Kendari

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Kendari
Kota Kendari
Clockwise, from top: Kendari at night, Kendari Bay Bridge, a road section in Kendari, Al-Alam Mosque, and MTQ Unity Monument
Official seal of Kendari
Location within Southeast Sulawesi
Location within Southeast Sulawesi
Kendari is located in Sulawesi
Kendari
Kendari
Location in Sulawesi and Indonesia
Kendari is located in Indonesia
Kendari
Kendari
Kendari (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 3°58′2.96″S 122°35′40.92″E / 3.9674889°S 122.5947000°E / -3.9674889; 122.5947000Coordinates: 3°58′2.96″S 122°35′40.92″E / 3.9674889°S 122.5947000°E / -3.9674889; 122.5947000
Country Indonesia
Province Southeast Sulawesi
Incorporated1 July 1978
City Status27 September 1995
Government
 • MayorSulkarnain Kadir
 • Vice MayorSiska Karina Imran
Area
 • Total271.76 km2 (104.93 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 Census)
 • Total345,107
Time zoneUTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Area code(+62) 401
HDIIncrease 0.828 (Very high)
Websitekendarikota.go.id

Kendari is a city and capital of Southeast Sulawesi province in Indonesia. The biggest city in the province, it has population of 345,107 at the 2020 Census, making it the fourth-largest city in Sulawesi island, behind Makassar, Manado, and Palu. The city covers an area of 271.76 square kilometers of land, which makes around 0.7% of Southeast Sulawesi land area.

The city was historically part of Konawe kingdom and cultural center of Tolaki people, which is today's majority of the city as well as province's population. Located on Kendari Bay, it is also an important trade location today and historically. It is the economic and education center of the province, hosting economic centers, province's main port and province's main airport, as well as various universities and colleges in the province. Kendari also has the highest Human Development Index among other major cities in Sulawesi, with Makassar came as the second.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The word "Kendari" was thought to came from corrupted version of word "Kandai", which means a tool made of bamboo and wooden planks to push boats away from dock. The city was previously a small village named Kandai, which was thought to be based on that tool. Over time, the pronunciation changed and the growing settlement is called Kendari.[1]

Early history[edit]

Bay of Kendari is known since 15th century and written on Portuguese chartered maps, marked with name "Citta dela Baia" and the bay was known as "Baia du Tivora".[1] Kingdom of Konawe, which ruled the settlement, exist since 5th century founded by Tolaki people. However, its early days government structure was simple and resemble those of tribal societies. The kingdom was divided into several period of times.[2]:42

Its first king was Mokole Roro who ruled the kingdom between year 428–447. This period was known as Ancient Konawe. During this period, the kingdom was still small and not yet ruled all of today's Konawe region including today's Kendari city.[2]:42 The kingdom's capital was in Rahambuu, which is known today as Unaaha town, around 60 kilometers from Kendari. During this time, the kingdom had three smaller kingdoms below it which were loyal to Unaaha.[2]:42

The Ancient Konawe period was followed by Old Konawe period. It was marked by unification and consolidation of kingdom's power on the region as well as a huge unknown disaster which was thought almost eliminated all people in the region.[2]:42 During this time, there was also according to local legend arrival of Onggodo,a holy man thought to came from Maluku Islands.[2]:43 He was believed to save the kingdom from the brink of the disaster, and later married princess of the kingdom.[2]:43 Konawe society was divided into three classes during this time, Anakia which were nobles and upper classes, Tononggapa which were the commoners and peasants, and Oata which were slaves.[2]:43 People in the region were tied to a religious symbol called Kalo Sara, which symbolized harmony, peace, and kinship.[3][2]:45 Kalo Sara means "circle of tribal laws", and symbolized in forms of a big bracelet made out of three rattan pieces that were tied together and a white napkin as place to put the bracelet.[4] The rattan bracelet symbolized unity and the white napkin symbolized good deeds.[4] The three pieces of rattan have various meanings and interpretation, such as father, mother, and children's, or government, religion, and tradition.[4]

Islamic period[edit]

