|51st Attorney General of Texas|
|Assumed office |
January 5, 2015
|Preceded by||Greg Abbott|
|Member of the Texas Senate|
from the 8th district
January 2013 – January 4, 2015
|Preceded by||Florence Shapiro|
|Succeeded by||Van Taylor|
|Member of the Texas House of Representatives|
from the 70th district
January 2003 – January 2013
|Preceded by||David Counts|
|Succeeded by||Scott Sanford|
Warren Kenneth Paxton Jr.
December 23, 1962
Minot, North Dakota, U.S.
|Education||Baylor University (BA, MBA)|
University of Virginia (JD)
Warren Kenneth Paxton Jr. (born December 23, 1962) is an American lawyer and politician who has served as the Attorney General of Texas since January 2015. Paxton is a Tea Party conservative. He previously served as Texas State Senator for the 8th district and the Texas State Representative for the 70th district.
- 1 Background
- 2 Texas House of Representatives
- 3 Texas State Senate
- 4 Attorney General of Texas
- 4.1 2014 election
- 4.2 2018 election
- 4.3 Tenure
- 4.3.1 Immigration
- 4.3.2 Challenge to the Clean Power Plan
- 4.3.3 Challenge to Department of Labor overtime rule
- 4.3.4 LGBT issues
- 4.3.5 Challenge to Department of Labor's "Persuader Rule"
- 4.3.6 ExxonMobil litigation
- 4.3.7 Volkswagen, Apple, and MoneyGram lawsuits
- 4.3.8 Lawsuit over homestead tax exemptions
- 4.3.9 Second Amendment lawsuits
- 4.3.10 Voter fraud
- 4.3.11 Religion in schools
- 4.3.12 Congressional districts
- 4.3.13 Other issues
- 4.3.14 Affordable Care Act
- 5 Indictment and securities litigation
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Paxton was born in Minot Air Force Base while his father was stationed in the United States Air Force. His parents and their three children lived in a trailer, often without air conditioning, parked outside wherever his father was temporarily stationed. At various times, they lived in Florida, New York, North Carolina, California, and Oklahoma. As a youth, he wanted to play football, but his father would not let him play for fear of injury. A lifelong football fan, Paxton carried a jersey autographed by Bill Bates, formerly of the Dallas Cowboys. Bates later was named Paxton's campaign treasurer.
At the age of twelve, Paxton nearly lost an eye in a game of hide-and-seek; a misdiagnosis led to long-term problems with his vision. As a result, his good eye is green; his damaged one, brown and droopy. He was again seriously injured while he was a student at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. An elbow to his face in a game of basketball shattered the bones around his already damaged right eye. At Baylor, he majored in psychology and was a member of the Baylor University Chamber of Commerce. In 1985, he was elected Student Body President of the Baylor Student Government Association.
Paxton received a psychology degree in 1985 from Baylor University, and he continued his education at the Hankamer School of Business, earning a Master of Business Administration in 1986. Paxton then worked for two years as a management consultant before returning to school in 1988. He enrolled at University of Virginia School of Law in Charlottesville, Virginia, and in 1991 earned his Juris Doctor degree.
Paxton then joined the firm of Strasburger & Price, L.L.P, where he worked from 1991 to 1995. He then went to work for J.C. Penney Company, Inc., as in-house legal counsel. In 2002, he left J.C. Penney to start his own firm specializing in estate planning, probate, real estate and general business matters and to run for office in Texas House District 70.
A resident of McKinney, Texas, Paxton serves or has served on numerous local organizations and councils. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce in Allen, Frisco, and McKinney. He is a director of the Centennial Medical Center. He is a member and former director of the Collin County Bar Association, a member of the Dallas Estate Planning Council, director at Marketplace Ministries, and a member of Rotary International in McKinney. Paxton is a charter member of the nondenominational Stonebriar Community Church in Frisco, founded in 1998 by senior pastor Chuck Swindoll.
Texas House of Representatives
On March 12, 2002, Paxton ran for his first nomination in the Republican primary for the Texas House in District 70 against five opponents. He captured 39.45% of the vote and moved into a runoff with Bill Vitz, whom he then defeated with 64% of the vote. He went on to face Fred Lusk (D) and Robert Worthington (L) for the newly redistricted open seat. On November 4, 2002, Paxton secured his first win with 28,012 votes to Lusk's 7,074 votes and Worthington's 600 votes.
On November 4, 2004, Paxton faced a challenge from Democrat Martin Woodward after running unopposed for the Republican nomination. Paxton captured 76% of the vote, or 58,520 votes compared to 18,451 votes for Woodward.
On November 4, 2006, Paxton won his third term in the Texas House of Representatives, defeating Rick Koster (D) and Robert Virasin (L). Paxton received 30,062 votes to Koster's 12,265 votes and Virasin's 1,222 votes.
On November 4, 2008, Paxton won House re-election by again defeating Robert Virasin (L), 73,450 to 11,751 votes.
