Kenyan general election, 2007

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kenyan presidential election, 2007
Kenya
2002 ←
27 December 2007 → 2013

  Mwai Kibaki.jpg Raila Amolo Odinga.jpg
Candidate Mwai Kibaki Raila Odinga
Party PNU ODM
Popular vote 4,584,721 4,352,993
Percentage 46.42% 44.07%

Kenya Provinces 2007 elections.PNG

Presidential election results map. Green denotes provinces won by Kibaki, and Yellow denotes those won by Odinga.

President before election

Mwai Kibaki
PNU

Elected President

Mwai Kibaki
PNU

Coat of arms of Kenya.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Kenya
Foreign relations

General elections were held in Kenya on 27 December 2007,[1] electing the President, National Assembly and local councils.

The presidential elections were a two-horse race between incumbent Mwai Kibaki, running on a Party of National Unity (PNU) ticket and Raila Odinga, leader of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). They were strongly marked by tribalism, with Kibaki a member of the traditionally dominant Kikuyu ethnic group, gaining much support amongst the Kikuyu and neighbouring groups in central Kenya, including the Embu and Meru. Odinga, as a member of the Luo ethnic group, succeeded in creating a wider base by building a coalition with regional leaders from the Luhya in Western Kenya, Kalenjin from the Rift Valley and Muslim leaders from the Coast Province. Kibaki was declared the winner with 46% of the vote, and was sworn in at State House on 30 December. However, opposition leader Raila Odinga also claimed victory,[2][3] and civil unrest broke out resulting in the deaths of several hundred people and the displacement of up to 600,000. This was ended by the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, which led to Odinga being appointed as Prime Minister.

In the National Assembly elections, the ODM won 99 of the 208 seats, with the PNU finishing second with 43 seats. The Kenya African National Union, which had ruled the country from independence until 2002 was reduced to being the fourth-largest party with only 15 seats.

There is agreement in the international community that the elections were at least partially manipulated.[4] In July 2008, an exit poll commissioned by the US was released, revealing that Odinga was predicted to have won the presidency by a comfortable margin of 6%, 46% to 40%, well outside of the exit poll's 1.3% margin of error.[5]

Results[edit]

President[edit]

Candidate Party Votes %
Mwai Kibaki Party of National Unity 4,584,721 46.42
Raila Odinga Orange Democratic Movement 4,352,993 44.07
Kalonzo Musyoka Orange Democratic Movement–Kenya 879,903 8.91
Joseph Karani Kenya Patriotic Trust Party 21,171 0.21
Pius Muiru Kenya Peoples' Party 9,667 0.10
Nazlin Omar Workers Congress Party of Kenya 8,624 0.09
Kenneth Matiba Saba Saba Asili 8,046 0.08
David Waweru Ng'ethe Chama Cha Uma 5,976 0.06
Nixon Kukubo Republican Party of Kenya 5,927 0.06
Invalid/blank votes
Total 9,877,028 100
Registered voters/turnout 14,296,180
Source: African Elections Database

National Assembly[edit]

