Keretapi Tanah Melayu
|Dates of operation||1885–|
|Track gauge||1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge|
|Length||1,677 km (1,042 mi)|
|Headquarters||Jalan Sultan Hishamuddin, 50621 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia|
|Datuk Dr. Rameli bin Musa, Chairman|
Mohd Rani Hisham Samsudin, CEO
|Services||Owner and operator|
|Parent||Minister of Finance Incorporated|
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTM) (Jawi: كريتاڤي تانه ملايو برحد) or Malayan Railways Limited is the main rail operator in Peninsular Malaysia. The railway system dates back to the British colonial era, when it was first built to transport tin. Previously known as the Federated Malay States Railways (FMSR) and the Malayan Railway Administration (MRA), Keretapi Tanah Melayu acquired its current name in 1962. The organisation was corporatised in 1992, but remains wholly owned by the Malaysian government.
- 1 Railway network
- 2 Infrastructure
- 3 Rolling stock
- 4 Unit / Subsidiaries
- 5 Property and advertising
- 6 Non-rail Subsidiaries
- 7 Modernisation
- 8 Board of directors
- 9 Previous and current logos
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge railway network in Peninsular Malaysia which is controlled by KTMB consists of two main lines and several branch lines. Most of the lines are made out of ballasted system and locally made concrete sleepers, which had replaced wooden sleepers as early as 1982 for the Kerdau-Jerantut and Sungai Yu-Tumpat lines.
West Coast Line
The West Coast Line runs from Padang Besar railway station close to the Malaysia-Thailand Border in Perlis (where it connects with the State Railway of Thailand) to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore. It is called the West Coast line because it serves the West Coast states of Peninsular Malaysia. The line runs through most of the major stations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, such as KL Sentral in Kuala Lumpur and Butterworth railway station in Butterworth, Penang.
East Coast Line
The East Coast Line runs between Gemas railway station, in Negeri Sembilan and Tumpat railway station, in Kelantan. Gemas is the rail junction between the West Coast line and the line itself. Like the West Coast Line, it is called the East Coast Line (Malaysia) because it serves two of Peninsular Malaysia's East Coast states, namely Pahang and Kelantan. In fact, it does not run along the coast at all and only meets the South China Sea when it terminates at Tumpat railway station. It runs through the interior, often through deep jungle, thus earning the nickname Jungle Railway. Currently Terengganu is the only state in Peninsular Malaysia not served by the KTM railway network, though it will be so in the upcoming ECRL project.
Branch lines in operation
There are several branch lines running from the two main lines.
Intercity & Freight
Commuter & Freight
- Port Klang - Kuala Lumpur - Batu Caves (Part of Batu Caves-Port Klang Route)
- Padang Besar - Butterworth (Part of KTM Komuter Northern Sector)
- Padang Rengas-Bukit Mertajam (Part of KTM Komuter Northern Sector)
- Port Klang - Pulau Indah
- Kempas - Tanjung Pelepas
- Kempas - Pasir Gudang
- Butterworth - North Butterworth Container Terminal
Disused branch lines
- Pasir Mas - Rantau Panjang - Hat Yai (part of the east coast line, the international train service here has been terminated because of certain disputes between the State Railway of Thailand and KTM. The route from Hat Yai to Sungai Golok remains in use by State Railway of Thailand) (Also reused as an emergency route by KTMB for the E&O trains)
- Seremban - Port Dickson (Abandoned and partially dismantled)
Dismantled branch lines
- Falim - Tronoh
- Kuang - Batu Arang - Batang Berjuntai
- Tampin - Melaka Town
- Taiping - Port Weld (Kuala Sepetang)
- Bukit Kuda - Jeram - Kuala Selangor
- Bahau - Kuala Pilah
- Tapah Road - Teluk Intan - Teluk Intan Wharf
- Salak Selatan - Ampang Junction - Sultan Street (Pudu) (closed and permanent way acquired by Ampang Line LRT)
- Ampang Junction - Ampang (closed and permanent way acquired by Ampang Line LRT)
- Singapore, Woodlands Train Checkpoint - Bukit Timah - Tanjong Pagar (partially dismantled)
Track and electrification
The total length of the network was 1,699 km, however due to the closure and subsequent removal of the section of tracks between Tanjong Pagar railway station and Woodlands Train Checkpoint, the new total length of the network is 1,677 km.