Paxton ran unopposed for re-election in both the Republican primary and the general election in 2010. On November 11, 2010, entering his last term as a state representative, Paxton announced that he would run for Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives against Joe Straus of District 121 in Bexar County and fellow Republican Warren Chisum of District 88 in Pampa, Texas. Paxton said that if elected speaker, he would take "bold action in defense of our conservative values."
Sensing certain defeat, Paxton pulled out of the Speaker's race before the vote. Paxton was one of six Texas House candidates endorsed by HuckPAC, the official political action committee of Mike Huckabee. Paxton received endorsements and "A" ratings from the National Rifle Association and its state affiliate, the Texas State Rifle Association.
Straus was elected to his second term as Speaker and was re-elected in 2013, 2015, and 2017.
Texas State Senate
Paxton was elected to the Texas State Senate in 2012, and served for two years, until January 2015, when his term as Attorney General began.
Attorney General of Texas
Paxton became a candidate for Texas attorney general when the incumbent Greg Abbott decided to run for governor to succeed the retiring Rick Perry. Paxton led a three-candidate field in the Republican primary held on March 4, 2014, polling 566,114 votes (44.4%). State Representative Dan Branch of Dallas County received 426,595 votes (33.5 percent). Eliminated in the primary was Texas Railroad Commissioner Barry Smitherman of Austin, who polled the remaining 281,064 (22.1 percent). Paxton faced Dan Branch in the runoff election on May 27, 2014, and won with 465,395 votes (63.63 percent). Branch received 265,963 votes (36.36 percent).
Paxton took office on January 5, 2015. Paxton's campaign raised $945,000 in the first half of 2016, leaving Paxton with just under $3 million in his campaign account for a potential 2018 re-election bid.
Paxton's wife, Angela Paxton, his closest political advisor, often opens up his events with a musical performance. She calls her husband "a very competitive person". Paxton won the attorney general's election without the endorsement of a single Texas newspaper. He generally avoids reporters, most of whom he considers biased against him. In 2019, Angela Paxton assumed the District 8 seat in the Texas Senate as a result of her victory in the 2018 general election for that post.
In 2018, Paxton ran for re-election unopposed in the Republican primary, and he was endorsed by U.S. President Donald Trump. Paxton won a second term as attorney general in the general election held on November 6, 2018, narrowly defeating Democratic nominee Justin Nelson, a lawyer, and Libertarian Party nominee Michael Ray Harris by a margin of 4,173,538 (50.6 percent) to 3,874,096 (47 percent) and Harris receiving 2.4%.
In 2018, Paxton falsely claimed that undocumented immigrants had committed over 600,000 crimes since 2011 in Texas. PolitiFact noted that it had debunked the numbers before, and that the numbers exceed the state's estimates by more than 400%. In 2019, Paxton inaccurately claimed that the construction of a border fence in El Paso led to a dramatic reduction in the crime rate.
Obama executive orders
Paxton led a coalition of 26 states challenging President Barack Obama's Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) executive action. According to The New York Times, Obama's executive actions "would protect millions of illegal immigrants from deportation and allow them to work indefinitely in the country legally." Paxton argued that the president should not be allowed to "unilaterally rewrite congressional laws and circumvent the people's representatives." The Supreme Court heard the case, United States v. Texas, and issued a split 4-4 ruling in the case in June 2016. Because of the split ruling, a 2015 lower-court ruling invalidating Obama's plan was left in place. In July 2017, Paxton led a group of Republican Attorneys General and Idaho Governor Butch Otter in threatening the Trump administration that they would litigate if the president did not terminate the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals policy that had been put into place by president Barack Obama. The other Attorneys General who joined in making the threats to Trump included Steve Marshall of Alabama, Leslie Rutledge of Arkansas, Lawrence Wasden of Idaho, Derek Schmidt of Kansas, Jeff Landry of Louisiana, Doug Peterson of Nebraska, Alan Wilson of South Carolina, and Patrick Morrisey of West Virginia.
Trump executive orders
In 2017, Paxton voiced support for the application of eminent domain to obtain right-of-way along the Rio Grande in Texas for construction of the border wall advocated by President Donald Trump as a means to curtail illegal immigration. Paxton said that private landowners must receive a fair price when property is taken for the pending construction. He said that the wall serves "a public purpose providing safety to people not only along the border, but to the entire nation. ... I want people to be treated fairly, so they shouldn't just have their land taken from them," but there must be just compensation.
In 2017, Paxton joined thirteen other state attorneys general in filing a friend-of-the-court briefs in defense of both Trump's first and second executive orders on travel and immigration. In filings in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, and the U.S. Supreme Court, Paxton argued that the order—which places a 90-day ban on the issuance of visas to traveled from six designated majority-Muslim countries, imposes a 120-day halt on the admission of refugees to the U.S., and caps annual refugee admissions to 50,000 people—is constitutionally and legally valid.
