Kepler-90

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Kepler-90
Observation data
Epoch 2000      Equinox 2000
Constellation Draco
Right ascension 18h 57m 44.038s[1]
Declination +49° 18′ 18.58″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 14
Characteristics
Spectral type G0V
Astrometry
Distance 2545[2] ly
(780[2] pc)
Details
Mass 1.2 ± 0.1[2] M
Radius 1.2 ± 0.1[2] R
Surface gravity (log g) 4.4[2] cgs
Temperature 6080+260
−170
[2] K
Metallicity [Fe/H] −0.12 ± 0.18[2] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i) 4.6 ± 2.1[2] km/s
Age ~2 Gyr
Other designations
KIC 11442793, KOI-351
Database references
SIMBAD data
Extrasolar Planets
Encyclopaedia
data
KIC data

Kepler-90 is a G-type main sequence star located about 2,545 light-years (780 pc) from Earth in the constellation of Draco. It is notable for having a planetary system that has the second-largest number of observed exoplanets in the Milky Way.

Nomenclature and history[edit]

Prior to Kepler observation, Kepler-90 had the 2MASS catalogue number 2MASS J18574403+4918185. In the Kepler Input Catalog it has the designation of KIC 11442793, and when it was found to have a transiting planet candidate it was given the Kepler object of interest number of KOI-351.

The star's planetary companion was discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission, a mission tasked with discovering planets in transit around their stars. The transit method that Kepler uses involves detecting dips in brightness in stars. These dips in brightness can be interpreted as planets whose orbits move in front of their stars from the perspective of Earth. The name Kepler-90 derives directly from the fact that the star is the catalogued 90th star discovered by Kepler to have confirmed planets.

The designation b, c, d, e, f, g, and h derives from the order of discovery. The designation of b is given to the first planet orbiting a given star, followed by the other lowercase letters of the alphabet.[3] In the case of Kepler-90, there were seven planets discovered, so designations up to h are used.

Stellar characteristics[edit]

Kepler-90 is a G-type star that is approximately 120% the mass and radius of the Sun. It has a surface temperature of 6080 K, and an estimated age of around 2 billion years. In comparison, the Sun is about 4.6 billion years old[4] and has a surface temperature of 5778 K.[5]

The star's apparent magnitude, or how bright it appears from Earth's perspective, is 14. Therefore, it is too dim to be seen with the naked eye.

Planetary system[edit]

The Kepler-90 planetary system[6]
Companion
(in order from star)
Mass Semimajor axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
b 0.074 ± 0.016 7.008151 89.4° 1.31 R
c 0.089 ± 0.012 8.719375 89.68° 1.18 R
d 0.32 ± 0.05 59.73667 89.71° 2.88 R.
e 0.42 ± 0.06 91.93913 89.79° 2.67 R
f 0.48 ± 0.09 124.9144 0.01 89.77° 2.89 R
g <0.8 MJ 0.71 ± 0.08 210.60697 89.8° 8.13 R
h <1.2 MJ 1.01 ± 0.11 331.60059 89.6° 11.32 R

Kepler-90 is notable for similarity of the configuration of its planetary system to that of the Solar System, in which rocky planets are nearer the star and gas giants farther away. The five inner planets are either super-Earths or mini-Neptunes due to their size. The two outer planets are gas giants. The outermost known planet orbits its host star at about the same distance as Earth from the Sun.

Kepler-90 was used to test the "validation by multiplicity" confirmation method for Kepler planets. Six inner planets met all the requirements for confirmation. The outermost planet showed transit-timing variations, indicating that it is a real planet as well.[7]

The Kepler-90 system is the only seven-planet candidate system from Kepler. Additionally, the inner five planets range in size from that of Earth to smaller than Neptune, and the outer two planets are the size of gas giants. All seven known planet candidates orbit within 1 AU from Kepler-90. A Hill stability test and an orbital integration of the system show that it is stable.[8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cutri, R. M.; et al. (2003). "2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources". VizieR On-line Data Catalog. Bibcode:2003yCat.2246....0C. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kepler-90". NASA Exoplanet Archive. Retrieved July 16, 2016. 
  3. ^ Hessman, F. V.; Dhillon, V. S.; Winget, D. E.; Schreiber, M. R.; Horne, K.; Marsh, T. R.; Guenther, E.; Schwope, A.; Heber, U. (2010). "On the naming convention used for multiple star systems and extrasolar planets". arXiv:1012.0707Freely accessible [astro-ph.SR]. 
  4. ^ Fraser Cain (16 September 2008). "How Old is the Sun?". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  5. ^ Fraser Cain (15 September 2008). "Temperature of the Sun". Universe Today. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 
  6. ^ "Kepler Discoveries". NASA. Retrieved 19 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Lissauer, Jack J.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Rowe, Jason F.; Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Agol, Eric; Borucki, William J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Kolbl, Rea; Star, Kimberly M.; Steffen, Jason H.; Torres, Guillermo (25 February 2014). "Validation of Kepler's Multiple Planet Candidates. II: Refined Statistical Framework and Descriptions of Systems of Special Interest". The Astrophysical Journal. 784: 44. arXiv:1402.6352Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...784...44L. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/44. 
  8. ^ Schmitt, J. R.; Wang, J.; Fischer, D. A.; Jek, K. J.; Moriarty, J. C.; Boyajian, T. S.; Schwamb, M. E.; Lintott, C.; Lynn, S.; Smith, A. M.; Parrish, M.; Schawinski, K.; Simpson, R.; LaCourse, D.; Omohundro, M. R.; Winarski, T.; Goodman, S. J.; Jebson, T.; Schwengeler, H. M.; Paterson, D. A.; Sejpka, J.; Terentev, I.; Jacobs, T.; Alsaadi, N.; Bailey, R. C.; Ginman, T.; Granado, P.; Guttormsen, K. V.; Mallia, F.; Papillon, A. L.; Rossi, F.; Socolovsky, M.; Stiak, L. (2014-06-26). "Planet Hunters. VI. An Independent Characterization of KOI-351 and Several Long Period Planet Candidates From the Kepler Archival Data". The Astronomical Journal. 148 (28). arXiv:1310.5912v3Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014AJ....148...28S. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/2/28.