Islam has been present in the kingdom since early 15th century,especially after foundation of neighbouring Sultanate of Buton just south of Konawe. It was brought by Buginese merchants from Makassar, which mostly settled on coastal regions and through trades. The kingdom officially embraced Islam during reign of king Lakidende (1724-1786). Lakidende embraced Islam after traveling around Western parts of Sulawesi and studying about Islam in Bone kingdom around today's South Sulawesi.[2]45 During Lakidende's reign, the kingdom banned things that were considered unislamic such as eating pigs, consturction of mosques in each villages, and marriage in accordance to Islamic tradition.[2]:46 However, despite Islamisation, the kingdom's government structure did not change significantly and many animist traditions were incorporated to Islamic beliefs of people there.[2]:46 Kalo Sara symbol were also interpreted differently in accordance of Islamic beliefs instead of abandoned altogether.[2]:47 During this time, Konawe also became multicultural society with merchants from Java, Makassar, and Maluku settled.[2]:48

Colonial period[edit]

A house in Kendari, 1920

On 1828, a sailor named Jacques Nicholas Vosmaer was tasked to map eastern coast of Sulawesi to find suitable spot for trading post by Governor of Dutch East Indies. The first detailed map of Kendari Bay was published on 9 May 1831 and named as Vosmaer Bay by Dutch East Indies government.[1] During this time, Konawe Kingdom was in weak state due to succession crisis. King Lakidende abdicated and royal council could not name the successor due to deadlock on the discussion.[5]:39 Between that, a member of royal council, a noble named Tebau who ruled Ranome Eto region wanted to take the throne himself. He declared himself new king of Konawe but his power grab however failed due to rejection of kingdom's population.[5]:40 He soon abdicated too, leaving the kingdom unstable. On 1858 in secrecy not long after Tebau abdicated, his son La Mangu signed a treaty with Dutch East Indies. La Mangu wanted to create his own kingdom, Laiwoi, which would be independent from Konawe.[5]:40 The kingdom would be located in Ranome Eto region, and the founding was kept secret from Konawe royal council members.[5]:40 The kingdom was still de facto nonexistent and only exist in treaty, as the region was still firmly under Konawe. Dutch East Indies government promised armed assistance to create the kingdom with condition that the treaty would be kept secret from people of Konawe until Dutch's wars in South Sulawesi against Bone, Gowa, and Luwu ended.[5]:41

On 1905 after the end of war against Gowa Sultanate and later subjugation of Bone, the Dutch turned their attention to the eastern coast of Sulawesi. Dutch East Indies still kept the secret treaty with La Mangu from 48 years before. However, by that time, La Mangu was already dead and they needed a replacement. The Dutch approached nobles from Ranome Eto with the treaty, promised to set up the kingdom of Laiwoi.[5]:43 The founding of the kingdom, with another noble named Saosao as king, caused tensions with Konawe. To avoid armed conflict, Dutch government mediated an agreement known as Molawe Treaty.[5]:44 However, Konawe secretly mobilised its troops after the agreement under command of noble named Watukila and set up an arm store in Puwilalo. Realized the mobilisation, the Dutch send delegation to Watukila to made agreement to avoid conflict. However, Watukila rejected all negotiations and stay with his anti-Dutch policies. Owing to deadlock between the two, the Dutch decided to attack Watukila's troops and invade the kingdom.[5]:46 On 1908, Dutch troops besieged Puundombi Fort in Konawe.[5]:49 Konawe kingdom fall and Watukila was exiled to Makassar. Later, kingdom of Laiwoi moved its capital to Kendari. However, Watukila returned on 1910 and armed resistance continued until 1937 (two years after Watukila abdicated) under warrior named Pombili.[5]:59

Japanese occupation & independence[edit]

Dutch guerrilla area in Kendari, 1942

The city was occupied by Japanese troops after Battle of Kendari in 1942. Dutch garrisons in Kendari resorted to guerilla warfare.[6][7] The troops however surrendered after being persuaded by Dutch command on 27 March 1942.[6][7] The resistance against Japanese troops were limited as Dutch troops before invasion were already retreating. Local population give little to no support to guerilla campaign conducted by Dutch troops.[8] Japanese presence gave opportunity for Indonesian nationalism to spread in the region, as well as giving them military training.[5]:60

