Kenyan general election, 2007

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Kenyan presidential election, 2007
2002 ←
27 December 2007 → 2013

  Mwai Kibaki.jpg Raila Amolo Odinga.jpg
Candidate Mwai Kibaki Raila Odinga
Popular vote 4,584,721 4,352,993
Percentage 46.42% 44.07%

Kenya Provinces 2007 elections.PNG

Presidential election results map. Green denotes provinces won by Kibaki, and Yellow denotes those won by Odinga.

President before election

Mwai Kibaki

Elected President

Mwai Kibaki

Coat of arms of Kenya.svg
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General elections were held in Kenya on 27 December 2007,[1] electing the President, National Assembly and local councils.

The presidential elections were a two-horse race between incumbent Mwai Kibaki, running on a Party of National Unity (PNU) ticket and Raila Odinga, leader of the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). They were strongly marked by tribal hostility, with Kibaki a member of the traditionally dominant Kikuyu ethnic group, gaining much support amongst the Kikuyu and neighbouring groups in central Kenya, including the Embu and Meru. Odinga, as a member of the Luo ethnic group, succeeded in creating a wider base by building a coalition with regional leaders from the Luhya in Western Kenya, Kalenjin from the Rift Valley and Muslim leaders from the Coast Province. Kibaki was declared the winner with 46% of the vote, and was sworn in at State House on 30 December. However, opposition leader Raila Odinga also claimed victory,[2][3] and civil unrest broke out resulting in the deaths of several hundred people and the displacement of up to 600,000. This was ended by the National Accord and Reconciliation Act, which led to Odinga being appointed as Prime Minister.

In the National Assembly elections, the ODM won 99 of the 208 seats, with the PNU finishing second with 43 seats. The Kenya African National Union, which had ruled the country from independence until 2002 was reduced to being the fourth-largest party with only 15 seats. Only 71 of the 190 sitting MPs were re-elected, twenty ministers lost their seats and a record 15 female MPs were elected.[4]

There is agreement in the international community that the presidential elections were at least partially manipulated.[5] In July 2008, an exit poll commissioned by the US was released, revealing that Odinga was predicted to have won the presidency by a comfortable margin of 6%, 46% to 40%, well outside of the exit poll's 1.3% margin of error.[6]


Presidential candidates[edit]

Incumbent president Mwai Kibaki declared his intention to run for re-election on 26 January 2007, although he had previously declared prior to the 2002 elections that he needed only one term as president.[7] On 16 September 2007, Kibaki announced that he would run as the candidate of a new alliance called the Party of National Unity, which would include a number of parties, including KANU,[8][9] the Democratic Party, NARC–Kenya, FORD-Kenya, Ford–People and Shirikisho among others.[9]

The Orange Democratic Movement–Kenya (ODM–Kenya) alliance was expected to field the strongest challenger to Kibaki; the main parties originally affiliated to ODM–Kenya were the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and KANU.[10] At the time of the 2002 elections, the LDP had been part of the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC) movement backing Kibaki, but its ministers were dismissed from the cabinet after the 2005 constitutional referendum.[11] KANU and LDP had originally teamed up for the 2005 referendum under the banner Orange Democratic Movement,[12] but former president Daniel arap Moi was among the KANU faction opposing involvement with the ODM–Kenya coalition.[13] As a result, ODM–Kenya split in two in August 2007, one remaining as ODM–Kenya and led by Kalonzo Musyoka, the other going by the name Orange Democratic Movement (ODM). KANU subsequently left the coalition entirely, and Moi announced his support for Kibaki, his former political enemy, in late August.[14] Uhuru Kenyatta followed suit and announced his support for Kibaki in mid-September. KANU did not nominate as presidential candidate, although it contested the National Assembly elections.[15]

Several ODM members vied for presidency, including Musyoka, Raila Odinga, Kenyatta (before KANU's withdrawal), William Ruto, Najib Balala, Musalia Mudavadi and Joseph Nyagah.[16] Following the August 2007 split, ODM–Kenya appointed Musyoka as its candidate on 31 August and the ODM selected Odinga as its candidate on 1 September.[17][18][19]