In May 2017, Paxton filed a preemptive lawsuit designed to ascertain the constitutionality of the new Texas ban on sanctuary cities, known as SB 4, signed into law by Governor Greg Abbott. The suit asks the United States District Court for the Western District of Texas to clarify whether the law is at odds with the Fourth and Fourteenth constitutional amendments or is not in conflict with some other federal law. Paxton said that the measure "is constitutional, lawful and a vital step in securing our borders. It guarantees cooperation among federal, state and local law enforcement to protect Texans. Unfortunately, some municipalities and law enforcement agencies are unwilling to cooperate with the federal government and claim that SB 4 is unconstitutional." Among those opposed to the measure are the police chiefs and sheriffs of some of the largest jurisdictions in Texas. Critics call the ban legalization of discrimination against minorities, and suits against the legislation are expected to be filed.
Challenge to the Clean Power Plan
Paxton has mounted a legal challenge to the Clean Power Plan, which is President Obama's "state-by-state effort to fight climate change by shifting away from coal power to cleaner-burning natural gas and renewable resources." Paxton says the Environmental Protection Agency is trying to "force Texas to change how we regulate energy production" through an "unprecedented expansion of federal authority." The Clean Power Plan would require Texas to cut an annual average of 51 million tons of emissions, down 21 percent from 2012 levels. Paxton says the required reductions would cost the state jobs, push electricity costs too high, and threaten reliability on the electrical grid. Paxton says there is no evidence that the plan will mitigate climate change, and that the EPA lacks the statutory authority to write the state's policies.
Challenge to Department of Labor overtime rule
Paxton is suing the Obama administration over a new rule by the United States Department of Labor which would make five million additional workers eligible for overtime pay. The new rule would mean workers earning up to an annual salary of $47,500 would become eligible for overtime pay when working more than 40 hours per week. Paxton has said the new regulations "may lead to disastrous consequences for our economy." Along with Texas, twenty other states have joined the lawsuit.
In June 2015, after the issuance of the Obergefell v. Hodges decision, in which the Supreme Court ruled that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry, Paxton issued a statement offering moral support for clerks with religious objections to issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. His statement said in part that "numerous lawyers stand ready to assist clerks defending their religious beliefs, in many cases on a pro-bono basis, and I will do everything I can from this office to be a public voice for those standing in defense of their rights."
in 2016, Paxton led a coalition of thirteen states that sought an injunction to block a guidance letter issued by the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Department of Justice that interpreted Title IX to require public schools to allow transgender students to use restrooms that accorded with their gender identity. Paxton wrote in court filings that the Obama administration had "conspired to turn workplaces and educational settings across the country into laboratories for a massive social experiment" and termed the directive a "gun to the head" that threatens the independence of school districts. The states dropped the suit after the directive was revoked by President Donald Trump.
Challenge to Department of Labor's "Persuader Rule"
Paxton is involved in a legal challenge to a rule by the Department of Labor which forces employers to report any "actions, conduct or communications" undertaken to "affect an employee's decisions regarding his or her representation or collective bargaining rights." Known as the "Persuader Rule," the new regulation went into effect in April 2016. Opponents of the rule say it will prevent employers from speaking on labor issues or seeking legal counsel. In June 2016, a federal judge granted a preliminary injunction against the rule. Paxton called the injunction "a victory for the preservation of the sanctity of attorney-client confidentiality."
Paxton and the other state AGs filed an amicus curiae brief, contending that Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey used her office to "tip the scales on a public policy debate, undermine the first Amendment and abuse the office's subpoena power." Healey had launched a probe of ExxonMobil's historical marketing and sale of fossil fuel products, requiring the company to produce 40 years worth of documents regarding fossil fuel products and securities. Healey said the documents would prove that ExxonMobil "knew about the risks of climate change decades ago and fraudulently concealed that knowledge from the public." The amicus brief supported Exxon Mobil's motion for a preliminary injunction. Paxton questioned Healey's use of law-enforcement authority regarding the global warming controversy, which he called an "ongoing public policy debate of international importance." Paxton described Healey's attempts to obtain historical company records for a public policy debate as a threat to freedom of speech, stating: "The Constitution was written to protect citizens from government witch-hunts that are nothing more than an attempt to suppress speech on an issue of public importance, just because a government official happens to disagree with that particular viewpoint." The brief portrayed climate change as an issue that was still a matter of scientific debate, although in fact the scientific consensus is that the earth is warming and human activity is primarily responsible.
U.S. Virgin Islands attorney general Claude Walker had also issued a subpoena for Exxon's records. Paxton issued a request to intervene in the case, stating: "What is Exxon Mobil's transgression? Holding a view about climate change that the Attorney General of the Virgin Islands disagrees with. This is about the criminalization of speech and thought." Walker dropped the subpoena in June 2016.
Volkswagen, Apple, and MoneyGram lawsuits
In 2012, Paxton was part of a lawsuit against Apple, charging the company with violating antitrust laws by conspiring with publishers to artificially raise the prices of electronic books. Apple was ordered to pay $400 million to U.S. consumers who paid artificially-inflated prices for e-books, and $20 million to the states in reimbursement for legal costs.