One month after Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, youth in the region created a militia People's Security Defender (Pembela Keamanan Rakyat) with Kolaka as its headquarter. The militia was controlled by PRI (Indonesian Republican Youth) and spread its influence to cities and towns in Southeast Sulawesi including Kendari. Indonesian flag was hoisted in Kendari with support of a noble named Lasandara, which was also a local official in charge of Kendari under Dutch East Indies.[5]:61 However, in October 1945 Australian troops entered the region together with Netherlands Indies Civil Administration. On 19 November 1945, Republican militia clashed with Dutch troops, known as Kolaka incident. In February 1946, large cities in the region were already occupied by Dutch troops.[5]:64 However, guerilla resistance by Republican continued until 1948.[5]:64 The city and region around it became part of State of East Indonesia, which later incorporated into newly recognised Indonesian Republic on 1949. The city was heavily impacted by Darul Islam rebellion, which started in South Sulawes but spread to eastern coast. As the result of the conflict, there were several refugee camps around the city. The city was unstable due to political climate at the time until the end of 1960s. On 1964, new province of Southeast Sulawesi was created with Kendari as its capital city.[9] On 1978, Kendari gained its city status based on Government Law Number 19 of 1978 as administrative city and on 1995 as kotamadya.[1]

Geography[edit]

Kendari border Konawe Regency in the north, South Konawe Regency in the south and west, and Kendari Bay sea in the east. The city is located on southeastern part of mainland Sulawesi island, but also includes several smaller islands around the bay. The city's topography varies from flat to hill regions. Flat region are mostly found in southern and western part of the city, close to coastal area, while northern part of the city is part of Nipa-Nipa Mountains formation which has altitude around 450 meters above sea level.[10] In general, slope in the city are less than 25% except those around Nipa-Nipa Mountains in Kendari District which could reach above 40%.[10]

Soil formation in the city is relatively young dominated by cambisol and gleisolacic, which made up around 30% of city's soil. Other soil formations also exist with less frequency such as alluvium and pozols, which account for less than 8%. Rivers and coastal area are where alluvium sediment wehere abundant in the city.[10]

Climate[edit]

Kendari has a tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) with heavy rainfall from December to July and moderate rainfall from August to November. Temperature in the city is relatively warm at 31 Celsius on average. The driest months were October to December with average rainfall of 86.1 millimeters per month and the wettest months were between January to September, with rainfall on average exceeds 177 millimeters per month.[10]

The coldest average temperature usually recorded in August which could reach as low as 21 Celsius, while the highest average temperature observed during November reaching 32 Celsius. Average moisture level were between 81 and 87% regardless of month, and wind speed on average sits between 6.8 and 7.5 knots with faster wind observed in December.[10]

Climate data for Kendari
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.5
(88.7)
31.4
(88.5)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
30.6
(87.1)
29.8
(85.6)
29.4
(84.9)
30.2
(86.4)
31.2
(88.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.6
(90.7)
31.9
(89.4)
31.1
(88.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.4
(81.3)
27.2
(81.0)
26.5
(79.7)
25.9
(78.6)
26.2
(79.2)
26.8
(80.2)
27.6
(81.7)
28.2
(82.8)
27.8
(82.0)
27.2
(80.9)
Average low °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.7
(74.7)
23.8
(74.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.3
(73.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 196
(7.7)
207
(8.1)
242
(9.5)
225
(8.9)
241
(9.5)
224
(8.8)
144
(5.7)
91
(3.6)
103
(4.1)
80
(3.1)
98
(3.9)
181
(7.1)
2,032
(80)
Source: [11]

Governance[edit]

Administrative districts[edit]

The city is divided into 11 districts (kecamatan). Below is the list of districts in the city.

