Kenitra

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Kenitra
Kenitra main pic.jpg
Kenitra Avenue Mohamed V.JPG
Kenitra-Centre.JPG
Kénitra 2014032.jpg
Kenitra American Base.jpg
Sbou River - Corniche Kenitra.jpg
Avenue Mohamed Diouri, Avenue Mohamed V, Kenitra
Official seal of Kenitra
Kenitra is located in Morocco
Kenitra
Kenitra
Location in Morocco
Kenitra is located in Africa
Kenitra
Kenitra
Kenitra (Africa)
Coordinates: 34°15′N 6°35′W / 34.250°N 6.583°W / 34.250; -6.583
Country Morocco
RegionRabat-Salé-Kénitra
ProvinceKenitra
Founded1912
Area
 • Total112 km2 (43 sq mi)
Elevation
26 m (85 ft)
Population
 (2014)[1]
 • Total431,282
 • Rank9th in Morocco
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Websitehttp://www.alkenitra.com/

Kenitra (Arabic: القُنَيْطَرَة‎, al-qunayṭara, [alqunajtˤira], lit.'the little bridge';[2] Berber languages: ⵇⵏⵉⵟⵔⴰ, romanized: Qniṭra; French: Kénitra) is a city in north western Morocco, formerly known as Port Lyautey from 1932 to 1956. It is a port on the Sebou river, has a population in 2014 of 431,282,[3] is one of the three main cities of the Rabat-Salé-Kénitra region and the capital of the Kenitra Province. During the Cold War Kenitra's U.S. Naval Air Facility served as a stopping point in North Africa.

History[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

The history of the city begins with the foundation of a trading-post by the Carthaginian, known back then as Thamusida. Under the Antonine dynasty, a Venus temple was built there.[citation needed]

Before the French protectorate, the Kasbah Mahdiyya was the only construction in the area where the modern city can today be found.[citation needed]

Colonial and recent history[edit]

In March 1912 the French government and the Sultan of Morocco, Abd al-Hafid, signed the Treaty of Fez. Because of his growing unpopularity, the Sultan asked the French government for protection against the Berber rebel tribes surrounding Fez. France appointed Hubert Lyautey resident-general in Morocco.

General Lyautey restored peace and order to the country after crushing the tribal uprising. After safely moving the Sultan from Fez to the current capital city, Rabat, Lyautey began his task of civilian administration.

Sebou River - Corniche

One of the first preoccupations of General Lyautey was to build ports along the inhabitable Atlantic coast where there were no natural harbors. He established Port Lyautey in 1912 as a French military fort and town. Its port, at the mouth of the Sebou river, was opened in 1913.[4] It soon became the best river port in Morocco.[5] Kenitra draws its name from a culvert built at Fouarat lake upstream of the kasbah. This culvert was destroyed in 1928. In 1933, the French officially named the locale "Port Lyautey".

It was renamed "Quneitra" in 1956 as Morocco gained its independence. The city has grown rapidly to be a shipping centre for agricultural produce (mainly fruit), fish, timber, and lead and zinc ores. The city's industrial area lies upstream of the port.

U.S. Naval Base[edit]

Air base of Kenitra: Public works and maintenance department

In November 1942, after Operation Torch, the Americans captured the Port Lyautey French fighter base as a military base, named Craw Field. For three months the 21st Engineer Aviation Regiment worked on the airfield. In February 1943 the Seabees of the 120th Naval Construction Battalion took over all construction activities.[6] The Navy ran the base until 1947, when the State Department negotiated reversion of control to France. In 1950, a $23,000,000 expansion was authorized, but then the Korean War diverted resources. In the 1950s, nearly 10,000 people were on the base making it the largest aggregation of Americans in any one overseas base outside Japan. Later, the base in Kenitra was expanded to become a U.S. Naval Air Station.[7]

The base was shared by both the US and Morocco through the Cold War. A small Navy communications out-station in Sidi Yahia closed in the late 1970s. The Air Station was closed in 1991.

Climate[edit]

Kenitra has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa).