In June 2016, it was announced that Volkswagen would pay the state of Texas $50 million in relation to the Volkswagen emissions scandal. Paxton had sued the company in 2015 in connection with the automaker's admitted use of software that allowed its vehicles to circumvent emissions limits.
Paxton is part of a 21-state lawsuit against the state of Delaware. The lawsuit alleges that MoneyGram gave uncashed checks to the state of Delaware instead of the state where the money order or travelers check was bought. The case has gone directly to the U.S. Supreme Court because it is a dispute among states. Paxton said an audit showed that Delaware owed other states $150 million, and that Delaware unlawfully took possession of uncashed checks instead of sending the checks back to the states where the money orders were purchased. The state of Delaware disputes these claims.
Lawsuit over homestead tax exemptions
In 2015, the Texas State Legislature passed a law implementing property tax reductions by increasing the homestead exemption to $25,000 and prohibiting localities from reducing or repealing any local option homestead exemption already on the books. After this law was passed, 21 school districts reduced or eliminated their local optional homestead exemptions. In 2016, Paxton intervened in a lawsuit challenging the practice of school districts reducing or repealing their local optional homestead exemptions.
Second Amendment lawsuits
In 2016, three University of Texas at Austin professors sued in an effort to ban concealed handguns from campus. The state's campus carry law allows law-abiding citizens to carry concealed weapons. The lawsuit brought by the professors seeks to block the law. Paxton called the lawsuit "frivolous" and said it should be dismissed.
Paxton has "crusaded against voter fraud" as state attorney general; there is no evidence of widespread voter fraud in Texas, although the state's "efforts to enact and enforce the strictest voter ID law in the nation were so plagued by delays, revisions, court interventions and inadequate education that the casting of ballots in the 2016 election was inevitably troubled."
Paxton's office is seeking 2016 Texas voting records in an effort to find voter fraud, such as potential voting by non-citizens or in the name of the deceased. This includes individual voting history and application materials for voter registrations. Officials in Bexar County say there have been no major cases of voter fraud in San Antonio. However, the Associated Press reported that the top election official in Bexar County estimates that nearly six hundred affidavits submitted by voters declined to present identification and should have been declined. Instead, the official said such voters should have been required to cast provisional ballots. AP projected that the overall number who cast improper affidavits as 13,500 in the largest Texas counties.
Fort Bend County's top elections official said that these cases are not voter fraud, noting that only those who were registered to vote qualified for an affidavit, and that "poll workers were trained to 'err on the side of letting people use the affidavit instead of denying them the chance to vote.'"
The San Antonio Express-News criticized the state's voter identification law, which Paxton seeks to have reinstated after it was struck down by United States District Judge Nelva Gonzales Ramos of Corpus Christ, who found the measure to be a violation of the Voting Rights Act, and found that it was passed with the intent to discriminate against black and Hispanic voters. Paxton's office appealed the decision. Appeals continue in the case.
In March 2017, Paxton told The Washington Times that he was convinced that voter fraud exists in Texas, and claimed that local election officials in Texas were not on the lookout for detecting fraud. Experts stated that there is no reliable evidence of widespread voter fraud in the United States, and a Texas study of elections over a decade determined that there were about three cases of fraud for every one million votes in the state.
Religion in schools
Paxton "has often criticized what he calls anti-Christian discrimination in Texas schools." In 2015, Paxton opposed an atheist group's legal action seeking a halt to the reading of religious prayers before school board meetings. In December 2016, Paxton gained attention after intervening in a dispute in Killeen, Texas, in which a middle school principal told a nurse's aide to take down a six-foot poster in the school containing a quote from Christian scripture. Paxton sided with the aide, who won in court.
In early 2017 Paxton objected to a Texas school's use of an empty classroom to allow its Muslim students to pray, issuing a press release that claimed that "the high school's prayer room is ... apparently excluding students of other faiths." School officials said that Paxton had never asked them about this assertion, and that the room was a spare room used by faculty and non-Muslim students as well as for multiple activities, from grading papers to Buddhist meditation. The Frisco Independent School District superintendent, in a letter sent in response to Paxton, called his press release "a publicity stunt by the [Office of Attorney General] to politicize a nonissue."
Paxton has defended the State of Texas in a federal lawsuit involving the drawing of Texas's congressional districts. In 2017, a three-judge panel of a U.S. federal court based in San Antonio ruled that the Republican-controlled Texas Legislature drew congressional-district to discriminate against minority voters, and ordered the redrawing of Texas's 35th and 27th congressional districts. Paxton is appealing the ruling, contending that the previous maps were lawful, and vowed to "aggressively defend the maps on all fronts"; U.S. Representative Lloyd Doggett criticized the appeal as a "desperate, highly questionable Paxton-Abbott maneuver" coming "after yet another ruling against the state of Texas for intentional discrimination."