Presidential candidates presented their nomination papers on 14 and 15 November to the Electoral Commission of Kenya (ECK) and nine candidates were cleared to be on the ballot in December.[20] All nine presidential candidates also ran for a parliamentary seat as required by Kenyan law; the presidential election winner needed to also win a parliamentary seat to be named president.[21]

National Assembly[edit]

The ninth parliament was dissolved on Monday 22 October 2007,[22] with the election date of 27 December announced on 26 October 2007 by the ECK. The ECK initially set a deadline of 19 November 2007 for submitting the candidate lists in order to prevent candidates from defecting after failing to gain nominations from their parties, but later retracted and allowed defections to minor parties.[23] The ODM, PNU and ODM–K held their primary elections on 16 November, with all three termed as chaotic and being marred by irregularities and violence. Numerous candidates defected to smaller parties after failing to get candidature by their respective parties,[24] including Nobel laureate Wangari Maathai, who failed to gain a PNU nomination, and former Interior Minister Chris Murungaru, who lost out to a little-known trader.[25]

There were 14,296,180 registered voters; 68.8% of the electorate were aged between 18–40, with the remaining 31.2% being those over 40.[21]



Kibaki began his presidential campaign on 30 September at Nyayo Stadium in Nairobi.[26] Odinga launched his campaign in Uhuru Park on 6 October 2007.[27][28] On the same day, three ODM supporters were shot (one of them fatally), allegedly by bodyguards of Stanley Livondo, who was running as the PNU candidate for Odinga's seat in the National Assembly. Livondo was arrested, along with two of his bodyguards and later released.[28] Pius Muiru, a bishop and the leader of Kenya People's Party (KPP), officially launched his bid for the presidency on 21 October 2007 at Kamukunji grounds.[29]

Two cabinet ministers, first Health Minister Charity Ngilu and then Regional Co-operation Minister John Koech, backed Odinga in October; Kibaki dismissed Ngilu from the cabinet.[30]

National Assembly[edit]

A record 2,548 candidates contested the National Assembly elections, more than double the 1,033 that ran in 2002.[31][21] The 269 female candidates was also a record.[31]

The ODM had the highest number of candidates with 190, followed by Kenya National Democratic Alliance (KENDA) with 170, the PNU (135), ODM–K (135), KADDU (97) KANU (91), Safina (88), NARC (73), the Democratic Party (86) and NARC–Kenya (59). A total of 108 parties fielded parliamentary candidates, another record.[31] For the first time, no party fielded a candidate in every constituency; every previous election had seen KANU contest every seat.[31] The Kitutu Masaba Constituency had the highest number of candidates at 33 and all 210 constituencies had at least two candidates, meaning that there were no uncontested seats, another first.[21]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls in late October put support for Odinga at 50%, with Kibaki at 39%, and Musyoka at 8%.[32] A poll released in early November put Odinga at 45%, Kibaki at 41% and Musyoka at 11%, while on 23 November a poll placed Odinga and Kibaki at about the same level, with 43.6% and 43.3% respectively.[33]

Date Pollster Kibaki Musyoka Odinga Mudavadi Ruto Kenyatta
October 2006 Steadman International 41% 20% 13% 3% 5%
December 2006 Steadman International 42% 20% 14% 3% 5%
March 2007 Steadman International 51% 14% 17% 2% 2% 2%
April 2007 IRI 44.3% 15.3% 18.7% 2.7% 2.6% 3.5%
June 2007 RMS 45% 14% 28% 4% 3% 4%
July 2007 Steadman International 45% 11% 25% 3% 2% 2%
August 2007 Infotrak/Harris Interactive 42% 11% 25% 8% 6% 1%
August 2007 Steadman International 47% 13% 36% 1% 1%
September 2007 Steadman International 38% 8% 47%
13 October 2007 Steadman International 37% 8% 53%
23 October 2007 Steadman International 39% 8% 50%
9 November 2007 Steadman International 41% 11% 45%
21 November 2007 Consumer Insight 41.4% 14.7% 40.7%
17 November 2007 Gallup 42% 11% 45%
23 November 2007 Steadman International 43.3% 11.4% 43.6%
7 December 2007 Steadman International 42% 10% 46%
18 December 2007 Steadman International 43% 10% 45%



