1942 (age 75–76)|
|Alma mater||University of Arizona, electrical engineering|
L5 Society, founding member|
National Space Society, lifetime member
|Fields||electrical engineer, life extension, cryonics, memetics, Evolutionary psychology|
Howard Keith Henson (born 1942) is an American electrical engineer and writer on space engineering, space law (Moon treaty), memetics, cryonics, evolutionary psychology and physical limitations of Transhumanism.
In 1975, he and his then-wife Carolyn Meinel founded the L5 Society, which promoted space colonization and which was eventually folded into the National Space Society. More recently, Henson's outspoken criticism of the Church of Scientology and subsequent criminal proceedings have gained him headlines.
Keith Henson was raised as an "army brat" attending seven schools before 7th grade. His father, Lt. Col. Howard W. Henson (1909–2001), was a decorated US Army officer who spent much of his career in Army Intelligence. The science-fiction author Robert A. Heinlein played a major role in influencing his early life. Henson graduated from Prescott High School shortly after his father retired, before attending the University of Arizona and receiving a degree in Electrical Engineering.
During much of this period, Henson worked at a geophysics company, mostly running induced polarization surveys in the western US and Peru. Henson also programmed geophysical type cases and wrote data reduction programs for the company.
Henson was known at the University of Arizona as one of the founders of the Druid Student Center, where a campus humor newspaper, The Frumious Bandersnatch was published in the late 1960s. He later cited an incident that occurred in his student days as a good example of memetic replication. When asked to fill in a form that required him to disclose his religious affiliations he wrote Druid. His prank was soon noticed by other students and before long almost 20% of the student body had registered themselves as Reform Druids, Orthodox Druids, Members of the Church of the nth Druid, Zen Druids, Latter-Day Druids and so on. The university was forced to remove the religious affiliation question, breaking the chain of replication and variation.
After graduation, Henson went to work for Burr-Brown Research, now merged into Texas Instruments, in Tucson, Arizona. While there, he worked on extremely low distortion quadrature oscillators and non-linear function modules (multipliers, vector adders and root-mean-square). His first patent was a design for a 4-quadrant log-antilog multiplier. He claims to have been fired (not from Burr-Brown) in 1972 for refusing to certify an electronic module for a nuclear power plant that failed to meet a required MTBF specification. Henson then set up his own company, Analog Precision Inc., producing specialized computer interface equipment and related industrial control devices.
In 1974, Henson's occasional rock climbing partner, physicist Dr. Dan Jones, introduced him to the space colonization work of Dr. Gerard K. O'Neill of Princeton University. To promote these ideas, Henson and Meinel founded the L5 Society in 1975.
Henson co-wrote papers for three Space Manufacturing conferences at Princeton. The 1977 and 1979 papers were co-authored with Eric Drexler. Patents were issued on both subjects—vapor phase fabrication and space radiators.
In 1980, Henson testified before the United States Congress when the L5 Society successfully opposed the Moon Treaty. The society was represented by Leigh Ratiner (later a figure in the Inslaw proceedings). The experience eventually became an article, Star Laws, jointly written by Henson and Arel Lucas and published in Reason Magazine. Timothy Leary was influenced by Henson's work-and credited him in publications where he referred to Space Migration and Life Extension.
In 1985, having been convinced by Eric Drexler that nanotechnology provided a route to make it work, Henson, his wife, and their two-year-old daughter signed up with Alcor for cryonic suspension. Henson's daughter was the youngest member ever signed up to Alcor. Following the Dora Kent problems, Henson became increasingly active with Alcor. After Alcor had to freeze their chief surgeon, he learned enough surgery to put several cryonics patients on cardiac bypass. He also wrote a column for Alcor's magazine, Cryonics, for a few years. Henson persuaded Timothy Leary to become an Alcor Member-although Leary eventually dropped his membership.
In that same year, Henson moved to Silicon Valley, consulting for a number of firms, and eventually debugging garbage collection software for the last stage of Project Xanadu. He was still working for the company that bought the Xanadu license when Scientology lawyer Helena Kobrin tried to destroy the news group alt.religion.scientology. and later e-mailed legal warnings to participants who had quoted as few as six lines of Scientology texts.