In April 2017, Paxton rendered a legal opinion in a dispute between the Texas House and Senate over how to close a pending revenue gap of $2.5 billion. He argued that a Senate proposal to delay payment of a transportation debt would likely be determined in court to be constitutional. State Senator Jane Nelson of Flower Mound asked for Paxton's opinion. The House, however, was unmoved. House Appropriations Committee chairman John Zerwas of Richmond said that there must be other ways to finance the budget without "spending money twice from state highway funds." Speaker Joe Straus of San Antonio compared the Senate proposal to accounting tricks like those of the defunct Enron Corporation of Houston.
Affordable Care Act
Paxton initiated a lawsuit seeking to have the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) ruled unconstitutional in its entirety.
Indictment and securities litigation
Securities and Exchange Commission complaint dismissal with prejudice
On April 11, 2016, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filed a civil enforcement action against Paxton in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas. The SEC's complaint specifically charged Paxton with violating various provisions of the Securities Act of 1933 and various provisions (including Rule 10b-5) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by defrauding the Servergy investors. Paxton denied the allegations. One of the defendants and Servergy itself reached a separate settlement with the SEC, agreeing to pay $260,000 in penalties.
On October 7, 2016, U.S. District Judge Amos L. Mazzant III conditionally dismissed the SEC's civil fraud charges, finding the SEC had not alleged Paxton had any legal obligation to inform investors that he was receiving a commission and giving the SEC two weeks to refile with any new allegations. Mazzant said that the SEC was trying to fit a "square peg into a round hole."
On October 22, 2016, the SEC refiled its securities fraud claims against Paxton. The SEC made the additional allegations that Paxton and Cook's investment club required all of its members to accept the same risks on all investments and that it specifically forbade members from making money off investments of other members. The SEC further alleged that Paxton did not properly disclose his Severgy ownership stake on his taxes and that he attempted to conceal the stake by at different times claiming it was his fee for legal services, that it was a gift, and that he had only received it after investing money. Cook later backtracked on these claims, undermining the SEC case against Paxton, when Cook's attorney conceded there was never a "formal investment group" involving Cook and Paxton but rather an "ad hoc arrangement where, from time to time, good friends might invest in the same transaction" with the particular participants varying from transaction to transaction.
On March 2, 2017, Mazzant throws out the civil securities fraud case against Paxton for a second time on grounds that the attorney general had "no plausible legal duty" to inform investors that he would earn a commission if they purchased stock in a technical company that Paxton represented. With the second dismissal of the case with prejudice, the SEC cannot bring new action on the same claim against Paxton. The dismissal of the SEC case does not have a direct impact on the state criminal case, which remains pending. However, the burden of proof in criminal court is higher than in civil court.
State securities-fraud charges
On July 28, 2015, a state grand jury indicted Paxton on three criminal charges: two counts of securities fraud (a first-degree felony) and one count of failing to register with state securities regulators (a third-degree felony). Paxton's indictment marked the first such criminal indictment of a Texas Attorney General in 32 years since Texas Attorney General Jim Mattox was indicted for bribery in 1983. The complainants in the case are Joel Hochberg, a Florida businessman and Byron Cook, a Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives. Paxton and Cook were former friends and roommates while serving together in the Texas House. Three special prosecutors were trying the state's case.
The state prosecution against Paxton grows out of Paxton selling shares of Servergy Inc., a technology company, to investors in 2011. Prosecutors allege that Paxton sold shares of Servergy to investors (raising $840,000) while failing to disclose that he was receiving compensation from the company in the form of 100,000 shares of stock in return. Paxton says the 100,000 shares of the stock of the company that he received from Servergy's founder and CEO were a gift, and not a sales commission.
On August 3, 2015, following the unsealing of the grand jury indictment, Paxton was arrested and booked. He pleaded not guilty, and has portrayed "the case against him as a political witch-hunt." Paxton and his supporters claim that the prosecution has its origin in a dispute among Texas Republicans, with conservatives like Paxton on one side and moderates like Cook on the other, and suggest that Cook's complaint, several years after the Servergy deal, was political payback. The Wall Street Journal editorial board has called the prosecution politically motivated and compared it to previous Texas prosecutions that eventually were thrown out of court such as the Tom Delay and Rick Perry cases.
Paxton unsuccessfully sought to quash the indictments. This challenge was rejected by the trial judge, the Texas Court of Appeals, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, Texas' criminal court of last resort.
In March 2017, District Judge George Gallagher, a Republican from Fort Worth, granted the prosecution's motion for a change of venue, moving the trial to Houston. Gallagher also denied Paxton's motion to dismiss one of the charges against him because of issues which arose about the grand jury. On May 30, 2017, the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas agreed with Paxton that the transfer of Paxton's trial to Houston required assignment of the case to a new judge to replace Judge Gallagher and all orders issued by Judge Gallagher after the change of venue were voided. Paxton's new judge is Democrat Robert Johnson of the 177th District Court in Harris County. Johnson was chosen at random to preside.