Climate data for Kenitra (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
18.7
(65.7)
20.7
(69.3)
21.5
(70.7)
23.5
(74.3)
25.9
(78.6)
27.3
(81.1)
28.2
(82.8)
27.4
(81.3)
25.0
(77.0)
21.6
(70.9)
18.8
(65.8)
23.1
(73.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
13.6
(56.5)
15.4
(59.7)
16.5
(61.7)
18.8
(65.8)
21.6
(70.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.8
(74.8)
22.6
(72.7)
19.9
(67.8)
16.4
(61.5)
13.8
(56.8)
18.2
(64.8)
Average low °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
8.4
(47.1)
10.1
(50.2)
11.6
(52.9)
14.1
(57.4)
17.3
(63.1)
19.2
(66.6)
19.3
(66.7)
17.8
(64.0)
14.9
(58.8)
11.1
(52.0)
8.8
(47.8)
13.3
(55.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 88.5
(3.48)
75.4
(2.97)
46.3
(1.82)
46.0
(1.81)
20.9
(0.82)
4.4
(0.17)
0.3
(0.01)
0.7
(0.03)
17.0
(0.67)
50.7
(2.00)
104.0
(4.09)
105.3
(4.15)
559.4
(22.02)
Average precipitation days 12.3 12.7 12.2 11.0 7.6 2.9 0.3 0.7 2.8 8.6 13.3 14.0 98.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 182.4 184.4 235.6 268.2 313.7 316.6 333.2 315.6 264.6 230.4 190.3 170.7 3,005.7
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization[8]
Source 2: NOAA (precipitation days 1961–1990)[9]

Population[edit]

Estimated population of Kenitra city from 1982 to 2014[10]
1982 1994 2004 2010 2014
187,000 291,000 358,000 400,000 430,000

Areas and neighbourhoods[edit]

  • Mdina
    • Khabazate
    • The Cigogne
    • La cite
  • Modern city
    • Mimosa
    • Ville Haute
  • Popular districts
    • Saknia
    • Wuled Oujih
    • Maghrib al Arabi
  • Residential districts
    • Bir Rami
    • Ismailia
    • Val fleury

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Sports[edit]

Kenitra Athletic Club, KAC[edit]

In 1938, a group of Kenitra natives created KAC. This group of soccer lovers wanted to resist French domination in sports in Morocco. The team, made entirely of Kenitra natives, succeeded in reaching the premier Moroccan soccer league in 1956. In 1960, KAC won its first championship league of Morocco. KAC embarked in a journey of glories by winning the 1973-81-82 championship leagues and the 1961 throne cup. Ahmed Souiri was a long-time manager and coach. KAC has produced many international players. Noureddine Bouyahyaoui and Labid Khalifa were among the players who helped the Moroccan national soccer team qualify for the second round of the World Cup finals in Mexico in 1986. Mohammed Boussati still holds a national record of goals by scoring 25 goals in one soccer championship season in 1981–82.
Its home is the Kenitra Municipal Stadium which has a capacity of 15,000 people.[13]

Basketball[edit]

The KAC Kénitra was a very successful basketball team during the 70s and 80s.

Natives from Kenitra[edit]

Kenitra was the birthplace of:

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "POPULATION LÉGALE DES RÉGIONS, PROVINCES, PRÉFECTURES, MUNICIPALITÉS, ARRONDISSEMENTS ET COMMUNES DU ROYAUME D'APRÈS LES RÉSULTATS DU RGPH 2014" (in Arabic and French). High Commission for Planning, Morocco. 8 April 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
  2. ^ Team, Almaany. "ترجمة و معنى قنيطرة بالإنجليزي في قاموس المعاني. قاموس عربي انجليزي مصطلحات صفحة 1". www.almaany.com. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  3. ^ "Population légale d'après les résultats du RGPH 2014 sur le Bulletin officiel N° 6354". hcp.ma (in Arabic). Retrieved 2015-07-11.
  4. ^ Kénitra depuis 1912 Archived 2003-10-03 at the Wayback Machine (in French)
  5. ^ In Morocco by Edith Wharton, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1920
  6. ^ Port Lyautey, Chapter XX, The Mediterranean Area, Building the Navy's Bases in World War II, History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineer Corp, 1940-1946, Volume II, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON, p. 80[1]
  7. ^ "History of Port Lyautey".
  8. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 11 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  9. ^ "Kenitra Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
  10. ^ "Kenitra, Morocco Metro Area Population 1950-2020 – macrotrends.com". macrotrends.com.
  11. ^ . 6 February 2006 https://web.archive.org/web/20060206180040/http://www.uit.ac.ma//. Archived from the original on 6 February 2006. Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. ^ "'Africa's fastest train' steams ahead in Morocco".
  13. ^ "Stade Municipal de Kénitra – StadiumDB.com". stadiumdb.com.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 34°15′N 6°35′W / 34.250°N 6.583°W / 34.250; -6.583