Kelvin–Planck statement

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The Kelvin–Planck statement (or the Heat Engine Statement) of the second law of thermodynamics states that it is impossible to devise a cyclically operating heat engine, the effect of which is to absorb energy in the form of heat from a single thermal reservoir and to deliver an equivalent amount of work.[1] This implies that it is impossible to build a heat engine that has 100% thermal efficiency.[2]


  1. ^ Rao, Y. V. C. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. Universities Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-81-7371-048-3.
  2. ^ Young, Hugh D.; Freedman, Roger A. (2008). University Physics. 1 (12 ed.). Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-321-50125-7.