Henson's wife, Arel Lucas, was credited by Douglas Hofstadter in Metamagical Themas for suggesting the study of memes be called memetics. Henson wrote two articles on memes in 1987, one published in Analog. The other, Memes, MetaMemes and Politics, circulated on the internet before being printed.
Richard Dawkins, who originated the concept of memes, approvingly cites in the second edition of his book The Selfish Gene Henson's coining of the neologism memeoids to refer to "victims who have been taken over by a meme to the extent that their own survival becomes inconsequential."
Henson has become one of the focal points of the ongoing struggle between the Church of Scientology and its critics, often referred to as Scientology versus the Internet. Henson entered the Scientology conflict when it was at its most heated, in the mid-1990s. In 1996, many of Scientology's secret writings were released onto the Internet, and the Church of Scientology embarked on a massive worldwide campaign to keep them from being spread to the general public. Henson examined these writings, entitled New Era Dianetics (NOTS), and from his examination of these secret documents, claimed that Scientology was committing medical fraud. The NOTS documents, he said, contained detailed instructions for the treatment of physical ailments and illnesses through the use of Scientology practices. A Supreme Court decision in 1971 had declared that Scientology's writings were meant for "purely spiritual" purposes, and all Scientology books published since then have included disclaimers stating that Scientology's E-meter device "does nothing" and does not cure any physical ailments. The NOTS procedures, Henson claimed, were a violation of this decision. To prove his claim, Henson posted two pages from the NOTS documents onto the Usenet newsgroup alt.religion.scientology.
The Church of Scientology immediately initiated legal action, but Henson did not retract his claims. He was served with a lawsuit by the church's legal arm, the Religious Technology Center, (RTC). Henson defended himself. After a lengthy court battle involving massive amounts of paperwork, Henson was found guilty of copyright infringement. He was ordered to pay $75,000 in fines. Henson declared bankruptcy in response to the judgment. Henson began protesting Scientology regularly, standing outside Scientology's Gold Base, with a picket sign. The organization sought to obtain a restraining order, which failed.
As a result of this conflict, Henson was charged with three misdemeanors under California Law: making criminal threats (California Penal Code section 422), attempting to make criminal threats (California Penal Code section 422, charged pursuant to Penal Code 664, the "general attempt" statute), and threatening to interfere with freedom to enjoy a constitutional privilege. Sheriff's Detective Tony Greer, Riverside County lead investigator, said: "In reviewing all of the Internet postings I did not see any direct threat of violence towards the church or any personnel of the church."
The jury verdict of the trial resulted in Henson being convicted of one of the three charges: "interfering with a religion." This misdemeanor charge carried a prison term of six months. On the other two charges, the jury did not agree. Ken Hoden, the general manager of Golden Era Productions (the Church of Scientology's film production facility), claimed that Scientology's allegations against Henson had nothing to do with Scientology's Fair Game policy, and that no such policy existed.
Henson stated his belief that if he went to prison, his life would be placed in jeopardy. Rather than serve his sentence, Henson chose to enter Canada and apply for political asylum. Henson lived quietly in Brantford for three years while he awaited the decision. His request was ultimately denied and, in 2005, he was ordered to present himself for deportation and transfer to US authorities. Instead, Henson fled to the United States and later presented himself to the Canadian consulate in Detroit. He then settled in Prescott, Arizona where he remained for two years until his arrest in 2007 by Arizona authorities.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation, as well as Henson's supporters on the USENET newsgroup alt.religion.scientology, say that his trial was biased, unfair and a mockery of justice. Henson was prohibited by the trial judge, for example, from arguing that copying documents for the purpose of criticism is fair use. Henson's location as of February 3, 2007 was the Yavapai Detention Center in Prescott, Arizona, awaiting possible extradition to Riverside County, California. At the "initial appearance" hearing on February 5, 2007, Henson stated through counsel that he was fighting extradition and requested release.
Judge Lindberg set a court date for March 5, 2007 in the Prescott Justice Court, and fixed the security for release at $7,500 cash or bond, with standard conditions. Henson's release on bond was secured. In spite of these distractions, Henson finished a space elevator presentation for a European Space Agency conference. The paper was presented by proxy on February 28, 2007.
