Kelly Miller (scientist)
|Born||July 18, 1863
Winnsboro, South Carolina
|Died||December 29, 1939
|Occupation||mathematician, sociologist, essayist, newspaper columnist and author|
Kelly Miller (July 18, 1863 – December 29, 1939) was an African-American mathematician, sociologist, essayist, newspaper columnist, author, and an important figure in the intellectual life of black America for close to half a century. He was known as "The Bard of the Potomac" in his day.
Early Life and Education
Kelly Miller was the sixth of ten children born to Elizabeth Miller and Kelly Miller Sr. His mother was a former slave and his father was a freed black man who was conscripted into the Winnsboro Regiment of the Confederacy. Miller was born in Winnsboro, South Carolina where he attend local primary and grade school.
From 1878-1880 Miller attended the Fairfield Institute where his hard work paid off and he was offered a scholarship to the historically black college, Howard University. Miller finished the preparatory department's three-year curriculum in Latin and Greek, then mathematics in two years. After finishing one department he quickly moved on to the next one. Miller attended the College Department at Howard from 1882 to 1886.
In 1886, Kelly Miller was given the opportunity to study advanced mathematics with Captain Edgar Frisby. Frisby was an English mathematician working at the U.S Naval Observatory. Frisby's attendant, Simon Newcomb noticed Miller's intellectual talent and recommended him to Johns Hopkins University. Miller spent the following two years at Johns Hopkins University (1887-1889) and became the first African American student to attend the university. Kelly Miller spent his time at the university studying mathematics, physics, and astronomy.
Unfortunately, Miller was not able to keep attending Johns Hopkins University due to financial limitations. From 1889 to 1890 Miller taught mathematics at the M Street High School in Washington, D.C. Appointed professor of mathematics at Howard in 1890, Miller introduced sociology into the curriculum in 1895, serving as professor of sociology from 1895 to 1934. Miller graduated from Howard University School of Law in 1903. In 1907, Miller was appointed dean of the College of Arts and Sciences.
His deanship lasted twelve years and in that time, the college changed significantly. The old classical curriculum was modernized and new courses in the natural sciences and the social sciences were added. Miller was an avid supporter of Howard University and actively recruited students to the school. In 1914 he planned a Negro-American Museum and Library. He persuaded Jesse E. Moorland to donate his large private library on blacks in Africa and the United States to Howard University and it became the foundation for his Negro-Americana Museum and Library center.
Miller was a prolific writer of articles and essays which were published in major newspapers and magazines, and several books, including Out of the House of Bondage. Miller assisted W. E. B. Du Bois in editing The Crisis, the official journal of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Miller started off publishing his articles anonymously in the Boston Transcript. He wrote about both radical and conservative groups. Miller also shared his views in the Educational Review, Dial, Education, and the Journal of Social Science. His anonymous articles later became his lead essay in his book Race Adjustment published in 1908. Miller suggested that African Americans had the right to protest against the unjust circumstances that came with the rise of white supremacy in the South. Miller supported racial harmony, thrift, and institution building.
In 1917, Miller published an open letter to President Woodrow Wilson in the Baltimore Afro-American against lynching, which he called "national in its range and scope," and called the government's failure to stop it "the disgrace of democracy". He also stated “It is but hollow mockery of the Negro when he is beaten and bruised in all parts of the nation and flees to the national government for asylum, to be denied relief on the basis of doubtful jurisdiction. The black man asks for protection and is given a theory of government." 
It was circulated as a pamphlet in the camp libraries of the US armed forces for about a year until "the department of military censorship" ordered it removed because it "tended to make the soldier who read [it] a less effective fighter against the German." Miller published Kelly Miller's History of the World War for Human Rights which included "A wonderful Array of Striking Pictures Made from Recent Official Photographs, Illustrating and Describing the New and Awful Devices Used in the Horrible Methods of Modern Warfare, together with Remarkable Pictures of the Negro in Action in Both Army and Navy" in 1919.
Miller gained his well-known national importance from his involvement in another movement led by W.E.B. Du Bois. He showed intellectual leadership during the conflict between the "accommodations" of Booker T. Washington and the "radicalism" of the growing civil rights. Miller was known in two ways to the public.