The West Coast main line is double tracked and electrified to 25 kV AC between Padang Besar railway station on the Malaysian-Thai border and Butterworth railway station, and south-wards to the Gemas railway station. The branch lines between Batu Junction and Batu Caves Komuter station, and between Port Klang Junction and the Port Klang Komuter station are also double-tracked and electrified.
The remainder of the West Coast main line from Gemas railway station to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore, as well as the entire East Coast Line from Gemas railway station to Tumpat railway station, is still being in the process of being double tracked and electrified.
Following the consolidation of all state railway entities in Malaya, Malayan Railway inherited a fleet of mostly British-made steam locomotives, a variation of locomotives introduced to Malaya since its first railway line went into operation.
Dieselisation in Malaya began immediately after MR's formation with the launch of its first diesel engine, a Class 15 shunter, in 1948. Efforts by MR to fully convert to diesel power between the 1950s and 1970s effectively drove steam locomotives out of service - with whatever left of the fleet massively retired in 1972. KTM drew its diesel rolling stock from a multitude of locomotive companies from England, Japan, Canada, and more recently, India, Germany and China. The company had also ventured in the use of DMUs (railbus, railcars) in the 1950s to 1970s and again from the 1980s to 1990s, though these have been long discontinued. DMUs are now being introduced on the East Coast Line and presently unelectrified sections of the West Coast Line to replace locomotive hauled services.
Electric trains were introduced in 1995 with the launch of the KTM Komuter commuter service. Consisting of three models of 3-car EMUs, the Komuter EMUs, were for a long time the only electric trains in Malaysia. In 2010, introduction of the KTM ETS services from Kuala Lumpur to Ipoh brought electric traction to long distance travel. As of present, most of the West Coast Main Line are run by ETS and on some sections, Komuter services except for the Gemas to Johor Bahru section, where double tracking works are still in the process.
The following is a list of locomotives in the KTM fleet - some have since been retired:
- Diesel locomotives
- 20 Class 15 diesel-electric shunters (15101 - 15120), manufactured by English Electric's Vulcan Foundry in Lancashire, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1948
- 15 Class 17 diesel-hydraulic shunters (17101 - 17105), manufactured by Kisha Seizō, Japan. Brought in 1964
- 10 Class 18 diesel-electric shunters (18101 - 18110), manufactured by Brush HMA, Hull, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1978
- 10 Class 19 diesel-electric shunters (19101 - 19110), manufactured by Hitachi, Japan. Brought in 1983
- 26 Class 20 diesel-electric mainline locomotives (20101 - 20126), manufactured by English Electric's Vulcan Foundry in Lancashire, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1957-1958
- 25 Class 21 diesel-hydraulic mainline locomotives, manufactured by Kisha Seizō, Japan. Brought in two batches: the first, 21101 - 21115, came in 1965, followed by 21201 - 21210 three years later.
- 40 Class 22 diesel-electric mainline locomotives (22101 - 22140), manufactured by a consortium of English Electric, Associated Electrical Industries (A.E.I.), and Metro-Cammell in Saltley, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1971-1972
- 15 Class 23 diesel-electric mainline locomotives (23101 - 23115), manufactured by Hitachi, Japan. Brought in 1983
- 26 Class 24 diesel-electric mainline locomotives (24101 - 24126), manufactured by Toshiba - Kawasaki, Japan. Brought in 1987
- 17 Class 25 diesel-electric mainline locomotives, manufactured by EMD in London, Ontario, Canada. They came in two batches: 25101 - 25112 in 1990, and another five, 25201 - 25205 in 2002.
- 20 Class 26 diesel-electric mainline locomotives (26101 - 26120), model Blue Tiger manufactured by Adtranz in Germany in association with GE. Brought in 2003 - 2004
- 20 Class 29 diesel-electric mainline locomotives (29101 -29120), manufactured by DLoco Locomotive and Rolling Stock Co. of Dalian, China. Brought in 2005 - 2006
- 28 YDM4s on lease from Indian Railways, manufactured by Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi, India brought into Malaysia in the late 1990s. Leased until 31 December 2015
- 5 YDM4 Indian Railways brought into Malaysia in 2009, refurbished by Southern Railway's Golden Rock Railway Workshop, Tiruchirappalli, India. Leased until 31 December 2015
- KTM "Hybrid" trains for KLS-Rawang and Kajang-Rawang.