Because of a fight over the fees demanded by the special prosecutors, Paxton's trial has been delayed three times. In November 2018, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals invalided the trial court's order approving of payments of attorneys' fees to the special prosecutors in the case, and directed the lower court to issue payments "in accordance with an approved fee schedule," siding with county commissioners in Paxton's home county of Collin County, who had rejected the prosecutors' invoice. The special prosecutors in the case have suggested that if they are not paid, they could withdraw from prosecution of Paxton. The special prosecutors filed a motion for reconsideration in the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals in December 2018. In June 2019, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals declined to reconsider the motion, thus upholding the November 2018 ruling. Shortly thereafter, one of three prosecutors pursing criminal charges against Paxton asked to step down from the case. In July 9, 2019, the Collin County commissioner's court voted to sue the private special prosecutors to recover the excessive legal fees, approximately $370,000, that were already paid and were not in accordance with the approved fee schedule.
Since the special prosecutors demanded excessive fees according to the Texas courts the future of the prosecution in is question.
Attorney General elections
|Texas Attorney General Election, 2018|
|Libertarian||Michael Ray Harris||200,407||2.40|
|Texas Attorney General Election, 2014|
|Texas Attorney General Republican Primary Runoff Election, 2014|
|Texas Attorney General Republican Primary Election, 2014|
Texas Senate 8th district election
|Texas Senate 8th District Election, 2012|
|Democratic||Jack Ternan, Jr.||99,010||34.60|
Texas House 70th district elections
|Texas House of Representatives 70th District Election, 2010|
|Republican||Ken Paxton (inc.)||43,006||100.00|
|Texas House of Representatives 70th District Election, 2008|
|Republican||Ken Paxton (inc.)||73,450||86.21|
|Texas House of Representatives 70th District Election, 2006|
|Republican||Ken Paxton (inc.)||30,062||69.03|
|Texas House of Representatives 70th District Election, 2004|
|Republican||Ken Paxton (inc.)||58,250||76.03|
|Texas House of Representatives 70th District Election, 2002|
|Texas House of Representatives 70th District Republican Primary Runoff Election, 2002|
|Texas House of Representatives 70th District Republican Primary Election, 2002|
- "Mr. Warren Kenneth Paxton Jr". State Bar of Texas. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Weber, Paul J. (2015-08-04). "Indicted Texas attorney general rode tea party to power". Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-11-04.
- Andrea Zelinski, "Paxton's career, life marked by beating barriers", San Antonio Express-News, December 24, 2016, pp, 1, A8, accessdate=December 27, 2016
- McGaughy, Lauren (October 11, 2014). "Ken Paxton waging shadow campaign for attorney general seat". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Project Vote Smart – Representative Ken Paxton, Jr. – Biography". Votesmart.org. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Texas House official election results for 2002 and Republican Primary Election 2002". Elections.sos.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Texas House official election results for 2004". Elections.sos.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Texas House official election results for 2006". Elections.sos.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Texas House official election results for 2008". Elections.sos.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on 2014-01-09. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Rep. Ken Paxton announces bid for Texas House Speaker". The Ellis County Press. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Huck Pac – Candidates". huckpac.com. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "National Rifle Association – Political Victory Fund, Texas". nrapvf.com. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "TSRA PAC – Voters Guide" (PDF). tcrapac.com. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- "Republican primary election returns, March 4, 2014". team1.sos.state.tx.us. Archived from the original on March 7, 2014. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
- "Texas – Summary Vote Results". Associated Press. May 28, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Grissom, Brandi. Tea Party Conservatives Win Top GOP Runoff Contests, Texas Tribune, May 28, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
- Philip Balli, "Two vie for state AG post", Laredo Morning Times, October 16, 2014, p. 3A
- Blanchard, Bobby (January 5, 2015). "Top Texas Officials on Hand as Paxton is Sworn In". Texas Tribune. Austin, Texas. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
- Lindell, Chuck (July 15, 2016). "Ken Paxton campaign takes in almost $945,000". Austin-American Statesman. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Election Returns. Texas Secretary of State (November 6, 2018). Retrieved on November 10, 2018.
- "Texas Attorney General election, 2018". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
- "Pants on Fire: Ken Paxton's claim about 600,000 Texas crimes". @politifact. Retrieved 2018-09-08.
- "Did construction of a border fence cut down on crime rates in El Paso?". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2019-01-19.
- Liptak, Adam; Shear, Michael (January 19, 2016). "Supreme Court to Hear Challenge to Obama Immigration Actions". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Hurley, Lawrence (June 24, 2016). "Split Supreme Court blocks Obama immigration plan". Reuters. Retrieved 10 October 2016..
- Texas leads 10 states in urging Trump to end Obama-era immigration program, Texas Tribune, Julián Aguilar, June 29, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- SPLC denounces letter from 10 Attorneys General seeking "cruel and heartless" repeal of DACA, Southern Poverty Law Center, June 30, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2017.
- Leif Reigstad, Paxton Says Eminent Domain is Okay to Build Trump's Border Wall, Texas Monthly, March 28, 2017.
- James Barragán (March 27, 2017). "Texas AG Paxton leads 13-state coalition backing Trump's revised immigration orders". Dallas News.
- Chuck Lindell (June 6, 2017). "Ken Paxton asks Supreme Court to uphold Trump travel ban". Austin American-Statesman.