On African-American education policy, Miller aligned himself with neither the "radicals" — Du Bois and the Niagara Movement — nor the "conservatives" — the followers of Booker T. Washington. Miller sought a middle way, a comprehensive education system that would provide for "symmetrical development" of African-American citizens by offering both vocational and intellectual instruction.
In February 1924, Miller was elected chairman of the Negro Sanhedrin, a civil rights conference held in Chicago that brought together representatives of 61 African-American organizations to forge closer ties and to attempt to craft a common program for social and political reform.
He also believed that blacks should favor free market rather than government or union power, stating:
"The capitalist has but one dominating motive, the production and sale of goods. The race or color of the producer counts but little.... The capitalist stands for an open shop which gives to every man the unhindered right to work according to his ability and skill. In this proposition the capitalist and the Negro are as one".
Death and legacy
After World War I, Miller’s life became difficult. He was demoted in 1919 to dean of a new junior college after J Stanley Durkee was appointed as president of Howard in 1918 and built a new central administration. Miller continued to publish articles and weekly columns in black presses. His views were published in more than 100 newspapers.
Miller died in 1939, on Howard’s campus, survived by his wife Annie May Butler, four of his five children: Kelly the III, May, Irene, and Paul. His son Issac Newton, preceded him in death.
- Gary, Lawrence E., ed. (1973). "Social Research and the Black Community - Selected Issues and Prioities". Howard University: 23.
- Michael R. Winston. "Kelly Miller," American National Biography Online, Feb. 2000.
- "Kelly Miller Biography (1863–1939)". biography.com. Retrieved 2007-11-13.[dead link]
- Miller, Kelly (25 August 1917). "The Disgrace of Democracy". Baltimore Afro-American. p. 4.
- "Bar Miller's book from camp libraries". Chicago Defender. 19 October 1918. p. 1.
- Seraile, William. Bruce Grit: The Black Nationalist Writings of John Edward Bruce. Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2003. p110-111
- Library of Congress: "Kelly Miller (1863-1939)"
- Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, Defying Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2008; pg. 41.
- "Notable Alpha Men". Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, Mu Lambda chapter. Retrieved 2007-11-13.
- Olasky, Marvin, "History turned right side up", WORLD magazine. 13 February 2010. p. 22.
- "2101 4th Street NW 20001". dchousing.org. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- "Kelly Miller's Authentic history of the Negro in the World War." Washington, D.C. : Austin Jenkins, 1920. at HathiTrust
- "Progress and achievements of the colored people : a handbook for self-improvement which leads to greater success." Washington, D.C. : A. Jenkins,  at HathiTrust
- "The Negro Sanhedrin: A Clearing House and Union of Organizations," The Afro-American [Baltimore], vol. 32, no. 15 (Dec. 28, 1923), pg. 16.
- The Negro Sanhedrin: A Call to Conference. Washington, DC: Murray Brothers, 1923.
