for authoritarian candidates: evidence from Peru". Revista Latinoamericana de Opinión Pública. 9 (2): 7–28. doi:10.14201/rlop.22734. the most authoritarian citizens more greatly value an authoritarian candidate like Keiko Fujimori
  236. ^ "Maternidad y mano dura: Keiko Fujimori y su campaña para ser presidenta del Perú –". El Economista (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  237. ^ Fowks, Jacqueline (6 April 2017). "Fujimorismo, 25 años de vocación autoritaria". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  238. ^ "Derecha o izquierda: ¿Dónde son ubicados Martín Vizcarra y Keiko Fujimori?". El Comercio (in Spanish). 20 September 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  239. ^ "El fujimorismo y la centroderecha". El Montonero [es] (in Spanish). 14 February 2018. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  240. ^ Dosek, Tomas; Paredes, Maritza. "Peru might elect an authoritarian president. These four maps tell you why". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  241. ^ Ugaz, Pao (16 April 2016). "Propuestas electorales de la populista Keiko Fujimori" (in Spanish). ABC. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  242. ^ Quispe, Patricia (10 September 2020). "Keiko Fujimori predica contra el populismo que practica su bancada" (in Spanish). Perú.21. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  243. ^ "Tribunal peruano ordena liberar a Keiko Fujimori" (in Spanish). Radio France Internationale. 1 May 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  244. ^ "El voto de Keiko |". El Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  245. ^ Noriega, Carlos (4 May 2020). "Un tribunal anuló la prisión preventiva de Keiko Fujimori | En una causa que enfrenta la excandidata peruana por lavado de activos". Página/12 (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  246. ^ "Presentación de Resultados Elecciones Generales y Parlamento Andino 2021". (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  247. ^ "Por qué el antifujimorismo sigue siendo una de las fuerzas políticas más importantes en Perú". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  248. ^ GESTIÓN, NOTICIAS (22 October 2018). "Fujimorismo se vuelca a políticas moderadas mientras arrecia crisis interna | PERU". Gestión (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  249. ^ "Perú se debate entre el fujimorismo y el antifujimorismo" (in Spanish). 20 November 2016. Archived from the original on 20 November 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  250. ^ Escalante, Claudia (22 May 2011). "Mario Vargas Llosa: La peor opción es la de Keiko Fujimori". RPP (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  251. ^ "Vargas Llosa sobre Keiko: 'No quiero que sea presidenta la hija de un asesino' | POLITICA". Peru21 (in Spanish). 24 September 2014. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  252. ^ "Keiko Fujimori would be 'lesser of two evils' as Peru president, says Nobel prize author". The Guardian. 18 April 2021. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  253. ^ Noriega, Carlos (19 April 2021). "Perú: la derecha neoliberal se alía con el fujimorismo autoritario | Vargas Llosa dio su apoyo a Keiko Fujimori para el ballottage". Página/12 (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  254. ^ Presse, Da France (12 April 2016). "Vargas Llosa diz que eleger Fujimori no Peru seria 'grande erro'". Mundo (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  255. ^ Fowks, Joan Faus, Carlos E. Cué, J. (14 April 2016). "Vargas Llosa apoia Kuczynski no Peru, mas diz que sua eleição não será fácil". EL PAÍS (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  256. ^ "Por que o fujimorismo continua tendo apoio no Peru?". BBC News Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). 11 April 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  257. ^ LR, Redacción (13 March 2016). "Crece antivoto de Keiko Fujimori, según encuesta de Ipsos". (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  258. ^ a b Tegel, Simeon (13 September 2018). "In Peru, an Accidental President Moves Against Corruption". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  259. ^ Quispe, Diego (13 August 2018). "Encuesta CPI: desaprobación a Keiko Fujimori se incrementa a 88%". La Republica (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  260. ^ Sonneland, Holly K. (6 April 2021). "Explainer: Peru's 2021 General Elections". AS/COA. Retrieved 17 April 2021.


  • Vásquez de Velasco, Valerie; Lira, Ariana; Llanos, Beatriz; Huertas, Mabel (2020). Señora K : ni víctima, ni heroína (1st ed.). Lima: 50+1. ISBN 9786124818868.

External links[edit]

Honorary titles
Preceded by First Lady of Peru
Succeeded by
Nilda Jara
Party political offices
New political party President of Popular Force
Popular Force nominee for President of Peru
2011, 2016, 2021
Most recent