- "Ken Paxton files preeminent lawsuit to protect sanctuary cities ban". Texas Monthly. May 9, 2017. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
- Malewitz, Jim (September 26, 2016). "Paxton Blasts Clean Power Plan Ahead of High-Profile Legal Arguments". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Sadasivam, Naveena (September 26, 2016). "Paxton: 'No Evidence' Obama's Clean Power Plan Will Mitigate Climate Change". Texas Observer. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Mayberry, Ed (October 3, 2016). "Appeals Court To Consider EPA's Plan To Limit Coal-fired Power Plant Emissions". Houston Public Media. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Young, Stephen (September 21, 2016). "State of Texas Sues to Stop New Federal Overtime Rules". Dallas Observer. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Svitek, Patrick (September 20, 2016). "Texas Sues Obama Administration Over New Overtime Rule". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Garrett, Robert T. (June 28, 2015). "Texas AG Ken Paxton lends moral support to clerks who refuse gay marriages". The Dallas Morning News.
- John Wright, Paxton's Transgender Bathroom Lawsuit Goes to Court Friday, Texas Observer (August 9, 2016).
- Richardson, Bradford (July 7, 2016). "Texas AG leads fight against Obama's bathroom order". Washington Times. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- McGaughy, Lauren (July 6, 2016). "Texas AG Ken Paxton wants court to halt Obama edict on transgender bathrooms before school starts". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Eleven U.S. states to drop suit over transgender bathroom order, Reuters (March 2, 2017).
- Marquez, Denise (May 10, 2016). "Paxton joins challenge against Department of Labor's Persuader Rule". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Wheeler, Lydia (June 7, 2016). "Judge temporarily blocks DOL union 'persuader rule'". The Hill. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Andrea Zelinski, Paxton again sides with Exxon Mobil in climate change probe: 11 attorneys general suing to block probe by Massachusetts, Houston Chronicle (September 9, 2016).
- Zelinski, Andrea (September 9, 2016). "Paxton accuses Massachusetts AG of climate change 'witch-hunt'". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Yack, Austin (September 15, 2016). "Texas's AG Pushes Back on the 'Green 20' Coalition's Anti-ExxonMobil Subpoenas". National Review. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Malewitz, Jim (June 27, 2016). "A Closer Look at the Texas Twist in Fight Between Exxon, Virgin Islands". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- "2nd Circuit Affirms $450 Million Settlement In Apple E-Book Antitrust Suit". Lexis Legal News. February 19, 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- "Apple to pay millions for its role in scheme to inflate e-book prices". Kingsville Record & Bishop News. March 9, 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Collier, Kiah (June 28, 2016). "Texas Gets $50 Million in Massive Volkswagen Settlement". Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- "Texas sues Delaware over MoneyGram payments". KVUE. June 9, 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Livington, Abby (June 9, 2016). "Texas Launches Lawsuit Against Delaware over Unclaimed Checks". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Cobler, Nicole; Collier, Kiah (September 15, 2016). "Lawsuit Backed by Ken Paxton Could Spell Trouble for 21 Texas School Districts". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Haurwitz, Ralph K.M. (August 2, 2016). "Paxton wants UT professors' campus carry gun lawsuit tossed". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Pattani, Aneri (August 2, 2016). "Paxton Says "Frivolous" Campus Carry Lawsuit Has No Merit". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Silver, Johnathan (July 28, 2016). "Paxton Sues to Get Guns Into Austin City Hall". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Michael Wines, Illegal Voting Gets Texas Woman 8 Years in Prison, and Certain Deportation, New York Times (February 10, 2017).
- Jessica Huseman, State's failures led to voter ID problems in 2016, ProPublica (May 2, 2017).
- Fauzeya Rahman, "State seeks Bexar records tied to possible voter fraud: AG's office cites elections last year," San Antonio Express-News]', February 17, 2017, p, A4
- David Saleh Rauf (February 19, 2017). "AP Exclusive: Hundreds of Texans may have voted improperly". Associated Press.
- Manny Fernandez, Federal Judge Says Texas Voter ID Law Intentionally Discriminates, New York Times (April 10, 2017).
- "R.I.P. voter ID in Texas? Let us hope" (editorial), San Antonio Express-News, February 17, 2017, p, A12
- Alex Swoyer (March 14, 2017). "Texas attorney general backs up Trump claim of noncitizens voting at polls". The Washington Times. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
- Ross Ramsey, Analysis: Scant Evidence for Abbott's "Rampant" Voter Fraud, Texas Tribune (January 25, 2017).
- Selk, Avi, The Texas AG sued to keep a Bible quote in school. Now he's troubled by Muslim prayers, The Washington Post (March 19, 2017).
- Valerie Wigglesworth, Texas AG's concerns over legality of Frisco high school's prayer room called 'publicity stunt' by school district, Dallas Morning News (March 17, 2017).
- School refutes Texas AG's concerns over Muslim prayer room, Associated Press (March 17, 2017).
- Chuck Lindell, Texas appeals ruling requiring new congressional districts, Austin American-Statesman (August 18, 2017).
