Keretapi Tanah Melayu

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Malayan Railway
Keretapi Tanah Melayu
كريتاڤي تانه ملايو
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Logo.svg
Overview
HeadquartersKuala Lumpur
Reporting markKTM
LocalePeninsular Malaysia
Dates of operationSince 1885 - present–
Technical
Track gauge1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) metre gauge
Length1,700 km (1,100 mi)
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad
Government-linked company
Founded1992
HeadquartersJalan Sultan Hishamuddin, 50621 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Key people
Datuk Dr. Rameli bin Musa, Chairman KTMB Datuk Ir Kamarulzaman Zainal, CEO KTMB
ServicesKTM INTERCITY

KTM KOMUTER

KTM KARGO
Websitewww.ktmb.com.my

Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) (Jawi: كريتاڤي تانه ملايو برحد) or Malayan Railways Limited is the main rail operator in Peninsular Malaysia. The railway system dates back to the British colonial era, when it was first built to transport tin. Previously known as the Federated Malay States Railways (FMSR) and the Malayan Railway Administration (MRA), Keretapi Tanah Melayu acquired its current name in 1962.[1] The organisation was corporatised in 1992, but remains wholly owned by the Malaysian government.

History[edit]

In 1948, the FMSR was renamed the Malayan Railways. The railways had been devastated by the Japanese invasion of Malaya, and efforts were taken to rebuild the two main lines, but many branch lines were abandoned in the process.

The MR began to modernise the equipment with the ordering of diesel locomotives and railcars to replace steam hauled services, and the first diesel locomotive entered service in 1957. The railcars entered service in 1960, initially on short haul services[2]. Rapid services were introduced later, cutting travel times from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur down to six hours, which was competitive at the time.[3] MR and later KTM continued ordering more diesel locomotives through the decades, rendering the old steam locomotives redundant. The last steam locomotive was withdrawn from service in 1974.

The 1970s saw the closure of many branch lines, such as the Batu Arang branch in 1971 and the historic Taiping to Port Weld branch in 1972. The Port Dickson branch was converted to freight only operation in 1972, although seasonal passenger service did continue for a short while.[4] However, construction did continue for a new line to Subang Airport used to transport fuel, which opened in 1980.

Railbuses were introduced in the 1980s for short haul commuter services. They were deployed in the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur to Ipoh, Ipoh to Butterworth, Gemas to Mentakab and Kulai to Singapore services[4]. On certain routes such as Kulai to Singapore, the railbuses were faster than conventional trains, and in this instance saved travel time of 15 minutes.[4] They lasted until the introduction of KTM Komuter in 1995, which took over commuter services in the Klang Valley.

KTM was corporatised in 1992, with all assets now under the ownership and management of the Railway Assets Corporation (RAC). The company runs as a private enterprise although owned and subsidised by the Malaysian government. There were attempts by private companies to take over the operations since then, but such proposals were rejected by the Malaysian government.[5]

The 1990s saw the start of another modernization programme. Proposals were made to electrify the West Coast line, which started with the Klang Valley area. Electric trains made their debut on 3 August 1995 with KTM Komuter, with services from Port Klang to Sentul and Rawang to Seremban. Under this programme, existing stations were renovated or rebuilt and new stations were built.

The programme was faced with delays throughout the 2000s, with the government postponing many electrification projects. However, from 2007 onwards there was a renewed effort to electrify the west coast line. The completion of such electrification projects from Padang Besar to Gemas to date has allowed the commencement of electrified intercity services in the form of ETS. As the projects were completed in stages, the KTM Komuter and KTM ETS services were expanded over the years to take advantage of the upgraded lines. The East Coast line, which had not seen upgrades for many years, will see upgrades in the form of rehabilitated track, new DMUs and rebuilt stations by 2021.

Railway network[edit]

A KTM Intercity train in Singapore

The 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in) gauge network consists of two main lines and several branch lines.

West Coast Line[edit]

The West Coast Line runs from the Malaysia-Thailand Border, where it connects with the State Railway of Thailand, to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore, serving the West Coast states of Peninsular Malaysia. The line runs through most of the major stations in Peninsular Malaysia, such as Gemas, KL Sentral, Ipoh, Butterworth and Padang Besar railway station.

East Coast Line[edit]

The East Coast Line branches off from the West Coast line at Gemas, running to Tumpat in Kelantan, serving two of Peninsular Malaysia's East Coast states, namely Pahang and Kelantan. Despite its name, it does not run along the coast at all and only meets the South China Sea when it reach at Tumpat railway station. It runs through the interior, often through deep jungle, thus earning the nickname Jungle Railway.

