One of the world's primary language families
Pre-contact distribution of Keresan languages
Keresan //, also Keres //, is a dialect cluster spoken by the Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico. The varieties of each of the seven Keres pueblos are mutually intelligible with its closest neighbors. There are significant differences between the Western and Eastern groups, which are commonly counted as separate languages.
- Eastern Keres: total of 4,580 speakers (1990 census)
- Cochiti Pueblo Kotyit dialect: 384 speakers (1990 census)
- San Felipe Pueblo – Santo Domingo Pueblo:
- Katishtya dialect: 1,560 speakers (1990 census)
- Kewa dialect: 1,880 speakers (1990 census)
- Zia Pueblo – Santa Ana Pueblo:
- Tsia dialect: 463 speakers (1990 census)
- Tamaiya dialect: 229 speakers (1990 census)
- Western Keres: total of 3,391 speakers (1990 census)
Keres is a language isolate. Edward Sapir grouped it together with a Hokan–Siouan stock. Morris Swadesh suggested a connection with Wichita. Joseph Greenberg grouped Keres with Siouan, Yuchi, Caddoan, and Iroquoian in a superstock called Keresiouan. None of the proposals has gained the consensus of linguists.
The chart below contains the consonants of the proto-Keresan (or pre-Keresan) from Miller & Davis (1963) based on a comparison of Acoma, Santa Ana, and Santo Domingo, as well as other features of the dialects combined from The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo (1964), Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics (1987), and The Phonemes of Keresan (1946).
Labial Dental Palatal Retroflex Dental/Palatal Velar Glottal Plosive unaspirated p t tʃ tʂ ts k ʔ aspirated pʰ tʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ tsʰ kʰ palatalized tʲ, tʲʰ, tʼʲ glottalized[clarification needed] pʼ tʼ tʃʼ tʂʼ tsʼ kʼ Fricative plain s ʃ ʂ h glottalized[clarification needed] sʼ ʃʼ ʂʼ Sonorant plain w r j l glottalized wˀ rˀ jˀ plain, nasal m n nʲ glottalized, nasal mˀ nˀ
The consonant *tʂʼ only surfaces as an alternate form of underlying *tʂ or *tʂʰ.
Basic form Aspirated Glottalized Fronted t tʰ t’ tʃ tʰ tʃʰ t’ tʃ’ k kʰ k’ ts kʰ tsʰ k’ ts’ tʂ – tʂʼ t tʂʰ tʂʰ tʂʼ tʃʰ
The vowel chart contains the vowel phonemes and allophones from the information of the Keresan dialects combined from The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo (1964), The Phonemes of Keresan (1946), and Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics (1987).
Acoma Keres has a relatively complex tone system.[clarification needed]
Due to his tone deafness, Franz Boas encountered difficulties studying tonal languages such as Laguna; however, after he left, his student Elsie Clews Parsons stayed behind and documented Laguna language and stories.
The structure is C(C)V(V).
History and usage
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Keresan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Davis, Irvine (1964). The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo, Smithsonian Bulletin 191, Anthropological Papers, No. 69.
- A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics. 1987.
- Spencer, Robert F. (1946). The Phonemes of Keresan.
- Marmon Silko, Leslie (1981). Storyteller, p.254. Arcade. ISBN 1-55970-005-X.
- "Native Language Spotlighted During Coca-Cola Super Bowl Ad". Indian Country Today Media Network. 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-02-26.
- Boas, Franz. (1923). "A Keresan text", International Journal of American Linguistics, 2 (3/4), 171–180.
- Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
- Davis, Irvine. (1963). "Bibliography of Keresan linguistic sources", International Journal of American Linguistics, 29 (3), 289–293.
- Davis, Irvine. (1964). The Language of Santa Ana Pueblo. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 191); Anthropological papers (No. 69). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
- Davis, Irvine. (1966). ["Review of Acoma grammar and texts by W. R. Miller"], American Anthropologist, 68 (3), 810–811.
- Davis, Irvine. (1968). ["Review of Acoma grammar and texts by W. R. Miller"], Language, 44 (1), 185–189.
- Davis, Irvine. (1974). "Keresan-Caddoan comparisons", International Journal of American Linguistics, 40 (3), 265–267.
- Hawley, Florence. (1950). "Keresan patterns of kinship and social organization", American Anthropologist, 52 (4), 499–512.
- Kroskrity, Paul V. (1983). "On male and female speech in the Pueblo Southwest", International Journal of American Linguistics, 49, 88–91.
- Maring, Joel. (1975). "Speech variation in Acoma Keresan", In D. Kinkade, K. L. Hale, & O. Werner (Eds.), Linguistics and anthropology in honor of C. F. Voegelin (pp. 473–485). Lisse: Peter de Ridder.
- Mickey, Barbara H. (1947). "Acoma kinship terms", Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12 (2), 249–256.
- Miller, Wick R. (1959). "Spanish loanwords in Acoma: I", International Journal of American Linguistics, 25 (3), 147–153.
- Miller, Wick R. (1959). "Some notes on Acoma kinship terminology", Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 15 (2), 179–184.
- Miller, Wick R. (1960). "Spanish loanwords in Acoma: II", International Journal of American Linguistics, 26 (1), 41–49.
- Miller, Wick R. (1965). Acoma Grammar and Texts, University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 40). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
- Miller, Wick R.; & Davis, Irvine. (1963). "Proto-Keresan phonology", International Journal of American Linguistics, 29 (4), 310–330.
- Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
- Sims, Christine P.; & Valiquette, Hilaire. (1990). "More on male and female speech in (Acoma and Laguna) Keresan", International Journal of American Linguistics, 56 (1), 162–166.
- Spencer, Robert F. (1946). "The phonemes of Keresan", International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (4), 229–236.
- Spencer, Robert F. (1947). "Spanish loanwords in Keresan", Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 3 (2), 130–146.
- Walker, Willard. (1967). "Review of Acoma grammar and texts by W. R. Miller", International Journal of American Linguistics, 33 (3), 254–257.
- White, Leslie A. (1928). "Summary report of field work at Acoma", American Anthropologist, 30 (4), 559–568.
- Yumitani, Yukihiro. (1987). "A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology", Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 12, 135–139.
- Nathan Romero, "Chochiti Keres: About Me and My Language: The politics of saving a vanishing language: The politics of writing", Language Documentation Training Center, University of Hawaii, Manoa (UHM)
- John Menaul (1880). Child's catechism in English and Laguna. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Grammatical and Lexical Notes on the Keres Language (Acoma-Laguna Dialect) of the Keresan Stock
- English-Queres Language Vocabulary
- Keres Language Project – Keres Audio Dictionary