- Peggy Fikac, "Senate budget move gets OK: AG says payment delay constitutional", San Antonio Express-News, April 22, 2017, p. A3.
- "Federal judge in Texas rules Obama health-care law unconstitutional". Washington Post. 2018.
- SEC: Company Misled Investors About Energy-Efficient Technology, Securities and Exchange Commission (press release) (April 12, 2016).
- Soloman, Dan (April 12, 2016). "Ken Paxton's Legal Battles, Explained". Texas Monthly. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
- Martha Neil, SEC sues Texas AG Ken Paxton for securities fraud; his lawyer 'vehemently denies' claims, ABA Journal (April 11, 2016).
- Chuck Lindell, SEC accuses Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton of fraud, Austin American-Statesman (April 11, 2016).
- Lauren McGaughy, Feds charge Texas AG Ken Paxton with fraud, Dallas Morning News (April 11, 2016).
- McGaughy, Lauren (21 October 2016). "SEC revives federal fraud case against Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Korosec, Tom (7 October 2016). "Texas Attorney General Paxton Gets SEC Fraud Suit Tossed". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- Svitek, Patrick (September 2, 2016). "In Ken Paxton Case, SEC Lawyers Face Skeptical Judge". Texas Tribune. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Lindell, Chuck (21 October 2016). "SEC revises, refiles fraud complaint against Ken Paxton". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- McDonald, Tony. Is Cook Backpedaling to save himself?, Empower Texans, January 22, 2017.
- Platoff, Emma. Ken Paxton’s criminal trial has been pending for nearly four years. Here’s a timeline of his legal drama., Texas Tribune, June 19, 2019.
- Andrea Zelinski, "Paxton's SEC charge dismissed: No 'legal duty' to disclose commission, San Antonio Express-News, March 3, 2017, p. A3
- Lauren McGaughy, Judge tosses civil fraud charges against Attorney General Ken Paxton, Dallas Morning News (March 2, 2017).
- Herskovitz, Jon; Whitcomb, Dan (August 1, 2015). "Texas attorney general indicted by grand jury on fraud charges: reports". Reuters.
- Lindell, Chuck (April 12, 2017). "Ken Paxton trial to begin in September, judge says". Austin American Statesman. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
- Weber, Paul J. (August 3, 2015). "Ken Paxton Indicted". Associated Press. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
- "Grand Jury Indicts Texas Attorney General, Ken Paxton, on Felony Charges". The New York Times. August 1, 2015.
- McGaughy, Lauren (August 3, 2015). "Attorney General Ken Paxton indicted on felony fraud charges". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- Lindell, Chuck (July 28, 2016). "Ken Paxton: Is his legal trouble motivated by politics?". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- McGaughy, Lauren (12 October 2016). "Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton headed for felony fraud trial after high court refuses his last appeal". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Paxton will plead not guilty, ask for jury trial". Dallas Morning News. Trailblazersblog.dallasnews.com. 2015-08-03.
- Morgan Smith, Paxton Pleads Not Guilty; Lead Lawyer Quits Case, Texas Tribune (August 27, 2015).
- Texas Political Prosecution, Wall Street Journal, August 20, 2017.
- McDonald, Tony. WSJ: Paxton Case is a ‘Political Prosecution’, Texas Scorecard, August 22, 2017.
- McGaughy, Lauren (August 2, 2016). "Texas AG Ken Paxton appeals fraud case again in final attempt to quash felony indictments". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Andrea Zelinski, Judge decides to move Paxton’s trial to another county, San Antonio Express-News, March 31, 2017, pp. A3-A4.
- Lindell, Chuck (May 30, 2017). "Appeals court backs Ken Paxton bid for new judge". Austin American Statesman. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- "New Face, Same Case," Texas Monthly, June 14, 2017.
- Cindy George and Andrea Zelinski, Texas AG Paxton to stand trial in December, judge rules, Houston Chronicle (July 27, 2017).
- McGaughy, Lauren (June 29, 2018). "Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton won't go on trial for alleged crimes before Election Day experts say". DallasNews.com. Dallas Morning News. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
- Patrick Svitek & Emma Platoff, Texas Court of Criminal Appeals rules against prosecutors in Ken Paxton payment case, Texas Tribune (November 21, 2018).
- Emma Platoff, In fiery filing, Ken Paxton prosecutors ask Texas court to undo "patently absurd result" in pay case, Texas Tribune (December 27, 2018).
- Platoff, Emma (June 19, 2019). "Criminal case against Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton remains threatened after court upholds prosecutor pay decision". Texas Tribune. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- McGaughy, Lauren (July 1, 2019). "Special prosecutor asks to step down from Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton's case". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- Anderson, Erin. Taxpayers Call for Refund of Paxton Prosecutor Fees, Texas Scorecard, July 11, 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ken Paxton.|
|Texas House of Representatives|
| Member of the Texas House of Representatives
from the 70th district
| Member of the Texas Senate
from the 8th district
| Attorney General of Texas