Branch lines[edit]

There are several branch lines running from the two main lines. Some are mixed traffic, catering to passenger and freight traffic while others only cater to freight trains.

  • Port Klang - Kuala Lumpur - Batu Caves (Mixed Traffic)
  • Butterworth - Bukit Mertajam (Mixed Traffic)
  • Subang Jaya - Terminal Skypark (Komuter)
  • Port Klang - Pulau Indah (Freight)
  • Butterworth - North Butterworth Container Terminal (Freight)
  • Kempas Baru - Tanjung Pelepas (Freight)
  • Kempas Baru - Pasir Gudang (Freight)

Infrastructure[edit]

The total network spans 1677 km. The total length of the network was 1,700 km, however due to the closure and subsequent removal of the section of tracks between Tanjong Pagar railway station and Woodlands Train Checkpoint, the network is now shorter.

The West Coast line is double tracked and electrified between Padang Besar and Gemas, along with all branch lines used for passenger service along this stretch. As part of the upgrades, all level crossings have been removed and modern signaling installed.

The stations along these line are a combination of heritage stations from the colonial era, such as Ipoh railway station and Kuala Lumpur railway station, and modern stations that were built when the line was double tracked, such as Taiping, Butterworth, Arau station.

The remainder of the West Coast main line from Gemas Station to Johor Bahru Sentral Station is still being in the process of being double tracked and electrified under the Gemas - Johor Bahru Electrified Double Track Project.

The East Coast line is single tracked. Having not seen much upgrades over the years, the line is considerably less modern than the upgraded sections of the West Coast line. Level crossings are still prevalent and the traditional token signaling system is still used. The stations along this line are older than smaller. Although the line will remain single tracked, rehabilitation works are underway to replace the worn track and many stations are also being upgraded.

Most of the lines use concrete sleepers, which had replaced wooden sleepers from 1982 for the Kerdau-Jerantut and Sungai Yu-Tumpat lines and became more widespread after upgrading works in recent years.

When the East Coast Line rehabilitation work and West Coast line double tracking is complete, the network will exclusively use concrete sleepers.

Rolling stock[edit]

List of Shunters
Class Image Manufacturer Year Built Built Numbers Type Status
16 North British Locomotive

Company

1955 6 16101-16106 Diesel-Hydraulic Decommissioned
17 Kisha Seizo 1964 15 17101-17105 Diesel-Hydraulic Decommissioned
18 Brush HMA 1978 10 18101-18110 Diesel-Electric Decommissioned
19 Hitachi 1983 10 19101-19110 Diesel-Electric In Service
List of Mainline Diesels
Class Image Manufacturer Year Built Built Numbers Type Status
20 KTM Class 20.jpg Vulcan Foundry 1957 26 20101-20126 Diesel-Electric Decommissioned
21 Ktm class 21.jpg Kisha Seizo 1965

1968

25 21101-21115

21201-21210

Diesel-Hydraulic Decommissioned
22 KTM class 22.jpg English Electric

Associated Electrical Industries

Metro-Cammell

1971 40 22101-22140 Diesel-Electric Decommissioned
23 KTM Class 23.jpg Hitachi 1983 15 23101-23115 Diesel-Electric In Service
24 KTM Class 24.jpg Toshiba 1987 26 24101-24126 Diesel-Electric In Service
25 KTM Class 25.jpg Electro-Motive Diesel 1990

2002

17 25101-25112

25201-25205

Diesel-Electric In Service
26 KTM Class 26.jpg Adtranz 2003 20 26101-26120 Diesel Electric In Service
29 KTMB class 29 29117 1.jpg Dalian Locomotive

& Rolling Stock

2005 20 29101-29120 Diesel Electric In Service
YDM4 KTM train heading north, Singapore - 20101113.jpg Diesel Locomotive

Works

1996 33 6333-6897 Diesel Electric Exported
List of Diesel Multiple Units
Class Image Manufacturer Year built Type Status
27 KTM class 27 railcar.jpg Commonwealth Engineering 1960 Diesel-Electric Railcar Decommissioned
28 Ktm class 28 railcar.jpg Hitachi 1966 Diesel-Electric Railcar Decommissioned
Railbus KTM railbus.jpg Ganz Mavag 1988 Diesel Railbus Decommissioned
61 KTM class 61.jpg CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive 2019 Diesel-Electric