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Orange Democratic Movement 2,973,415 30.83 99 New
Party of National Unity 2,014,413 20.89 43 New
Orange Democratic Movement – Kenya 633,880 6.57 16 New
Kenya African National Union 613,864 6.36 15 –49
Safina 366,629 3.80 5 +3
National Rainbow Coalition 328,945 3.41 3
Democratic Party 237,205 2.46 2 –37
FORD–People 192,489 2.00 3 –11
Kenya African Democratic Development Union 190,051 1.97 1
Kenya National Democratic Alliance 162,538 1.69 1 +1
NARC–Kenya 158,752 1.65 4 New
Sisi Kwa Sisi 149,933 1.55 2 0
Chama Cha Uzalendo 115,243 1.19 2
United Democratic Movement 107,831 1.12 1 +1
Mazingira Green Party of Kenya 95,227 0.99 1 +1
New Ford Kenya 88,562 0.92 2 New
Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya 85,348 0.88 2 +2
FORD–Kenya 75,145 0.78 1 –20
FORD–Asili 66,013 0.68 1 –1
National Labour Party 51,887 0.54 1
The Independent Party 50,797 0.53 0
Social Democratic Party of Kenya 39,871 0.41 0 0
Kenya National Congress 39,840 0.41 0 0
Party of Hope 35,962 0.37 0
National Patriotic Party of Kenya 33,289 0.35 0
Labour Party of Kenya 33,008 0.34 0
Republican Alliance Party of Kenya 31,331 0.32 0
KADU–Asili 30,462 0.32 1
Agano Party 30,085 0.31 0
New Sisi Kwa Sisi Kenya 28,893 0.30 0
Chama Cha Mwananchi 27,438 0.28 0
Forum for Republican Party 26,333 0.27 0
United Democratic Party of Kenya 23,870 0.25 0
Green African Party 20,038 0.21 0
Dynamic Development Party 19,972 0.21 0
United Democrats of Peace And Integrity in Kenya 19,648 0.20 0
Community Development Party 18,994 0.20 0
Farmers Party 18,985 0.20 0
Federal Party of Kenya 17,491 0.18 0
Peoples Democratic Party 15,655 0.16 1
National Integrity Party 15,443 0.16 0
Republican Liberty Party 15,379 0.16 0
Shirikisho Party of Kenya 15,228 0.16 0
New Democrats 14,986 0.16 0
Peoples Party of Kenya 14,892 0.15 1 +1
Peoples' Solidarity Union of Kenya 14,315 0.15 0
New Revival Generation Party 14,302 0.15 0
United People's Congress 12,750 0.13 0
Pambazuka Party of Kenya 12,390 0.13 0
Kenya Citizens Congress 12,347 0.13 0
Growth and Development Party 11,786 0.12 0
Social Party for Advancement and Reforms – Kenya 11,764 0.12 0
National Democratic Alliance 11,357 0.12 0
Kenya Social Congress 11,223 0.12 0 0
Liberal Democratic Movement 10,886 0.11 0
Republican Party of Kenya 10,494 0.11 0
Generation Alliance Party of Kenya 9,808 0.10 0
Daraja Ya Wakenya Party 9,719 0.10 0
National Alliance Party 9,112 0.09 0
Saba Saba Asili 8,301 0.09 0
Kifagio Party of Kenya 8,106 0.08 0
Progressive Party of Kenya 8,081 0.08 0
Kenya People's Party 8,067 0.08 0
Chama Cha Uma Party 7,367 0.08 0
New Kanu Alliance Party of Kenya 7,010 0.07 0
Mass Party of Kenya 6,600 0.07 0
National Progressive Party 6,106 0.06 0
Vipa Progressive Alliance 5,652 0.06 0
Common Wealth Development Party of Kenya 5,573 0.06 0
Workers Congress Party of Kenya]] 5,386 0.06 0
New Aspiration Party 5,172 0.05 0
Democratic Representative Party 5,020 0.05 0
Kenya Affiliated Democratic Unity 4,531 0.05 0
Kenya Nationalist Peoples Democratic Party 4,099 0.04 0
Freedom Party of Kenya 3,795 0.04 0
Movement for Democratic Advancement Party of Kenya 2,496 0.03 0
Citizen Democratic Party of Kenya 2,485 0.03 0
Democratic Labour Party of Kenya 2,439 0.03 0
Communal Democracy Party of Kenya 2,347 0.02 0
National Dynamic Development Party 2,252 0.02 0
National Renewal People's Party 2,009 0.02 0
Kenya Patriotic Trust Party 1,878 0.02 0
The National Integration Party of Kenya 1,799 0.02 0
Kenya Union of National Alliance of Peace 1,457 0.02 0
National Party of Kenya 1,339 0.01 0
Chama Cha Muafaka Na Mwangaza 1,250 0.01 0
Democracy Assistance Party 1,220 0.01 0
National Liberation Party 1,089 0.01 0
National Conservative Party of Kenya 1,081 0.01 0
Chama Cha Utu 985 0.01 0
Allied Democratic Party of Kenya 976 0.01 0
Alliance for the Restoration of Democracy in Kenya 923 0.01 0
Kenya National Liberation Party 898 0.01 0
Moral Integrity Party 885 0.01 0
Party for Economic Change And Democracy 879 0.01 0
The Nuru Party 832 0.01 0
Green Social Democratic Party of Kenya 706 0.01 0
Kenya Cultural Alliance 699 0.01 0
National Star Party of Kenya 691 0.01 0
Social Welfare Alliance Party of Kenya 620 0.01 0
Wakulima Party of Kenya 598 0.01 0
Jubilee Peoples Party of Kenya 547 0.01 0
Muungano Party 517 0.01 0
Pan Africa Assemblies 475 0.00 0
Reform Party of Kenya 390 0.00 0
Forum for Orange Democratic Change Party 318 0.00 0
Peoples Patriotic Party of Kenya 301 0.00 0
Democratic Community Party 233 0.00 0
Restoration Democrats of Kenya 219 0.00 0
Universal Democratic Party of Kenya 204 0.00 0
Kenya Political Caucus Party of Kenya 203 0.00 0
Kenya Peoples Convention Party 181 0.00 0
The National Republican Party of Kenya 172 0.00 0
Kenya Republican Reformation Party 76 0.00 0
Movement for Democratic Advancement Party 62 0.00 0
Union of Democratic Party 50 0.00 0
United Party of Democracy 46 0.00 0
Invalid/blank votes
Total 9,645,206 100 208 –4
Registered voters/turnout
Source: IDE