- Diesel multiple units
- 13 Class 61 DMUs manufactured by CRRC Zhuzhou
- Electric locomotives
- 2 Class 40 electric mainline locomotives (EL001 @ 40001 - EL002 @ 40002), manufactured by CRRC Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co.,Ltd.. Brought into Malaysia in 2015 (EL001 arrived on July 2015 and EL002 arrived on September 2015). Leased Locomotives by Industrial Collaboration Programme Agreement (ICP) Offset Project 5 – New Green Technology under the procurement of 10 KTM Class 93 6-car electric train sets. On-going 2-Years trial operational service (EL001 since 31 May 2016 and EL002 since 13 July 2016).
- Electric multiple units
- 18 Class 81 EMUs (numbers EMU 01 - EMU 18) manufactured by Jenbacher Transport in Austria-Hungary (1994/1995)
- 22 Class 82 EMUs (numbers EMU 41 - EMU 62) manufactured by Union Carriage and Wagon in South Africa (1996/1997)
- 22 Class 83 EMUs (numbers EMU 19 - EMU 40) manufactured by Hyundai (HPID) (1996/1997)
- 5 KTM Class 91 (numbers ETS 01 - ETS 05) 6-car electric train sets by Marubeni Corporation. (2010)
- 38 KTM Class 92 (numbers SCS 01 - SCS 38) 6-car EMU manufactured by CSR Zhuzhou. (2012)
- 19 KTM Class 93 (numbers ETS 201 - ETS 219) 6-car EMU manufactured by CSR Zhuzhou.
Locomotive, ETS, Carriage & Wagon Workshop
- Batu Gajah - Batu Gajah Fleet Main Workshop
- Klang - Klang Fleet Depot (Specially for Class 26 & Class 29)
Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Running Depot
- Batu Gajah - Batu Gajah Fleet Depot
- Bukit Tengah - Bukit Tengah Fleet Depot
- Padang Besar - Padang Besar Fleet Depot
- Port Klang - Port Klang Fleet Depot
- Gemas - Gemas Fleet Depot
- Kuala Lipis - Gua Musang Fleet Depot
- Tumpat - Tumpat Fleet Depot
- Kempas - Kempas Baru Fleet Depot
Closed/Disused Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Running Depot
- Gua Musang - Gua Musang Fleet Depot (Relocated to Kuala Lipis)
- Ipoh - Falim Fleet Depot (Relocated to Batu Gajah)
- Tanjong Pagar - Singapore Fleet Depot (Closed since 1 July 2011, relocated to Kempas Baru)
- Prai - Prai Fleet Depot (Relocated to Bukit Tengah)
- Kuala Lumpur - Kuala Lumpur Sentral Fleet Depot
Electrical Train Set Depot
- Batu Gajah - Batu Gajah ETS Depot
Electrical Multiple Unit Depot
- Kuala Lumpur - Sentul EMU Depot
- Rawang - Rawang EMU Depot
- Seremban - Seremban EMU Depot
- Port Klang - Port Klang EMU Depot
Unit / Subsidiaries
KTM Intercity & ETS
KTM Intercity (Malay: KTM Antarabandar) is an intercity passenger railway service operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu within the regions of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. It operates local mail trains, shuttle trains as well as express trains in unelectrified sections of the network, hence it uses diesel traction.
The trains once dominated the network but have been replaced by ETS services where electrification has taken place. It still plays a central role in the east coast, where there are no plans to electrify the line.
KTM ETS, which stands for Electric Train Service, operates as an inter-city rail service between the cities of Gemas and Padang Besar on the Malaysia-Thai border along the West Coast Line, where the line has been electrified. It has cut journey times compared to its diesel powered predecessor, owing to its higher operational speed of 140 km/h. This also makes it the fastest metre-guage service worldwide.
The central sector consists of the Seremban Line and Port Klang Line. In addition to the main lines, there are shuttle services from Sentul to Batu Caves and Rawang to Tanjong Malim. Since 2018, KTM Komuter also operates an airport train service - the Skypark Link linking KL Sentral to the Subang Airport. The fleet presently consists of Class 81, Class 83 and Class 92 EMUs.