Multiple Unit

Testing
List of KTM Komuter Electric Multiple Units
Class Image Manufacturer Year built Built Numbers Status
81 Class 81 KTM EMU 14 Komuter train, KL sentral Kuala Lumpur.jpg Jenbacher 1994 18 EMU 01-EMU 18 In service
82 KTM Komuter Class 82.jpg Union Carriage & Wagon 1996 22 EMU 41-EMU 62 Decommissioned
83 Class 83 KTM Komuter train, Kuala Lumpur.jpg Hyundai Rotem 1996 22 EMU 19-EMU 40 In Service
92 KTM train at Subang Jaya.JPG CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive 2012 38 SCS 01-SCS 38 In Service
List of KTM ETS Electric Multiple Units
Class Image Manufacturer Year Built Built Numbers Status
91 ETS at Ipoh.JPG Hyundai Rotem

Mitsubishi Electric

2009 5 ETS 01-ETS 05 In service
93 ETS 5 (cropped).jpg CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive 2015

2019

19 ETS 201- ETS 219 In service

Depots[edit]

Northern Depot[edit]

  • Padang Besar Depot
  • ETS Padang Besar Depot
  • Bukit Tengah Depot
  • Batu Gajah Depot
  • ETS Batu Gajah Depot
  • Central Workshop Batu Gajah

Central Depot[edit]

  • KL Sentral Depot
  • Port Klang Depot
  • Sentul Depot

Southern Depot[edit]

  • SCS Seremban Depot
  • Gemas Depot
  • Kempas Baru Depot

East Coast Depot[edit]

  • Tumpat Depot
  • Kuala Lipis Depot

Services[edit]

As a national railway company, KTMB is involved in the business of providing rail based transportation. This can be divided into three major services:

a) KTM Intercity[edit]

KTM Intercity (Malay: KTM Antarabandar) is the brand name for long-haul passenger train that connect cities and major town served by KTMB rail network.

The service is provided using conventional locomotives hauled coaches. Service span the length of the network, except branch-lines. Daily service convey passengers from Johor Bahru, Johor, to Tumpat, Kelantan and Woodlands, Singapore.

KTM Intercity has also introduce innovative services aimed at making its train not merely a means of transportation. It is possible for customers to rent specialized coaches for event management, conference and even wedding.

It has also been involved in various type of collaborations, joint-promotions, and cross-promotions with all state-level tourism bodies, travel agencies and travel-related industry players in developing rail package for group travellers.

b) KTM ETS[edit]

KTM ETS, which stands for Electric Train Service, is a rapid intercity train service by KTM utilising electric train-sets. The service started in 2010 using metre-gauge.

It currently operates between the cities from Gemas, Negeri Sembilan to Padang Besar, Perlis.

The trains travel up to 140 km/h on electrified lines. the ETS offers its passengers a comfortable and safe travel to their destination at very competitive travel time compared to other modes of transport.

For example, the travel time between KL Sental and Ipoh is about 2 hours and 20 minutes, which compared favorably with the previous intercity train travel time of 3 hours and 30 minutes while buses can take up to 3 hours.

Each train sets is capable of carrying up to 350 passengers. The passengers are waited upon by a team of dedicated on-board steward and stewardess.

c) KTM Komuter[edit]

KTM Komuter is a commuter rail service serving the Klang Valley and Northern part of Malaysia.

The central sector consists of the Seremban Line and Port Klang Line. In addition to the main lines, there are shuttle services from Sentul to Batu Caves and Rawang to Tanjong Malim. Since 2018, KTM Komuter also operates an airport train service - the Skypark Link linking KL Sentral to the Subang Airport. The fleet presently consists of Class 81, Class 83 and Class 92 EMUs.

The Northern Sector consists of two routes, namely the Bukit Mertajam-Padang Rengas route as well as the Butterworth-Padang Besar route.

KTM Komuter is a heavily utilised mode of transportation by commuters working in Kuala Lumpur as the service is an alternative for road travel, which is occasionally hampered by congestion. Virtually all KTM Komuter stops offer "Park & Ride" parking lots for those who drive to and from the station or halt. KTM Komuter ridership is estimated to be about 50 million passengers in 2010.

KTM Komuter is currently the most profitable passenger service offered by KTMB, contributing MYR 100 million to group revenue in 2010, higher than KTM Intercity's profit of MYR 70.94 million in the same year.

d) KTM Kargo[edit]

KTM Kargo provides cargo conveyance services , with a network that spans almost the whole of the KTMB rail network. It is therefore highly accessible from seaports and Inland Container Terminal (ICT) as well as industrial centers.

Cargo services is a major contributor to KTM's overall revenue. It is set to further enhance its role with the rapidly growing demand for transportation of goods.