Aftermath[edit]

Kibaki, of the Kikuyu tribe, and Odinga, of the Luo tribe, were supported by the two largest ethnic groups in Kenya. Fifteen minutes after Kibaki was announced president, the Luo began violent attacks on the Kikuyu. Slums were the first places affected by the political outrage. Hundreds of Kikuyu homes were burned and Kikuyu families were forced to grab their belongings and flee. Within a day, nearly all businesses were closed and the usually bustling streets of Nairobi were empty. The country had plunged into a small war. During January and February 2008, hundreds of thousands of people were displaced from their homes, and more than 1,000 people died from the post-election violence. Crime exploded in densely populated areas, such as Luoland, settlements in the Rift Valley, and intra-urban slums in Mombasa. In Kisumu and parts of Nairobi, the streets saw constant rioting until the end of January. Farms were looted and roads were blocked, leaving people unable to work, farmers and commuters alike. Many members of large ethnic groups attacked anyone whom they felt didn’t belong. Minorities and people that had come from other countries, even 40 years ago, were common targets. Some people even fled to Uganda and other nearby countries to escape the social unrest. One sector greatly affected by the political unrest was tourism. Flights and tours were cancelled, companies withdrew from Kenya, and many people lost their job to layoffs. The international media covered the tragedies extensively, giving the outside world the impression that the entire country was amidst a bloody battle, when truly, parts of Kenya were untouched by violence. The loss Kenya suffered from the lack of visitation equals approximately $47.6 million.[6] The fragile state of the economy affected surrounding countries as well.

By March 2008, the country was starting to recover and by April, it was stable. Mwai Kibaki remained President and Raila Odinga was named Prime Minister. The parliamentary vote was cancelled in three of the 210 constituencies, but the other 207 elected or re-elected members without suspicion of election fraud. Prior to 2007, hostility surrounding politics in Kenya existed on a much smaller scale. In 1991, when multiparty politics was introduced, violence became known as an election time tradition. However, the fighting and aggression demonstrated in December, January, and February 2007 was and has been unmatched by any election related uprising.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ECK sets poll date as Raila maintains lead The Standard, 26 October 2007
  2. ^ "Dozens dead in Kenya poll clashes", BBC news(BBC), 31 December 2007.
  3. ^ "Protests as Kenya's president begins 2nd term after allegations of rigging, deadly violence", Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 31 December 2007.
  4. ^ "Kenya election was rigged, U.S. envoy says". CTV.ca. 7 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  5. ^ The Nation, 11 July 2008 http://web.archive.org/web/20080724031125/http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/nmgcontententry.asp?category_id=2&newsid=127059 US-funded exit poll says Raila won elections
  6. ^ Lafargue, Jerome (2009). General Election in Kenya, 2007. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki Na Nyota.