Keldysh formalism

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In condensed matter physics, the Keldysh formalism is a general framework for describing the quantum mechanical evolution of a system in a non-equilibrium state, e.g. in the presence of time varying fields (electrical field, magnetic field etc.). The main mathematical object in the Keldysh formalism is the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF).

Kubo–Keldysh formalism[edit]

Schwinger–Keldysh formalism[edit]

Landauer–Büttiker–Keldysh formalism[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. Introduction to the Keldysh Nonequilibrium Green Function Technique (pdf) By A. P. Jauho
  2. Application of the Keldysh Formalism to Quantum Device Modeling and Analysis (pdf) By Roger Lake
  3. Many-body theory of non-equilibrium systems
  4. Introduction to Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics with Quantum Field
  5. Green function techniques in the treatment of quantum transport at the molecular scale
  6. Microscopic approach to current-driven domain wall dynamics