An exit poll conducted from 310 polling stations in 139 of the 210 constituencues showed Kibaki gaining 50.3% of the vote compared to 40.6% for Odinga. On the other hand, early results published by the Kenyan media gave Odinga a narrow lead.[34] Odinga held a strong lead in vote counting on 28 December,[35] and the ODM declared victory on 29 December;[36] however, as more results were announced on the same day, the gap between the two candidates narrowed.[35][36] Early on 30 December, Odinga accused the government of fraud, urged Kibaki to concede defeat, and called for a recount.[37] The ECK declared Kibaki the winner later on 30 December, placing him ahead of Odinga by about 232,000 votes.[38][39] According to Odinga, at least 300,000 votes for Kibaki were falsely included in his total.[40] ECK Chairman Samuel Kivuitu said that while irregularities had occurred, they were a matter for the courts, not the Electoral Commission.[41] Following the Commission's declaration of his victory, Kibaki was sworn in for his second term later on the same day,[39][42] saying that he had been told by his people that he had won, calling for the "verdict of the people" to be respected and for "healing and reconciliation" to begin.[39]

Kivuitu said that there were some problems with the count, noting that in one constituency voter turnout was reported as 115%,[43] although this was later clarified by Kivuitu appearing in an interview by Nation Television due to a double entry of one polling station in Maragua Constituency on the parliamentary tally and not the presidential tally. According to the European Union's head election observer, Alexander Graf Lambsdorff, the elections were "flawed"[35] and the ECK had failed to establish "the credibility of the tallying process to the satisfaction of all parties and candidates."[44] The United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary, David Miliband, said that he had "real concerns" about the elections. While the United States initially congratulated Kibaki and called for the results to be respected,[45] it also expressed concern,[46] and on 2 January 2008 a spokesman for the US State Department declined to confirm US recognition of Kibaki's victory.[47] Kivuitu said on 2 January that he had been pressured by PNU and ODM–K (Kibaki's and Kalonzo Musyoka's parties) into announcing the results without delay, declaring Kibaki the winner; claiming that he did not personally know who really won.[48]

Within minutes of the Commission's declaration of Kibaki's victory, tribe-based rioting and violence, primarily directed against Kikuyus, broke out across Kenya,[35] and the government suspended live television coverage for some days.[35][45][49][50] Odinga alleged that "a clique of people around Kibaki" sought to rig the election, but said that democracy "is unstoppable like the flow of the Nile". The ODM announced its intention to hold a ceremony on 31 December in which Odinga would be declared the "people's president", but police said that this could incite violence and that Odinga could be arrested if the ceremony occurred.[45] Odinga then delayed this, but called for a million-strong rally on 3 January 2008 and for his supporters to wear black armbands as a show of mourning.[51][52]

Odinga said that the ODM would not negotiate with Kibaki unless he resigned, because to do so would mean acknowledging Kibaki's legitimacy; he also said that, unless stopped, the "ruling clique" could rig the next elections in five years as well, and that he was not afraid of being arrested, having been jailed many times in the past.[53] For his part, Kibaki emphasised the importance of peace, stability, and tolerance in his 2008 New Year's message, speaking of the elections as a concluded event and warning that law-breakers would be punished.[54]

Candidate Party Votes %
Mwai Kibaki Party of National Unity 4,584,721 46.42
Raila Odinga Orange Democratic Movement 4,352,993 44.07
Kalonzo Musyoka Orange Democratic Movement–Kenya 879,903 8.91
Joseph Karani Kenya Patriotic Trust Party 21,171 0.21
Pius Muiru Kenya Peoples' Party 9,667 0.10
Nazlin Omar Workers Congress Party of Kenya 8,624 0.09
Kenneth Matiba Saba Saba Asili 8,046 0.08
David Waweru Ng'ethe Chama Cha Uma 5,976 0.06
Nixon Kukubo Republican Party of Kenya 5,927 0.06
Invalid/blank votes
Total 9,877,028 100
Registered voters/turnout 14,296,180
Source: African Elections Database