The extradition hearing for Henson was postponed to May 8, 2007, at the request of Henson's attorney and the County attorney. At his release from jail, Henson was handed paper work from Riverside County, including a warrant from September 15, 2000. At the May 8, 2007 hearing, Henson was presented with an arrest warrant, and returned to jail. In 2007, Henson was jailed in Riverside, California for "using threats of force to interfere with another's exercise of civil rights". He was released in early September 2007.
From 2007 on, Henson worked independently and with others on the problems of global energy supply and affordable cost, particularly on power satellites for space-based solar power. There he was particularly concerned with launch cost, system mass, waste heat, heat radiators, and economics.
The power satellite work was reported in a series of articles starting with two posted on The Oil Drum ,  and three presented at IEEE SusTech conferences for Sustainable Technology. Henson also was involved in producing videos about beamed energy propulsion  and thermal power satellites , the latter of which won an award in international competition. (See Online Journal of Space Communication, Issue No. 18 under Works, below.)
Additionally, he worked over a year for Ed Kelly on StratoSolar  when it seemed possible that high altitude lighter-than-air StratoSolar could beat the projected cost of power satellites. (It may not, but the estimated cost of StratoSolar power with storage puts a ceiling on what electricity from space can be sold for.)
Henson visited Reaction Engines in the UK twice, in 2012 on the way back from a power satellite presentation in Germany ("Economic feedback for low-cost solar energy from space") and in 2016 when he gave a two-hour presentation to the engineering department of REL . The latter, plus other, later discussions set the rate of expansion for producing Skylon rocket planes used in the power satellite business cases.
In early 2015 Henson created the Google group Power Satellite Economics where various concerned citizens and experts from many fields discuss the complexities and benefits of power satellites and related work .
- Henson, H.K., and K.E. Drexler: Vapor-phase Fabrication of Massive Structures in Space, Space Manufacturing AIAA 1977
- Henson, H.K., and K.E. Drexler: Gas Entrained Solids: A Heat Transfer Fluid for Use in Space Space Manufacturing AIAA 1979
- H. Keith Henson and Arel Lucas: STAR LAWS Reason Magazine, Aug. 1982  STAR LAWS (text only)
- Henson, H.K.: Memes, L5 and the religion of the space colonies. L5 News, September 1985, pp. 5–8.
- Henson, H.K.: More on Memes L5 News, June 1986
- Henson, H.Keith: MEMETICS AND THE MODULAR-MIND Analog August 1987
- Henson, Keith: "Memetics: The Science of Information Viruses". Whole Earth Review no. 57, 1987
- Henson, H. Keith: MegaScale Engineering and Nanotechnology, 1987
- Henson, H. Keith: Memes Meta-Memes and Politics, 1988 Alt. 
- H. Keith Henson and Arel Lucas: Memes, Evolution, and Creationism, 1989,
- H. Keith Henson: Green Rage at the Wayback Machine (archived June 8, 2008)
- H. Keith Henson: and Arel Lucas: A Theoretical Understanding at the Wayback Machine (archived November 3, 2004), 1993
- Keith Henson: Wogs at Cause—Car chases and other modern courtroom phenomena (adapted from the version published in Biased Journalism) Also 
- H. Keith Henson: South of the Border at the Road Kill Cafe (Part 1)
- Henson, H. Keith: Sex, Drugs, and Cults. An evolutionary psychology perspective on why and how cult memes get a drug-like hold on people, and what might be done to mitigate the effects, The Human Nature Review 2002 Volume 2: 343–355
- H. Keith Henson: Evolutionary Psychology Memes and the Origin of War Also 
- H. Keith Henson: A 2000 tonne per day Space Elevator at the Wayback Machine (archived May 15, 2007) ESA Conference presentation Feb 2007
- H. Keith Henson: , The Clinic Seed—Africa.
- Keith Henson: , Tunnel of Love.