Currently, there are 45 cargo train services daily with 23 routes daily, of which about 70% are concentrated in the Northern sector. KTMB runs 37 freight train services daily of which about 80% were concentrated in the Northern sector.

The services include

  • Bukit Ketri - Kuang (Cement)
  • Padang Rengas - Batu Caves (Cement)
  • Padang Rengas - Gelang Patah (Cement)
  • Kanthan - Padang Jawa (Cement)
  • Tasek - Gelang Patah (Cement)
  • Prai - Padang Besar (South Thai Cargo)
  • Pelabuhan Klang - Prai (Landfeeder)
  • Pelabuhan Klang - Padang Besar (Landfeeder)
  • Pelabuhan Klang - Ipoh (Landfeeder)
  • Pelabuhan Klang - Pasir Gudang (Landfeeder)
  • North Port - West Port (Inter Terminal Transfer)
  • West Port - North Port (Inter Terminal Transfer)
  • PTP - Pasir Gudang (Inter Terminal Transfer)
  • Prai - Thungsong (Landbridge)
  • Prai - Surathani (Landbridge)
  • Prai - Padang Besa (Thai) - (Landbridge)
  • Pelabuhan Klang - Hatyai (Landbridge)
  • Sungai Way - Bangkok (Landbridge)
  • Prai - Sungai Buloh (Sugar)
  • Gurun - Butterworth (Urea)

Main commodities carried by rail comprise the following:

  1. Maritime containers
  2. Landbridge cargos
  3. Cement
  4. Sugar
  5. Gypsum
  6. Chemicals

There is a variety of wagons from a fleet of almost 3,000 to choose from, to cater to almost all types of cargo imaginable to be moved. Is it managed, by a group of customer-focused professionals who are in position to help with the customer's needs and requirements.

Generally, cargo is moved either in open or covered wagons. In the future, all covered wagons will be replaced with containers to allow for flexibility i.e. goods can be dismounted from the train and delivered directly to customers premises thus, living up to the concept of door-to-door delivery.

Non-rail Subsidiaries[edit]

KTM operates several non-rail subsidiaries. Though considered as non-core businesses, KTMB has benefited from these operations, especially from Property and Advertising segments.

  • Property

The property joint ventures were progressing comparatively well under the prevailing economic climate. As part of the Sentul Raya Development, the Maple Condominium was handed over to purchasers in August 2006 while the Saffron Condominium is under construction and expected to be completed in 2007. Meanwhile, KL Sentral Development has embarked on construction of luxury condominiums, new office towers and life-style centre whilst the construction of the Marine View Hotel in Port Dickson is expected to be completed in 2007. To cater for demand from surrounding residential areas, KTMB's partner for the Prai Perdana Development is in the process of constructing a new retail complex and the project is expected to be completed in 2007.

  • Advertising

Through KTMB's collaboration with Ganad Media Sdn. Bhd. the advertising revenue had increased by 9.7% to RM1.47 million compared to the previous year. Several new advertising structures have been built in Klang Valley while more on-train advertising media like panels and hand-grips were made available on top of the increased demand for 'wrap-around' advertising on the commuter trains.

  • Multimodal Freight (MMF)

Multimodal Freight Sdn. Bhd., incorporated in 1988, was licensed as a Government approved Container Haulier in 1991, and went on to obtain the Government approved Multimodal Transport Operator (MTO) status in 1999. The company operates a fleet of 225 Prime Movers and 1,300 trailer of both 20-feet and 40-feet configurations. The fleet is deployed at all major seaports and the inland ports of Ipoh and Nilai.[6]

  • KTM Distribution (KTMD)

Its core business is in the provision of express parcel distribution services to the commercial, industrial and administrative sectors and it operates within Malaysia and Singapore. Parcel distribution is carried out through its door-to-door service or from point to point through its station-to-station service. The company is also licensed by the Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission as a courier service provider, which enables it to carry letters and documents up to 2 kg. This service has so far been monopoly of the Postal Department. The company owns an 18,000 sq ft (1,700 m2). freehold property in Sri Damansara, from which it earns warehouse rental income.[7]

Modernisation[edit]

Since the corporatisation of KTMB, a programme of modernization has been underway. In 1989, it embarked on the double-tracking and electrification of the trunk line between Rawang and Seremban, the branch lines between Batu Junction and Sentul and between Kuala Lumpur and Port Klang, allowing KTM Komuter services to start running in 1995.[8] Successive double tracking projects has allowed for expansion of electric traction to intercity services in the form of ETS. The entire West Coast line is scheduled to be fully electrified by 2022.