National Assembly[edit]

Preliminary results showed that Vice-President Moody Awori and Wangari Maathai both lost their seats. Other notable politicians with the same fate included Mutahi Kagwe, Musikari Kombo, Simeon Nyachae, Nicholas Biwott, Chris Murungaru, Mukhisa Kituyi, Raphael Tuju, Kipruto Kirwa, Njenga Karume and Gideon Moi, the son of former president Daniel arap Moi.[55][56][57][58]

The elections were cancelled in Kamukunji and Kilgoris.[59]

Party Votes % Seats +/–
Orange Democratic Movement 2,973,415 30.83 99 New
Party of National Unity 2,014,413 20.89 43 New
Orange Democratic Movement – Kenya 633,880 6.57 16 New
Kenya African National Union 613,864 6.36 15 –49
Safina 366,629 3.80 5 +3
National Rainbow Coalition 328,945 3.41 3
Democratic Party 237,205 2.46 2 –37
FORD–People 192,489 2.00 3 –11
Kenya African Democratic Development Union 190,051 1.97 1
Kenya National Democratic Alliance 162,538 1.69 1 +1
NARC–Kenya 158,752 1.65 4 New
Sisi Kwa Sisi 149,933 1.55 2 0
Chama Cha Uzalendo 115,243 1.19 2
United Democratic Movement 107,831 1.12 1 +1
Mazingira Green Party of Kenya 95,227 0.99 1 +1
New Ford Kenya 88,562 0.92 2 New
Party of Independent Candidates of Kenya 85,348 0.88 2 +2
FORD–Kenya 75,145 0.78 1 –20
FORD–Asili 66,013 0.68 1 –1
National Labour Party 51,887 0.54 1
The Independent Party 50,797 0.53 0
Social Democratic Party of Kenya 39,871 0.41 0 0
Kenya National Congress 39,840 0.41 0 0
Party of Hope 35,962 0.37 0
National Patriotic Party of Kenya 33,289 0.35 0
Labour Party of Kenya 33,008 0.34 0
Republican Alliance Party of Kenya 31,331 0.32 0
KADU–Asili 30,462 0.32 1
Agano Party 30,085 0.31 0
New Sisi Kwa Sisi Kenya 28,893 0.30 0
Chama Cha Mwananchi 27,438 0.28 0
Forum for Republican Party 26,333 0.27 0
United Democratic Party of Kenya 23,870 0.25 0
Green African Party 20,038 0.21 0
Dynamic Development Party 19,972 0.21 0
United Democrats of Peace And Integrity in Kenya 19,648 0.20 0
Community Development Party 18,994 0.20 0
Farmers Party 18,985 0.20 0
Federal Party of Kenya 17,491 0.18 0
Peoples Democratic Party 15,655 0.16 1 +1
National Integrity Party 15,443 0.16 0
Republican Liberty Party 15,379 0.16 0
Shirikisho Party of Kenya 15,228 0.16 0
New Democrats 14,986 0.16 0
Peoples Party of Kenya 14,892 0.15 1 +1
Peoples' Solidarity Union of Kenya 14,315 0.15 0
New Revival Generation Party 14,302 0.15 0
United People's Congress 12,750 0.13 0
Pambazuka Party of Kenya 12,390 0.13 0
Kenya Citizens Congress 12,347 0.13 0
Growth and Development Party 11,786 0.12 0
Social Party for Advancement and Reforms – Kenya 11,764 0.12 0
National Democratic Alliance 11,357 0.12 0
Kenya Social Congress 11,223 0.12 0 0
Liberal Democratic Movement 10,886 0.11 0
Republican Party of Kenya 10,494 0.11 0
Generation Alliance Party of Kenya 9,808 0.10 0
Daraja Ya Wakenya Party 9,719 0.10 0
National Alliance Party 9,112 0.09 0
Saba Saba Asili 8,301 0.09 0
Kifagio Party of Kenya 8,106 0.08 0
Progressive Party of Kenya 8,081 0.08 0
Kenya People's Party 8,067 0.08 0
Chama Cha Uma Party 7,367 0.08 0
New Kanu Alliance Party of Kenya 7,010 0.07 0
Mass Party of Kenya 6,600 0.07 0
National Progressive Party 6,106 0.06 0
Vipa Progressive Alliance 5,652 0.06 0
Common Wealth Development Party of Kenya 5,573 0.06 0
Workers Congress Party of Kenya 5,386 0.06 0
New Aspiration Party 5,172 0.05 0
Democratic Representative Party 5,020 0.05 0
Kenya Affiliated Democratic Unity 4,531 0.05 0
Kenya Nationalist Peoples Democratic Party 4,099 0.04 0
Freedom Party of Kenya 3,795 0.04 0
Movement for Democratic Advancement Party of Kenya 2,496 0.03 0
Citizen Democratic Party of Kenya 2,485 0.03 0
Democratic Labour Party of Kenya 2,439 0.03 0
Communal Democracy Party of Kenya 2,347 0.02 0
National Dynamic Development Party 2,252 0.02 0
National Renewal People's Party 2,009 0.02 0
Kenya Patriotic Trust Party 1,878 0.02 0
The National Integration Party of Kenya 1,799 0.02 0
Kenya Union of National Alliance of Peace 1,457 0.02 0
National Party of Kenya 1,339 0.01 0
Chama Cha Muafaka Na Mwangaza 1,250 0.01 0
Democracy Assistance Party 1,220 0.01 0
National Liberation Party 1,089 0.01 0
National Conservative Party of Kenya 1,081 0.01 0
Chama Cha Utu 985 0.01 0
Allied Democratic Party of Kenya 976 0.01 0
Alliance for the Restoration of Democracy in Kenya 923 0.01 0
Kenya National Liberation Party 898 0.01 0
Moral Integrity Party 885 0.01 0
Party for Economic Change And Democracy 879 0.01 0
The Nuru Party 832 0.01 0
Green Social Democratic Party of Kenya 706 0.01 0
Kenya Cultural Alliance 699 0.01 0
National Star Party of Kenya 691 0.01 0
Social Welfare Alliance Party of Kenya 620 0.01 0
Wakulima Party of Kenya 598 0.01 0
Jubilee Peoples Party of Kenya 547 0.01 0
Muungano Party 517 0.01 0
Pan Africa Assemblies 475 0.00 0
Reform Party of Kenya 390 0.00 0
Forum for Orange Democratic Change Party 318 0.00 0
Peoples Patriotic Party of Kenya 301 0.00 0
Democratic Community Party 233 0.00 0
Restoration Democrats of Kenya 219 0.00 0
Universal Democratic Party of Kenya 204 0.00 0
Kenya Political Caucus Party of Kenya 203 0.00 0
Kenya Peoples Convention Party 181 0.00 0
The National Republican Party of Kenya 172 0.00 0
Kenya Republican Reformation Party 76 0.00 0
Movement for Democratic Advancement Party 62 0.00 0
Union of Democratic Party 50 0.00 0
United Party of Democracy 46 0.00 0
Vacant 2
Invalid/blank votes
Total 9,645,206 100 210 0
Registered voters/turnout
Source: IDE