- H. Keith Henson: Beamed Energy and the Economics of Space Based Solar Power, Beamed Energy Propulsion: 6th International Symposium, American Inst. of Physics, 2010 ISBN 978-0-7354-0774-9
- Keith Henson (June 3, 2011). "Space Solar Power – Recent Conceptual Progress". The Oil Drum. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- Keith Henson (April 12, 2012). "Transhumanism and the Human Expansion into Space: a Conflict with Physics". Archived from the original on November 30, 2012.
- Keith Henson. "Rays of Hope: Propulsion lasers to get parts up, Microwaves to get energy down and the effect of large-scale deployment of power satellites on CO2".
- Keith Henson; Steve Nixon. "THE COLONIZATION OF (NEAR) SPACE". Also 
- Keith Henson. "Dollar a Gallon Gasoline".
- Keith Henson. "Power Satellite Progress". Comment on David MacKay's blog 
- Henson, K. "Solving economics, energy, carbon and climate in a single project". doi:10.1109/SusTech.2014.7046244. 2014 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech), (pp. 203–208). Portland: IEEE.
- Keith Henson; Steve Nixon; Kris Holland; Anna Nesterova. "Thermal Power Satellites: A private collaboration between space scientists and media professionals". Online Journal of Space Communication, Issue No. 18.
- Keith Henson. "Thermal Power Satellites". Online Journal of Space Communication, Issue No. 18.
- Keith Henson. "Mining Asteroids".
- Keith Henson. "UpLift: A story of Space Elevators and Power Satellites plus a bit on Mining Asteroids".
- Keith Henson. "Solar power satellites, a solution to energy and carbon". 2016 IEEE Conference on Technologies for Sustainability (SusTech), Phoenix, AZ: IEEE.
- R. U. Sirius interview with Keith Henson
- Michael A. G. Michaud, Reaching for the High Frontier, Out of the desert, Praeger Publishers, 1986.
- Ed Regis, Great mambo chicken and the transhuman condition, science slightly over the edge, Westview Press, 1991, p. 47, p. 188.
- "Theoretical Induced Polarization and Resistivity Response for the Dual Frequency System Collinear Dipole-dipole Array: Volume 1 & 2. By Chris S Ludwig, H Keith Henson, Heinrichs Geoexploration Company Published by Heinrichs Geoexploration Co., 1967"
- Nadin, Mihai. The Civilization of Illiteracy, p. 407. DUP, 1997. ISBN 3-931828-38-7
- The JOURNAL of GEOETHICAL NANOTECHNOLOGY Archived January 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., Terasem Journals Volume 2, Issue 2, 1st Quarter, 2007, Bio of Keith Henson
- Declaration of H. Keith Henson, HILARY DEZOTELL, KEN HODEN, and BRUCE WAGONER, Plaintiff/Respondent, vs KEITH HENSON, Defendant/Appellant, Appellate No. 00338, Case No. HEC009673 Riverside Superior Court Appeals Division, Riverside, California, January 21, 2003 copy at , see Attachment A, Background and timelines for H. Keith Henson.
- http://verbosity.wiw.org/issue6/meinel.html Interview with Carolyn Meinel
- Giving to New Mexico Tech Archived January 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, retrieved 10-27-07.
- Regis, Ed. The Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over the Edge. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-56751-2
- Mark, Hans. The Space Station: A Personal Journey, p. 54. Duke University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-8223-0727-8
- Henson, H.K., and K.E. Drexler. (1988) "Heterodensity heat transfer apparatus and method" U.S. Patent Office: #4,759,404 Henson, H.K., and K.E. Drexler. (1984) "Method for processing and fabricating metals in space" U.S. Patent Office: #4,480,677
- sci.space.policy post
- Regis, Ed (1991). Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over The Edge. Westview Press. pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-201-56751-2.
- Dora Kent: Questions and Answers, Alcor Life Extension Foundation, Excerpted from Cryonics, March 1988
- "Cryonics 'wet work'", message posted by Keith Henson on the newsgroup sci.cryonics, 1993-15-Jan.
- "Future Tech". Cryonics. 13 (12): 7–8. December 1992.