The Northern Sector consists of two routes, namely the Bukit Mertajam-Padang Rengas route as well as the Butterworth-Padang Besar route.
KTM Komuter is a heavily utilised mode of transportation by commuters working in Kuala Lumpur as the service is an alternative for road travel, which is occasionally hampered by congestion. Virtually all KTM Komuter stops offer "Park & Ride" parking lots for those who drive to and from the station or halt. KTM Komuter ridership is estimated to be about 50 million passengers in 2010.
KTM Komuter is currently the most profitable passenger service offered by KTMB, contributing MYR 100 million to group revenue in 2010, higher than KTM Intercity's profit of MYR 70.94 million in the same year.
KTMB runs 37 freight train services daily of which about 80% were concentrated in the northern sector. In line with the strategy to focus more on containerised and long-haul cargoes, KTMB now carries maritime containers, cement and food as main commodities. In 2006, the freight revenue increased 5.2% to RM113.0 million.
KTM Distribution (KTMD)
Its core business is in the provision of express parcel distribution services to the commercial, industrial and administrative sectors and it operates within Malaysia and Singapore. Parcel distribution is carried out through its door-to-door service or from point to point through its station-to-station service. The company is also licensed by the Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission as a courier service provider, which enables it to carry letters and documents up to 2 kg. This service has so far been monopoly of the Postal Department. The company owns an 18,000 sq ft (1,700 m2). freehold property in Sri Damansara, from which it earns warehouse rental income.
Property and advertising
Though considered as non-core businesses, KTMB benefited greatly from Property and Advertising segments in terms of value creation. In 2006, KTMB generated RM22.4 million from property rental and advertising activities.
The property joint ventures were progressing comparatively well under the prevailing economic climate. As regards the Sentul Raya Development, the Maple Condominium was handed over to purchasers in August 2006 while the Saffron Condominium is under construction and expected to be completed in 2007. Meanwhile, KL Sentral Development has embarked on construction of luxury condominiums, new office towers and life-style centre whilst the construction of the Marine View Hotel in Port Dickson is expected to be completed in 2007. To cater for demand from surrounding residential areas, KTMB's partner for the Prai Perdana Development is in the process of constructing a new retail complex and the project is expected to be completed in 2007.
Through KTMB's collaboration with Ganad Media Sdn. Bhd. the advertising revenue had increased by 9.7% to RM1.47 million compared to the previous year. Several new advertising structures have been built in Klang Valley while more on-train advertising media like panels and hand-grips were made available on top of the increased demand for 'wrap-around' advertising on the commuter trains.
- Multimodal Freight
Multimodal Freight Sdn. Bhd., incorporated in 1988, was licensed as a Government approved Container Haulier in 1991, and went on to obtain the Government approved Multimodal Transport Operator (MTO) status in 1999. The company operates a fleet of 225 Prime Movers and 1,300 trailer of both 20-feet and 40-feet configurations. The fleet is deployed at all major seaports and the inland ports of Ipoh and Nilai.
- KTMB Car Park
Formerly known as KTMB (Brickfields Yard) Sdn. Bhd. the company was incorporated in 1994 and was renamed KTMB (Car Park) Sdn. Bhd. in 1995. With over 70 employees, the company operates 16 car parks at selected train stations in Malaysia through its subsidiary KTMB Car Park Sdn Bhd. The subsidiary is looking to expand parking space in Seremban and Sungai Buloh stations.
Main Article: Railway electrification in Malaysia
Since the corporatisation of KTMB, a programme of modernisation has been underway. In 1989, it embarked on the double-tracking and electrification of the trunk line between Rawang and Seremban, the branch lines between Batu Junction and Sentul and between Kuala Lumpur and Port Klang, allowing KTM Komuter services to start running in 1995. The next major project was the Rawang-Ipoh double tracking and electrification project, which started in 2000, but delays held back it’s completion to 2008. This enabled ETS services to start in 2010, bringing electric traction to intercity travel in Malaysia for the first time. In 2002, the Malaysian government proposed the ambitious project of electrifying and double-tracking the entire western line and awarded contracts in 2003. The project was however put on hold by Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi until March 2007 when Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak announced the project's revival. In April 2007, the government announced that contracts for certain portions of the project had been awarded. Since then, work has progressed rapidly, and presently the West Coast Line is electrified from Padang Besar to Gemas, with the remaining section to Johor Bahru set to be electrified in 2022.