Kibaki, of the Kikuyu tribe, and Odinga, of the Luo tribe, were supported by the two largest ethnic groups in Kenya. Fifteen minutes after Kibaki was announced president, Luo began violent attacks on Kikuyu. Slums were the first places affected by the political outrage, with hundreds of Kikuyu homes burned and Kikuyu families forced to grab their belongings and flee. Within a day, nearly all businesses were closed and the usually bustling streets of Nairobi were empty. During January and February 2008, hundreds of thousands of people were displaced from their homes, and more than 1,000 people died from the post-election violence. Crime exploded in densely-populated areas, such as Luoland, settlements in the Rift Valley, and intra-urban slums in Mombasa. In Kisumu and parts of Nairobi, the streets saw constant rioting until the end of January. Farms were looted and roads were blocked, leaving people unable to work, farmers and commuters alike. Many members of large ethnic groups attacked anyone whom they felt didn't belong; minorities and people that had come from other countries were common targets. Some people even fled to Uganda and other nearby countries to escape the social unrest. One sector greatly affected by the political unrest was tourism; flights and tours were cancelled, companies withdrew from Kenya, and many people lost their job due to lay-offs. The international media covered the tragedies extensively, giving the outside world the impression that the entire country was amidst a bloody battle, when truly, parts of Kenya were untouched by violence. The loss Kenya suffered from the lack of visitation equals approximately $47.6 million.[60] The fragile state of the economy affected surrounding countries as well.