  • Mandonga District
  • Baruga District
  • Puuwatu District
  • Kadia District
  • Wua-wua District
  • Poasia District
  • Abeli District
  • Kambua District
  • Nambo District
  • Kendari District
  • West Kendari District

Local government[edit]

As with all Indonesian cities, it is a second-level administrative division run by a mayor and a vice mayor together with the city parliament, and it is equivalent to a regency.[12] Executive power is vested in the mayor and vice mayor, while legislative duties are vested in the local parliament. The mayor, vice mayor, and parliament members are directly elected by the people of the city in an election.[13] Heads of districts are appointed by the mayor on the recommendation of the city secretary.[14][15]

Politics[edit]

The city is part of 1st Southeast Sulawesi electoral district, which send 6 out of 45 representatives on provincial parliament. On city level, it is divided into five electoral districts which in total has 35 representatives.[16]

Electoral district Region Representatives
Kendari 1st Mandonga and Puuwatu District 8
Kendari 2nd Kendari and West Kendari District 7
Kendari 3rd Abeli and Poasia District 6
Kendari 4th Baruga and Kambu District 6
Kendari 5th Kadia and Wua-Wua District 8
Total 35

Economy[edit]

Entrance gate to Samudera Fishery Port, center of fish processing industry in Kendari

The city's economy is dominated by service-related sectors, consisting of 77% of city's workforce.[17] Construction sector was the biggest contributor to city's gross regional product with 19.33% followed by retail and trading sector with 16.02%. Agriculture and fisheries sector also made up to 12% of city's gross regional product. Other significant sectors include processing and manufacturing with 9.89%, education with 7.78%, transportation and warehouse with 8.02%, and financial and insurance with 6.48%.[18]

The manufacturing sector employed 21.04% of city's workforce, while agriculture only employed 1.34% of city's workforce.[17] On 2019, the fastest growing sector was transportation and warehouse service with growth of 9.24%. However, in 2020, the fastest growing sector was healthcare insurance service with growth of 9.87%. Overall GRP growth of the city was 6.48% in 2019, but plummeted to -1.30% on 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic.[18] Poverty rate on 2020 was 4.34%.[17]

The city is located close to Konawe Industrial Area in Konawe Regency. The industrial area mostly used for nickel and lithium products manufacturing such as batteries.[19][20] The industrial area is supported by Kendari New Port, a large container port which is located in the city.[21] The city is home to Samudera Fishery Port, which is a port used exclusively for fishery-related industries. The port host total 27 fish processing companies on 2016 and among the biggest fish processing industry center in Eastern Indonesia.[22][23] There were total 142 hotels registered in the city as of 2020.[24] On 2020, there are 28 big size industrial companies operating in Kendari, in addition to 446 registered small and medium-sized enterprises employing more than 1,500 people.[25][26] Exported commodities other than industrial products include frozen shrimps, processed cashew nuts, cocoa butter, rubber, and raw octopus with value of US$6,596,867.85 on 2019. Most of these products are exported to Japan and India.[27][28] Fishcatch was numbering around 37,000 tons on 2018, dominated by skipjack tuna.[29]

Demographics[edit]

Around 90% of city's population are native ethnics from the region such as Tolaki, Muna, Buton, and Moronene. Small migrant population from other parts of Indonesia also exist.[30] There are 173,987 male population and 171,120 female population in the city, which makes 101.68 gender ratio male per female population. As with other places in Indonesia, the population is dominated by young population on workforce age above 15 years old. Population growth was 1.7% on 2020, with Baruga district seen the fastest growth with figure 5.38% while the lowest was Kambu district with decrease of 0.9% population.[31] The most densely populated district was Kadia district with 5,650 people per square kilometers, while the least was Nambo district with 441 people per square kilometers. The most populated district was West Kendari with 42.23 thousand people and the least was Nambo district with only 11.17 thousand people.[31]

There are total 189,534 people according to Statistics Indonesia that are considered economically active as part of workforce in 2020.[31] The majority of population in the city are Muslims, with sizeable Christian minorities, as well as Hindu and Buddhist.[32]

Education[edit]