Completed Projects[edit]

  • Rehabilitation of 327 km-long meter gauge tracks from Paloh to Singapore and from Slim River to the main Seremban line in Malaysia (1988–1994) (US$70 million)
  • Electrification and double tracking of the Rawang-Seremban route (1990–1994) (US$62 million)
  • Electrification and double tracking of the Kuala Lumpur-Port Klang railway route, including spur lines to Subang Jaya and Sentul (1991–1994) (US$66 million)
  • Construction of railway bridges, road over bridges and underpasses along the Rawang-Kajang route (1991–1994) (US$6 million)
  • Construction of railway bridges, road over bridges and underpasses along the Kajang-Seremban route (1991–1994) (US$16 million)
  • Widening of railway tunnels near Seremban (1994–1995) (US$4 million)
  • Construction of railway culverts and box pushing along the Nilai-Seremban route (1994–1995) (US$4 million)
  • Track linking Port Klang to Pulau Indah (1997–1999) (US$4 million)
  • Construction of the Port of Tanjung Pelepas, a rail link in Johor (1999–2002) (US$121 million)
  • Track works at Kuala Lumpur Sentral station (1999–2001) (RM14.3 million)
  • Electrification and double tracking of the Rawang-Ipoh route (2000-2008) (RM2.57 billion)
  • Electrification and double tracking of the Sentul-Batu Caves route (2006-2010) (RM515 million)
  • Electrification and double tracking of the Seremban-Gemas route (2008-2013) (RM3.45 billion)
  • Electrification and double tracking of the Ipoh-Padang Besar route (2008-2014) (RM12.5 billion)
  • Electrification and double tracking of Subang Jaya-Subang Airport route (2013-2018) (RM521 million)

Current Projects[edit]

  • Electrification and double tracking of Gemas-JB route (2018-2022)
  • Rehabilitation of tracks in the Klang Valley(KVDT), Phase 1 (2016-2024)[9]
  • Rehabilitation of tracks in the Klang Valley (KVDT), Phase 2 (2019 - 2027)
  • Rehabilitation of tracks Gemas - Mentakab (Package A) (2016 - 2020)
  • Rehabilitation of tracks Jerantut - Gua Musang (Package B) (2016 - 2020)
  • Rehabilitation of tracks Gua Musang - Tumpat (Package C) (2016 -2020)

Proposed projects[edit]

  • Outer Ring Railway Service to connect all suburbs in the Klang Valley without going through the city center.[10]
  • Construction of the Subang Jaya - Sungai Buloh Link which will act as a freight bypass to avoid freight trains from having to enter the Kuala Lumpur Komuter network. Works are divided into two phases; Phase 1 is from Subang Jaya - Subang Airport, Phase 2 is from Subang Airport - Sungai Buloh. As of now, Phase 1 had already been completed.
  • A new integrated station named Penang Sentral will be built which will connect KTM Railway, monorail, bus and ferry service in one building at Butterworth.
  • Extension of the ETS service to Hat Yai by 2021

Board of directors[edit]

  • Chairman: Y.B Datuk Dr. Rameli Musa .
  • Chief Executive Officer (CEO): YBhg. Datuk Ir. Kamarulzaman bin Zainal.
  • Non-Independent, Non-Executive Directors: Y. Brs Encik Mohd Hassan Ahmad , Y.Bhg Dato'Jana Santhiran a/l Muniayan , Y. Brs Encik Azhar Noraini
  • Independent Non-Executive Directors: Y. Brs Encik Md Silmi Abd Rahman, Y. Brs Encik Nazri Ismail, YBhg. Dato’ Prof. Dr. Sudin bin Haron
  • Heads of Strategic Business Units;
    • KTM Intercity: Encik Afzar Zakariya
    • KTM Komuter: Encik Roshidi Yahaya
    • KTM Kargo: Encik Mohd Din Mohamad

Previous and current logos[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "KTM Berhad - Transport Malaysia"
  2. ^ "Pin by Kiran Ludher on Malaysia | Vintage travel posters, Vintage train, Vintage posters". Pinterest. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  3. ^ "KTM Brochure circa 1967".
  4. ^ a b c "Malaya Railway History 1950-2000".
  5. ^ "Govt rejcts MMC-Gamuda bid to take over KTMB ops".
  6. ^ "Multimodal Freight Sdn. Bhd. Company Info". KTM berhad.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "KTM Distribution Company Info". KTM Berhad. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009.
  8. ^ "KTM projects introduction". Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  9. ^ "Rehabilitation of double track could be ready in 5 years: Loke". Malaysiakini. 3 September 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  10. ^ "Commuter line for suburbs". The Star. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2008.

External links[edit]