After being sworn in as President, Kibaki named a partial cabinet on 8 January 2008, composed of 17 MPs from his party PNU and ODM–Kenya which entered into a coalition agreement, along with KANU. A number of further cabinet slots were left temporarily open, presumably to give space for negotiations with the opposition ODM, which immediately challenged the constitutionality of the new government.

Position Minister
Vice-President Stephen Kalonzo Musyoka
Minister for Home Affairs
Minister of State for Defence Mohamed Yusuf Haji
Minister of State for Provincial Administration and Internal Security
Minister for Education Sam Ongeri
Minister for Energy Kiraitu Murungi
Minister for Finance Amos Kimunya
Minister for Foreign Affairs Moses Wetangula
Minister for Information and Communications Samuel Poghisio
Minister for Justice and Constitutional Affairs Martha Karua
Minister for Local Government Uhuru Kenyatta
Minister for Public Service Asman Kamama
Minister for Roads and Public Works John Michuki
Minister for Science and Technology Noah Wekesa
Minister of State for Special Programmes Naomi Shaban
Minister for the East African Community Wilfred Machage
Minister for Transport Chirau Ali Mwakwere
Minister for Water and Irrigation John Munyes

By March 2008, the country was starting to recover and by April, it was stable. Kibaki remained President and Odinga was named Prime Minister. The National Assembly results were cancelled in three of the 210 constituencies. Prior to 2007, hostility surrounding politics in Kenya existed on a much smaller scale. In 1991, when multi-party politics was introduced, violence became known as an election-time tradition. However, the fighting and aggression demonstrated in December, January, and February 2007 was and has been unmatched by any election related uprising. In August 2012, the Nakuru County Peace Accord was signed, a treaty designed to address sources of ethnic conflict and violence in the Rift Valley region of Kenya.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ ECK sets poll date as Raila maintains lead The Standard, 26 October 2007
  2. ^ Dozens dead in Kenya poll clashes BBC News, 31 December 2007
  3. ^ Protests as Kenya's president begins 2nd term after allegations of rigging, deadly violence Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 31 December 2007
  4. ^ Election had its bright side despite the gloom The Standard, 14 January 2008
  5. ^ Kenya election was rigged, U.S. envoy says CTV, 7 January 2008
  6. ^ US-funded exit poll says Raila won elections The Nation, 11 July 2008
  7. ^ Kibaki declares he is ready for a second presidential term The Standard, 27 January 2007
  8. ^ Kenyan president announces new party affiliation for re-election bid Associated Press, 16 September 2007
  9. ^ a b Kenya president eyes re-election BBC News, 16 September 2007
  10. ^ ODM’s long and bumpy journey The Standard, 7 October 2007
  11. ^ Raila to President: Spare me the blame, I was in your Cabinet for only three years Daily Nation, 20 October 2007
  12. ^ Q&A: Kenya political crisis BBC News, 8 December 2007
  13. ^ No Let-Up in Kanu Row Over ODM Daily Nation, 17 November 2006
  14. ^ Moi throws weight behind Kibaki BBC News, 28 August 2007
  15. ^ Ex-rival backs Kibaki re-election BBC News, 14 September 2007
  16. ^ "It's make or break as ODM leaders start forum to decide on candidate", Daily Nation, 11 January 2007
  17. ^ Kenya's Opposition Chooses Presidential Candidate VOA News, 31 August 2007
  18. ^ Kenya: Kalonzo Picked to Hoist ODM-K Flag The Nation, 1 September 2007