A school in Kendari

There are 133 kindergartens, 141 elementary schools, 58 junior highschools, and 32 senior highschools. In addition, there are 20 vocational highschools in the city as of 2020.[31] The city is home to various higher education institutions ranging from polytech to universities. One of them is Haluoleo University, which is one out of two public university in the province. It is the oldest and the first public university in the province, founded in 1964 previously as branch of Hasanuddin University.[33] The university has over 40,000 active students and was 6th university with the most bachelor student in Indonesia on 2021.[34][35] Other public tertiary institution, Kendari State Islamic Institution, is the biggest Islamic college in the province.[36] It has over 6,000 active students mostly in bachelor program, with Islamic education as the most popular program followed by Sharia economy degree.[37] Other than that, there are several private universities such as Southeast Sulawesi University, Muhammadiyah Kendari University, Mandala Waluya University, among many others.[38] There are also various academies and polytechs such as Kendari Medical Polytech and Kendari Engineering Academy.[39]

Kendari Modern Library is located on Kadia District, and was just finished construction on 2021.[40] The library is managed by provincial government and the concept was said to be modeled after Harvard Library.[41] The library has seven floors, a cinema room utilized for college learning on second floor, meeting room on third floor, open space room on fourth floor, old artifacts and scriptures on fifth floor, staff and administration room on sixth floor, and a cafe as well as a stage on seventh floor.[42]

Kendari Modern Library, completed in late 2021

School participation rate was relatively high at 99.44% on age group of 7 to 12 years and 94.76% on age group 13 to 15 years old. Literacy rate in the city was 97.94% on 2020.[31]

Healthcare[edit]

Bahteramas Regional Hospital

The city has 15 hospitals including one maternity hospital, six polyclinics, 30 puskesmas, and 40 pharmacies as of 2020. Five puskesmas give inpatient care out of 30 puskesmas. Other than that, there are 38 primary clinics and 216 healthcare centers. There are also 55 family planning clinics in the city. Out of 15 hospitals, five are public hospital owned by city government, provincial government, and armed forces while 10 hospitals are private. There are two psychiatric hospitals, one public and one private.[31]

Bahteramas Regional Hospital is owned by provincial government of Southeast Sulawesi and classified as B-class by Ministry of Health.[43] Another public hospital, Kendari City Regional Hospital, is managed by city government and classified as C-class.[44] Public psychiatric hospital, Kendari Psychiatric Hospital, is owned by provincial government and classified as B-class.[45] Other than existing hospital, there's an ongoing construction of international-class heart specialist hospital initiated by provincial government. The construction was started on 2019 and the building would be a 17 stories tower. The construction expected to be finished on 2022.[46] It is claimed to be the first heart specialist hospital in Eastern Indonesia.[47]

Transportation[edit]

There are total 614.35 kilometers of road within the city boundaries, which 472.53 kilometers have been paved and sealed with asphalt. Majority of the roads are owned by city government while the remaining are either state-owned national roads or provincial roads.[31] The city has both inner and outer ringroads which as of 2021 both still under construction.[48][49]

The city is served by Haluoleo Airport, formerly known as Wolter Monginsidi Airport. The airport has regular flights to Jakarta and Makassar as well as smaller regions around it.[50][51] The airport is being developed to become an international airport and assisting already congested Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport.[52][53] Kendari New Port, located in the city, is an international seaport managed by Pelindo IV which is used for export and import of goods from the region.[54] It is one of two international container ports in Sulawesi island that is currently being developed alongside with Makassar New Port in city of Makassar.[55] Other than that, there are smaller ports used mostly for ferries to smaller islands surrounding the city such as Wawonii Port and Nusantara Port.[56][57] The city is visited by total 4,756 ships on 2020.[31]

Media[edit]

There are several media both online and printed in the city, which also serves the rest of the province. One major company in the city is Fajar Group, a media conglomeration which owns several television channels, printed media, and online news websites in the city as well as the province.[58] Notable media owned by Fajar Group are KendariPos, inikataSultra, and Harian Rakyat Sultra.[59]

There are numerous private television channels in Kendari such as Net. Kendari, GlobalTV Kendari, as well as local channels such as Sigma TV.[60] Indonesian state-owned television TVRI and state-owned radio Radio Republik Indonesia also has branches in the city.[61][62]

Citations[edit]

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  15. ^ Government Law No.19 1998
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References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Kendari at Wikimedia Commons