- "Our war for human rights." Washington, D.C. : Austin Jenkins Co.,  at HathiTrust
Selected Pamphlets, Articles and Essays
- "Address to the graduating class of the College Department, Howard University." [Washington, D.C.?] : [Howard University?],  at HathiTrust
- "An appeal to reason : an open letter to John Temple Graves." Wash[ington] D C : Hayworth Pub. House,  at HathiTrust
- "As to The leopard's spots : an open letter to Thomas Dixon, Jr." Washington, D. C. : K. Miller, c1905. at HathiTrust
- "Brief for the higher education of the negro." Washington, D.C. : [The Author?], 1903. at HathiTrust
- "Crime among Negroes." [Hampton, Va.?] : [Hampton Institute Press?], [1909?] at HathiTrust
- "Darkest America." [Boston] : [America Co.], 1904. Detached from: New England magazine. Vol. 30 (Mar. 1904). at HathiTrust
- "The disgrace of democracy : open letter to President Woodrow Wilson." [Washington, D.C.?] : [The Author?], [1917?] at HathiTrust
- "Education for manhood." Washington, D.C. : Murray Bros. Printing Co., 1913. at HathiTrust
- "The education of the Negro." [New York] : [American Social Science Association],  Detached from: Journal of social science (American Social Science Association). No. 39 (Nov. 1901). at HathiTrust
- "Education of the Negro in the North." (Reprinted from the Educational Review, Vol. 62, No. 3. October, 1921.) [United States] : [publisher not identified], [1921?] at HathiTrust
- "Enumeration errors in Negro population." Utica, N.Y. : Science Press, 1922. Detached from: The scientific monthly. Vol. 14, no. 2 (Feb. 1922). at HathiTrust
- "Eugenics of the Negro race." [New York?] : [Science Press?], [1917?] Offprint: Scientific monthly. (July 1917) at HathiTrust
- "Is race difference fundamental, eternal and inescapable? : an open letter to President Warren G. Harding." Washington, D.C. : Austin Jenkins Pub. Co.,  at HathiTrust
- "The ministry : the field for the talented tenth." Washington, D.C. : Murray Brothers Press, 1911. at HathiTrust
- "Moral pedagogy." [Boston] : [Palmer Co.],  Offprint: Education. Vol. 34, no. 3 (Nov. 1913). at HathiTrust
- "The mulatto in the United States." [United States] : [publisher not identified], [1919?] at HathiTrust
- "National responsibility for the education of the Negro." [United States] : [publisher not identified], [1919?] "Reprinted from the Educational Review, Vol. 58, no. 1, June, 1919." at HathiTrust
- "The Negro as a religious, social, and political factor." [Philadelphia?] : [publisher not identified], [190-?] at HathiTrust
- "The Negro in the new reconstruction." Washington : Howard University, 1919 at HathiTrust
- "The Negro's opportunity." [Hampton, Va.] : [Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute],  Detached from: The Southern workman. (May, 1918). at HathiTrust
- "The Negro's part in racial co-operation in the community." Chicago : National Conference of Social Work,  at HathiTrust
- "The political capacity of the Negro." Washington, D.C. : Murray Bros. Press, 1910. at HathiTrust
- "The political plight of the Negro / by Kelly Miller." Washington, D.C. : Murray Bros. Printing Co., 1913. at HathiTrust
- "The practical value of the higher education of the Negro / by Kelly Miller." Detached from: Education. Vol. 36, no. 4 (Dec. 1915). [Boston] : [Palmer Co.], 1915. at HathiTrust
- "The primary needs of the Negro race: : an address delivered before the Alumni Association of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute" Washington : Howard University Press, 1899. at HathiTrust
- "Radicalism and the Negro." [Washington, D.C.] : Murray Brothers, Printers,  at HathiTrust
- "A review of Hoffman's Race traits and tendencies of the American Negro." Washington, D.C. : The Academy, 1897. at HathiTrust
- "Segregation : the caste system, and the civil service." [Washington, D.C.?] : [The Author?], [1914?] at HathiTrust
- "Social equality" [Boston?] : [publisher not identified],  Detached from the National magazine, February, 1905. at HathiTrust
- "The ultimate race problem" Washington, D.C. : Murray Brothers Press, 1910. Reprinted from the Southern workman. at HathiTrust
- "What Walt Whitman means to the Negro." [Philadelphia] : [Walt Whitman Fellowship], . Offprint from: Walt Whitman fellowship papers. 2nd year. 10. at HathiTrust
- Bernard Eisenberg, "Kelly Miller: The Negro Leader as a Marginal Man," Journal of Negro History, vol. 45, no. 3 (July 1960), pp. 182–197. In JSTOR
- C. Alvin Hughes, "The Negro Sanhedrin Movement," Journal of Negro History, vol. 69, no. 1 (Winter 1984), pp. 1–13. In JSTOR
- Samuel K. Roberts, "Kelly Miller and Thomas Dixon, Jr. on Blacks in American Civilization", Phylon, Vol. 41, No. 2 (2nd Quarter 1980), pp. 202–209.
- Rhondda R. Thomas and Susanna Ashton (eds.) The South Carolina Roots of African American Thought. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2014.
- W.D. Wright, "The Thought and Leadership of Kelly Miller," Phylon, vol. 39, no. 2 (2nd Quarter 1978), pp. 180–192. In JSTOR
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