- Grossman, Wendy (October 1997) . "Copyright Terrorists". Net.Wars. New York: New York University Press. pp. 77–78. ISBN 0-8147-3103-1. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
- Prendergast, Alan (October 4, 1995). "Stalking the Net". Westword. Village Voice Media. Retrieved March 28, 2007.
- Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene, p.330. Oxford University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-19-286092-5
- Gale Holland (June 20, 2001). "Unfair Game: Scientologists Get Their Man". LA Weekly. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
- United States v. Founding Church of Scientology et al., F. Supp. 357 District of Columbia 333 (US District Court July 30, 1971).
- Bryan, Judy (May 18, 1998). "Scientology Slips Through the Net". Wired. Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- Morgan, Lucy (March 29, 1999). "At home: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- Thurston, Susan (February 21, 1998). "Judge OKs picketing of church". The Press-Enterprise. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2007.
- "Conviction of Scientology Critic Raises Free Speech Issue". Electronic Frontier Foundation. June 22, 2001. Retrieved December 13, 2007.
- Riverside County Superior Court Case Report
- Google Groups Archive of posting of Henson's fax where he stated "I am all too aware that going back to the US puts my life in danger."
- Gamble, Susan (February 7, 2007). "Man critical of Scientology, who fled Brantford in 2005, is arrested in United States". Brantford Expositor. Retrieved February 10, 2007.
- Cohn, Cindy (December 24, 2008). "Keith Henson Appeal: Time to Undo an Injustice". www.eff.org. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- Invoking Rights Pursuant To A.R.S. §§ 13-3580, 13–3856 Archived June 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- McCullagh, Declan (February 5, 2007). "'Tom Cruise' missile jokester arrested". CNET News.com. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved February 9, 2007.
- Prescott Justice Court, Criminal Docket, Case 2007020065J
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
- Keith Henson Back in Jail – Space Elevator Will Have To Wait – 10 Zen Monkeys
- "Former resident faces extradition over Scientology clash". Palo Alto Daily News. May 20, 2007. Archived from the original on May 24, 2007. Retrieved May 29, 2007.
- Zapler, Mike (July 8, 2007). "In jail for protesting Scientology, man seeks pardon". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
- Media/Press mention
- Judge OKs picketing of church, The Press-Enterprise, February 21, 1998
- Internet Czar?, Wall Street Journal, July 21, 1998
- Scientology Critic Convicted, April 27, 2001 Wired article on Henson's conviction
- Cave, Damien (May 23, 2001). "On the run from L. Ron Hubbard". salon.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2008.
- Unorthodox Arrest, Enzo Di Matteo, NOW Magazine, June 7 – 13, 2001.[dead link]
- Unfair Game: Scientologists get their man, LA Weekly, June 22, 2001
- Scientology Fugitive Arrested, 10 Zen Monkeys, February 4, 2007
- Scientology foe Keith Henson arrested, defense mobilized, Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, 2007-02-04[dead link]
- Scientology activist arrested, p2p.net, February 5, 2007
- Scientology Critic Arrested After 6 Years, Slashdot, February 5, 2007
- Anti-Scientology Activist Keith Henson Arrested, All Headline News , February 6, 2007, Prescott, Arizona[dead link]
- 'Tom Cruise' missile jokester arrested at Archive.is (archived 2013-01-19), CNET News.com, February 5, 2007, California
- The Tom Cruise Missile, About.com, February 6, 2007
- Prescott police arrest California fugitive, The Daily Courier, Yavapai County, Arizona, February 6, 2007.
- Arizona to extradite Scientology protester to Riverside County, The Press-Enterprise , February 8, 2007, Riverside County, California[dead link]
- Staff (May 11, 2007). "Former Brantford man in Arizona jail". Brantford Expositor. Osprey Media.[dead link]
- Buric, Mirsada (May 11, 2007). "Church of Scientology critic fights his extradition". Prescott Daily Courier. Prescott Newspapers Inc. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010.
- Keith Henson Information
- Copy of Henson trial transcript
- Electronic Frontier Foundation statement re. Henson process (Mirror of press release's original location on the EFF website at the Wayback Machine (archived February 7, 2006))
- Exile on Meme Street – Keith Henson Talks about Memetics, Evolutionary Psychology and Scientology