  19. ^ Kenya: It's Raila for President East Africa Standard, 1 September 2007
  20. ^ Nine to fight it out as Kibaki cleared The Standard, 16 November 2007
  21. ^ a b c d The ECK final list The Standard, 29 November 2007
  22. ^ Curtain falls on Ninth Parliament The Standard, 23 October 2007
  23. ^ ECK and parties in nominations deal Daily Nation, 6 November 2007
  24. ^ Chaos mars Kenyan party primaries BBC News, 20 November 2007
  25. ^ Upset in Kenyan primaries News24, 18 November 2007
  26. ^ Kibaki: I deserve another term AFP, 30 September 2007
  27. ^ ODM party launches its Presidential campaigns Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, 6 October 2007
  28. ^ a b Kenya opposition kicks off campaign, says 3 supporters shot Associated Press, 6 October 2007
  29. ^ Bishop tells voters to send off Kibaki and his team The Standard, 22 October 2007
  30. ^ Kenyan presidential hopeful gains favour AFP, 12 October 2007
  31. ^ a b c d 2,600 candidates in battle for MPs’ seats Daily Nation, 29 November 2007
  32. ^ Kenya: Could the president be ousted? The Economist, 1 November 2007
  33. ^ Kibaki neck-and-neck with challenger Reuters, 23 November 2007
  34. ^ Early results show Kibaki trailing in Kenya vote Reuters, 28 December 2007
  35. ^ a b c d e Disputed Vote Plunges Kenya Into Bloodshed The New York Times, 31 December 2007
  36. ^ a b "Kenya opposition declares victory AFP, 29 December 2007
  37. ^ Kenya: Raila Calls for Vote Recount The East African Standard, 30 December 2007
  38. ^ Kenyan police try to block opposition rally Reuters, 3 January 2008
  39. ^ a b c Kibaki named victor in Kenya vote BBC News, 20 December 2007
  40. ^ Kenyans riot after 'rigged' election AFP, 31 December 2007
  41. ^ Tribal violence breaks out in Kenya over disputed election result International Herald Tribune, 30 December 2007
  42. ^ Incumbent Declared Winner in Kenya's Disputed Election The Washington Post, 31 December 2007
  43. ^ Kenya election results expected today SABC News, 30 December 2007
  44. ^ Kibaki re-elected as president of Kenya Reuters, 30 December 2008
  45. ^ a b c Odinga rejects Kenya poll result BBC News, 31 December 2007
  46. ^ Kenya election riots leave more than 120 dead Daily Telegraph, 31 December 2007
  47. ^ US in Diplomatic Push to End Kenya Violence VOA News, 2 January 2007
  48. ^ I acted under a pressure, says Kivuitu East Africa Standard, 2 January 2008
  49. ^ Kenya: Violence Erupts After Kibaki Sworn in The Nation, 30 December 2007
  50. ^ Kenya: Death and Chaos After Kibaki Win The Nation, 31 December 2007
  51. ^ Kenya: Police Claim Shoot To Kill Orders Associated Press, 31 December 2007
  52. ^ Will Kenya's Vote Lead to Tribal War? TIME, 31 December 2007
  53. ^ Raila’s terms for talks with Kibaki on crisis Daily Nation, 1 January 2008
  54. ^ Kibaki warns law breakers of stern action Daily Nation, 1 January 2008
  55. ^ Parliamentary preliminary results Kenya Broadcasting corporation, 28 December 2007
  56. ^ VP, Ministers lose parliamentary seats The Standard, 28 December 2007
  57. ^ 'Rattler' John Michuki Survives in Kangema but Newton Kulundu falls in Western Kenya London News, 28 December 2007
  58. ^ President’s powerful lieutenants lose seats The Standard, 29 December 2007
  59. ^ Changing standing orders should top agenda as Parliament convenes Daily Nation, 9 January 2008
  60. ^ Lafargue, Jerome (2009). General Election in Kenya, 2007. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki Na Nyota.