After graduating from Tōkai University Fuzoku Shōyō High School, he joined J2 League side Urawa Red Diamonds in 2000. His first professional appearance came in an Emperor's Cup match against Honda Lock SC on 3 December 2000. He broke into Urawa's first team in 2001 and became a mainstay in midfield. He contributed to the club winning the J1 League championship in 2006 and was chosen as one of the J.League Best Eleven 2006. In October 2015, he announced that he would be leaving his only club at the end of that season.
He was captain for Japan's Olympic team throughout the final qualifying stage to Athens 2004. However, he was not included in the final squad for the Olympic as coach Masakuni Yamamoto favoured overage player Shinji Ono.
Japan's former national coach Ivica Osim rated Suzuki highly and handed him his first senior cap on 9 August 2006, in a friendly match against Trinidad and Tobago. He was the only player who started all 20 matches under Osim's reign. Osim once referred to him as the Japanese answer to Claude Makélélé.
After the last game of 2015 regular season, he announced his retirement from football.