- Rehabilitation of 327 km-long meter gauge tracks from Paloh to Singapore and from Slim River to the main Seremban line in Malaysia (1988–1994) (US$70 million)
- Electrification and double tracking of the Rawang-Seremban route (1990–1994) (US$62 million)
- Electrification and double tracking of the Kuala Lumpur-Port Klang railway route, including spur lines to Subang Jaya and Sentul (1991–1994) (US$66 million)
- Construction of railway bridges, road over bridges and underpasses along the Rawang-Kajang route (1991–1994) (US$6 million)
- Construction of railway bridges, road over bridges and underpasses along the Kajang-Seremban route (1991–1994) (US$16 million)
- Widening of railway tunnels near Seremban (1994–1995) (US$4 million)
- Construction of railway culverts and box pushing along the Nilai-Seremban route (1994–1995) (US$4 million)
- Track linking Port Klang to Pulau Indah (1997–1999) (US$4 million)
- Construction of the Port of Tanjung Pelepas, a rail link in Johor (1999–2002) (US$121 million)
- Track works at Kuala Lumpur Sentral station (1999–2001) (RM14.3 million)
- Electrification and double tracking of the Rawang-Ipoh route (2000-2008) (RM2.57 billion)
- Electrification and double tracking of the Sentul-Batu Caves route (2006-2010) (RM515 million)
- Electrification and double tracking of the Seremban-Gemas route (2008-2013) (RM3.45 billion)
- Electrification and double tracking of the Ipoh-Padang Besar route (2008-2014) (RM12.5 billion)
- Electrification and double tracking of Subang Jaya-Subang Airport route (2013-2018) (RM521 million)
- Electrification and double tracking of Gemas-JB route (2018-2022)
- Rehabilitation of tracks in the Klang Valley(KVDT) (2016-2024)
- Outer Ring Railway Service to connect all suburbs in the Klang Valley without going through the city center.
- Construction of the Subang Jaya - Sungai Buloh Link which will act as a freight bypass to avoid freight trains from having to enter the Kuala Lumpur Komuter network. Works are divided into two phases; Phase 1 is from Subang Jaya - Subang Airport, Phase 2 is from Subang Airport - Sungai Buloh. As of now, Phase 1 had already been completed.
- A new integrated station named Penang Sentral will be built which will connect KTM Railway, monorail, bus and ferry service in one building at Butterworth.
- Extension of the ETS service to Hat Yai by 2021
Board of directors
- Chairman: Y.B Dato' Ir Haji Nawawi bin Hj. Ahmad.
- CEO: Y. Brs Encik Mohd Rani Hisham Samsudin.
- Non-independent, non-executive directors: Y. Brs Puan Norazura binti Tadzim, Y.Bhg Datuk Ruhaizah binti Mohamed Rashid, Y. Brs Encik Selvarajoo Manikam.
- Independent non-executive directors: Y. Bhg Dato' Sri Zakaria bin Hj Bahari, Y. Brs Haji Rosli bin Abdullah, Y. Brs Encik Harun bin Hj Johari, Y. Bhg Datuk Haji Kamaruzaman bin Hj Mohd Noor, Y. Bhg Dato' Sr Ahmad Zainuddin bin Hj Jamaluddin.
- Heads of strategic business units (headed by general managers):
- Commuter services: Khair Johari ( Acting GM ).
- Intercity and ETS services: Justine Jude.
- Freight: Mohd Din ( Acting GM )
Previous and current logos
- P. Vijian (13 February 2009). "Five Locomotives For KTM From India". Bernama. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- Kng Zheng Guan (15 May 2009). "KTMB running hybrid trains to deal with congestion". The Star. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- Nathan, Darshini M (6 October 2007). "Back on track: KTMB upgrades to be competitive". Bizweek, The Star. Italic or bold markup not allowed in:
- "KTM Distribution Company Info". KTM Berhad. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "Multimodal Freight Sdn. Bhd. Company Info". KTM berhad.[permanent dead link]
- "KTMB Car Park Company Info". KTM Berhad. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- "KTM projects introduction". Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- "Rehabilitation of double track could be ready in 5 years: Loke". Malaysiakini. 3 September 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "Commuter line for suburbs". The Star. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter