Keretapi Tanah Melayu
|Dates of operation||1885–present|
|Track gauge||1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge|
Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTM) (Jawi: كريتاڤي تانه ملايو برحد) or Malayan Railways Limited is the main rail operator in Peninsular Malaysia. The railway system dates back to the British colonial era, when it was first built to transport tin. Previously known as the Federated Malay States Railways (FMSR) and the Malayan Railway Administration (MRA), Keretapi Tanah Melayu acquired its current name in 1962. The organisation was corporatised in 1992, but remains wholly owned by the Malaysian government. Fares are generally reasonable, but the low frequency of the intercity trains does not usually make them competitive with other modes of transportation.
- 1 Railway network
- 2 West Coast line
- 3 East Coast line
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Other railways
- 6 Network Branches
- 7 Rolling stock
- 8 Unit / Subsidaires
- 9 Property and advertising
- 10 Non-rail Subsidiaries
- 11 Modernisation
- 12 Board of directors
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
The 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge railway network in Peninsular Malaysia which is controlled by KTMB consists of two main lines and several branch lines. Most of the lines are made out of ballasted system and locally made concrete sleepers, which had replaced wooden sleepers as early as 1982 for the Kerdau-Jerantut and Sungai Yu-Tumpat lines.
West Coast line
The West Coast Line runs from Padang Besar railway station close to the Malaysia-Thailand Border in Perlis (where it connects with the State Railway of Thailand) to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore. It is called the West Coast line because it serves the West Coast states of Peninsular Malaysia. The train runs through most of the major stations in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, such as KL Sentral in Kuala Lumpur and Butterworth railway station in Butterworth, Penang.
East Coast line
The East Coast Line runs between Gemas railway station, in Negeri Sembilan and Tumpat railway station, in Kelantan. Gemas is the rail junction between the West Coast line and the line itself. Like the West Coast Line, it is called the East Coast Line (Malaysia) because it serves two of Peninsular Malaysia's East Coast states, namely Pahang and Kelantan. In fact, it does not run along the coast at all and only meets the South China Sea when it terminates at Tumpat railway station. It runs through the interior, often through deep jungle, thus earning the nickname Jungle Railway. Terengganu is the only state in Peninsular Malaysia not served by the KTM railway network. (although there are plans to expand the current Petronas Rail line to Kuantan and further on to Mentakab)
The total length of the network was 1,699 km, however due to the closure and subsequent removal of the section of tracks between Tanjong Pagar railway station and Woodlands Train Checkpoint, the new total length of the network is 1,677 km.
The West Coast main line is double tracked and electrified to 25 kV AC between Padang Besar railway station on the Malaysian-Thai border and Butterworth railway station, and south-wards to the Gemas railway station. The branch lines between Batu Junction and Batu Caves Komuter station, and between Port Klang Junction and the Port Klang Komuter station.
The remainder of the West Coast main line from Gemas railway station to Woodlands Train Checkpoint in Singapore, as well as the entire East Coast Line from Gemas railway station to Tumpat railway station, is single track.
There are several other railway lines which are not owned by KTMB. This includes Petronas's Kuantan - Kerteh line which is now operated by KTMB and the Sabah State Railway line from Tanjung Aru (near Kota Kinabalu) to Tenom in Sabah. The Penang Hill Furnicular Railway also does not come under KTMB's control.
There are several branch lines running from the two main lines.
Intercity & Freight
Commuter & Freight
- Port Klang - Pulau Indah
- Kempas - Tanjung Pelepas
- Kempas - Pasir Gudang
- Butterworth - North Butterworth Container Terminal
- Pasir Mas - Rantau Panjang - Hat Yai (part of the east coast line, the international train service here has been terminated, so only from Hat Yai to Sungai Golok remains in use by State Railway of Thailand) (Also reused as an emergency route by KTMB for the E&O trains)
- Subang Jaya - Sri Subang (Old Subang Airport) (Currently rehabilitating)
- Seremban - Port Dickson (Abandoned)
- Falim - Tronoh
- Kuang - Batu Arang - Batang Berjuntai
- Tampin - Melaka Town
- Taiping - Port Weld (Kuala Sepetang)
- Bukit Kuda - Jeram - Kuala Selangor
- Bahau - Kuala Pilah
- Tapah Road - Teluk Intan - Teluk Intan Wharf
- Salak Selatan - Ampang Junction - Sultan Street (Pudu) (closed and permanent way acquired by Ampang Line LRT)
- Ampang Junction - Ampang (closed and permanent way acquired by Ampang Line LRT)
- Woodlands Train Checkpoint - Bukit Timah - Tanjong Pagar (partially dismantled)
Following the consolidation of all state railway entities in Malaya, Malayan Railway inherited a fleet of mostly British-made steam locomotives, a variation of locomotives introduced to Malaya since its first railway line went into operation.
Dieselisation in Malaya began immediately after MR's formation with the launch of its first diesel engine, a Class 15 shunter, in 1948. Efforts by MR to fully convert to diesel power between the 1950s and 1970s effectively drove steam locomotives out of service - with whatever left of the fleet massively retired in 1972. KTM drew its diesel rolling stock from a multitude of locomotive companies from England, Japan, Canada, and more recently, India, Germany and China. The company had also ventured in the use of DMUs (railbus, railcars); none of these services survived.
Electric trains were only introduced in 1995 with the launch of the KTM Komuter commuter service. Consisting of three models of 3-car EMUs, the Komuter EMUs, as of 2007, are the only electrified trains in the KTM rolling stock.
The following is a list of locomotives in the KTM fleet - some have since been retired:
- Diesel locomotives
- 20 Class 15 Diesel Electric shunters (15101 - 15120), manufactured by English Electric's Vulcan Foundry in Lancashire, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1948
- 15 Class 17 Diesel Hydraulic shunters (17101 - 17105), manufactured by Kisha Seizo Kaisha, Japan. Brought in 1964
- 10 Class 18 Diesel Electric shunters (18101 - 18110), manufactured by Brush HMA, Hull, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1978
- 10 Class 19 Diesel Electric shunters (19101 - 19110), manufactured by Hitachi, Japan. Brought in 1983
- 26 Class 20 Diesel Electric mainline locomotives (20101 - 20126), manufactured by English Electric's Vulcan Foundry in Lancashire, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1957-1958
- 25 Class 21 Diesel Hydraulic mainline locomotives, manufactured by Kisha Seizo Kaisha, Japan. Brought in two batches: the first, 21101 - 21115, came in 1965, followed by 21201 - 21210 three years later.
- 40 Class 22 Diesel Electric mainline locomotives (22101 - 22140), manufactured by a consortium of English Electric, Associated Electrical Industries (A.E.I.), and Metro-Cammell in Saltley, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom. Brought in 1971-1972
- 15 Class 23 Diesel Electric mainline locomotives (23101 - 23115), manufactured by Hitachi, Japan. Brought in 1983
- 26 Class 24 Diesel Electric mainline locomotives (24101 - 24126), manufactured by Toshiba - Kawasaki, Japan. Brought in 1987
- 17 Class 25 Diesel Electric mainline locomotives, model GT18LC-2 manufactured by General Motors in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. They came in two batches: 25101 - 25112 in 1990, and another five, 25201 - 25205 in 2002.
- 20 Class 26 Diesel Electric mainline locomotives (26101 - 26120), model Blue Tiger manufactured by Adtranz in Germany in association with GE. Brought in 2003 - 2004
- 20 Class 29 Diesel Electric mainline locomotives (29101 -29120), manufactured by DLoco Locomotive and Rolling Stock Co. of Dalian, China. Brought in 2005 - 2006
- 28 YDM4s on lease from Indian Railways, manufactured by Diesel Locomotive Works, Varanasi, India brought into Malaysia in the late 1990s.
- 5 YDM4 ex-Indian Railways brought into Malaysia in 2009, refurbished by Southern Railway Workshop, Tiruchirappalli, India.
- KTM "Hybrid" trains for KLS-Rawang and Kajang-Rawang.
- Electric multiple units
- 18 Class 81 EMUs (numbers EMU 01 - EMU 18) manufactured by Jenbacher Transport in Austria-Hungary (1994/1995)
- 22 Class 82 EMUs (numbers EMU 41 - EMU 62) manufactured by Union Carriage and Wagon in South Africa (1996/1997)
- 22 Class 83 EMUs (numbers EMU 19 - EMU 40) manufactured by Hyundai (HPID) (1996/1997)
- 5 KTM Class 91 (numbers ETS 01 - ETS 05) 6-car electric train sets by Marubeni Corporation. The trains are manufactured by Mitsubishi Electric and Rotem. The first train was delivered on 10 December 2009 and was supposed to be operational in April 2010 but was delayed to operate on 12 August 2010 instead. It is used to service the Seremban-Kuala Lumpur-Ipoh sector (ETS Line).
- 38 KTM Class 92 (numbers SCS 01 - SCS 38) 6-car EMU manufactured by CSR Zhuzhou for KTM Komuter (2012)
- 10 KTM Class 93 6-car electric train sets that are ordered for the ETS Line (2015)
Locomotive, ETS, Carriage & Wagon Workshop
- Batu Gajah - Batu Gajah Fleet Central Workshop
- Klang - Klang Fleet Depot (Specially for Class 26 & Class 29)
Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Running Depot
- Kuala Lumpur - Kuala Lumpur Sentral Fleet Depot
- Batu Gajah - Batu Gajah Fleet Depot
- Bukit Tengah - Bukit Tengah Fleet Depot
- Bukit Mertajam - Bukit Mertajam Fleet Depot
- Gemas - Gemas Fleet Depot
- Tumpat - Tumpat Fleet Depot
- Port Klang - Port Klang Fleet Depot
- Singapore - Singapore Fleet Depot (Closed since 1 July 2011)
- Gua Musang - Gua Musang Fleet Depot
- Padang Besar - Padang Besar Fleet Depot
- Kempas - Kempas Fleet Depot (Under Construction to replace Singapore Fleet Depot)
Electrical Train Set Depot
- Batu Gajah - Batu Gajah ETS Depot
Electrical Multiple Unit Depot
- Kuala Lumpur - Sentul EMU Depot
- Rawang - Rawang EMU Depot
- Seremban - Seremban EMU Depot
- Port Klang - Port Klang EMU Depot
Unit / Subsidaires
KTM Intercity & ETS
KTM Intercity (Malay: KTM Antarabandar) is an intercity passenger railway service operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu within the regions of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The service is intended to carry patrons between stops serving cities, town and village (depending on regions). Its trains are currently powered by diesel locomotives.
KTM Intercity services consist of local trains (known also as "mail trains") and express trains; lines along the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia currently support mostly express trains, while those along the East Coast include both mail train and express train services.
The KTM ETS commercially known as ETS which is stand for Electric Train Service is the fastest metre gauge trains service in Malaysia and in worldwide that currently operates as an inter-city rail service between the cities of Kuala Lumpur and Padang Besar on the Malaysia-Thai border by the Malaysian national railway operator, Keretapi Tanah Melayu.
KTM Komuter is an electrified commuter rail service first introduced in 1995, catering especially to commuters in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding suburban areas. KTMB provides 248 commuter services daily, serving 45 stations along 175 route-kilometres. The network consists of two main sectors are Seremban Line and Port Klang Line running at 15 minutes frequency during peak hours and 20 minutes frequency during off-peak hours. The Tanjung Malim shuttle service & Rembau shuttle service running at Seremban Line both end stations operates at half hour frequency. Komuter coaches are currently the most modern in the KTM fleet and are air-conditioned. Currently, they have a fleet of Class 81, Class 82, Class 83 & Class 92 in which almost all of the Class 92 are operational while many more of the Class 81, Class 82 & Class 83 has been scrapped, leaving only few to operate as a standby unit during rush hour.
KTM Komuter is a heavily utilised mode of transportation by commuters working in Kuala Lumpur as the service is an alternative for road travel, which is occasionally hampered by congestion. Virtually all KTM Komuter stops offer "Park & Ride" parking lots for those who drive to and from the station or halt. KTM Komuter ridership is estimated to be about 50 million passengers in 2010.
KTM Komuter is currently the most profitable passenger service offered by KTMB, contributing MYR 100 million to group revenue in 2010, higher than KTM Intercity's profit of MYR 70.94 million in the same year.
KTMB runs 37 freight train services daily of which about 80% were concentrated in the northern sector. In line with the strategy to focus more on containerised and long-haul cargoes, KTMB now carries maritime containers, cement and food as main commodities. In 2006, the freight revenue increased 5.2% to RM113.0 million.
Its core business is in the provision of express parcel distribution services to the commercial, industrial and administrative sectors and it operates within Malaysia and Singapore. Parcel distribution is carried out through its door-to-door service or from point to point through its station-to-station service. The company is also licensed by the Malaysian Communications & Multimedia Commission as a courier service provider, which enables it to carry letters and documents up to 2 kg. This service has so far been monopoly of the Postal Department. The company owns an 18,000 sq ft (1,700 m2). freehold property in Sri Damansara, from which it earns warehouse rental income.
Property and advertising
Though considered as non-core businesses, KTMB benefited greatly from Property and Advertising segments in terms of value creation. In 2006, KTMB generated RM22.4 million from property rental and advertising activities.
The property joint ventures were progressing comparatively well under the prevailing economic climate. As regards the Sentul Raya Development, the Maple Condominium was handed over to purchasers in August 2006 while the Saffron Condominium is under construction and expected to be completed in 2007. Meanwhile, KL Sentral Development has embarked on construction of luxury condominiums, new office towers and life-style centre whilst the construction of the Marine View Hotel in Port Dickson is expected to be completed in 2007. To cater for demand from surrounding residential areas, KTMB's partner for the Prai Perdana Development is in the process of constructing a new retail complex and the project is expected to be completed in 2007.
Through KTMB's collaboration with Ganad Media Sdn. Bhd. the advertising revenue had increased by 9.7% to RM1.47 million compared to the previous year. Several new advertising structures have been built in Klang Valley while more on-train advertising media like panels and hand-grips were made available on top of the increased demand for 'wrap-around' advertising on the commuter trains.
- Multimodal Freight
Multimodal Freight Sdn. Bhd., incorporated in 1988, was licensed as a Government approved Container Haulier in 1991, and went on to obtain the Government approved Multimodal Transport Operator (MTO) status in 1999. The company operates a fleet of 225 Prime Movers and 1,300 trailer of both 20-feet and 40-feet configurations. The fleet is deployed at all major seaports and the inland ports of Ipoh and Nilai.
- KTMB Car Park
Formerly known as KTMB (Brickfields Yard) Sdn. Bhd. the company was incorporated in 1994 and was renamed KTMB (Car Park) Sdn. Bhd. in 1995. With over 70 employees, the company operates 16 car parks at selected train stations in Malaysia through its subsidiary KTMB Parking Pte. Ltd. The subsidiary is looking to expand parking space in Seremban and Sungai Buloh stations.
More info ABOUT Railway electrification in Malaysia
Since corporatisation of KTMB, a programme of modernisation has been underway. In 1989, it embarked on the double-tracking and electrification of trunk line between Rawang and Seremban and the branch lines between Batu Junction and Sentul, and between Kuala Lumpur and Port Klang which allowed the KTM Komuter service to start running in 1995. The next major project was the Rawang-Ipoh double tracking and electrification project, which started in 2000, but the project has been repeatedly delayed by contractual disputes and is not expected to be ready before 2007. When complete, KTM expects to introduce frequent intercity service (16 trains/day) running at speeds of up to 160 km/hour. In 2002, the Malaysian government proposed the ambitious project of electrifying and double-tracking the entire western line and awarded contracts in 2003. The project was however put on hold by Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi until March 2007 when Deputy Prime Minister Mohd Najib Abdul Razak announced the project's revival. In April 2007, the government announced that contracts for certain portions of the project had been awarded. In 2007, work also started to electrify and double-track the stretch of track between Sentul and Batu Caves.
The following is a list of previous, current and planned railway development and upgrading works in Malaysia.
- Rehabilitation of 327 km-long meter gauge tracks from Paloh to Singapore and from Slim River to the main Seremban line in Malaysia (1988–1994) (US$70 million)
- Double tracking of the Rawang-Seremban route (1990–1994) (US$62 million)
- Double tracking of the Kuala Lumpur-Port Klang railway route, including spur lines to Subang Jaya and Sentul (1991–1994) (US$ 66 million)
- Widening of railway tunnels near Seremban (1994–1995) (US$4 million)
- Track linking Port Klang to Pulau Indah (1997–1999) (US$4 million)
- Construction of railway bridges, road over bridges and underpasses along the Rawang-Kajang route (1991–1994) (US$6 million)
- Construction of railway bridges, road over bridges and underpasses along the Kajang-Seremban route (1991–1994) (US$16 million)
- Construction of railway culverts and box pushing along the Nilai-Seremban route (1994–1995) (US$4 million)
- Construction of the Port of Tanjung Pelepas, a rail link in Johor (1999–2002) (US$121 million)
- Track works at Kuala Lumpur Sentral station (1999–2001) (RM14.3 million)
- Outer Ring Railway Service to connect all suburbs in the Klang Valley without going through the city center.
- Construction of the Subang Jaya - Sungai Buloh Link which will act as a freight bypass to avoid freight trains from having to enter the Kuala Lumpur Komuter network. Works are divided into two phases; Phase 1 is from Subang Jaya - Subang Airport, Phase 2 is from Subang Airport - Sungai Buloh. As of now, Phase 1 had already started.
- A new integrated station named Penang Sentral will be built which will connect KTM Railway, monorail, bus and ferry service in one building at Butterworth.
- Tampin/Pulau Sebang - Melaka extension.
- Expansion of the KTM Komuter fleet by 20 EMU trainsets by 2015 and remaining 27 EMU trainsets in 2017.
- Expansion of the ETS fleet with the purchase of an additional 10 EMU Trainsets to arrive by 2015 (Class 93) and 22 EMU trainsets to arrive by early 2015 (Class 94)
- Extension of the ETS service to Kuala Kangsar in early 2014, Butterworth in mid 2014, Padang Besar in 2015 and Johor Bahru in mid-2016
Board of directors
- Chairman: Y.B Dato' Ir Haji Nawawi bin Hj. Ahmad.
- President: Y. Brs Lt. Kol(B) Hj. Sarbini Tijan.
- Non-independent, non-executive directors: Y. Brs Puan Norazura binti Tadzim, Y.Bhg Datuk Ruhaizah binti Mohamed Rashid, Y. Brs Encik Selvarajoo Manikam.
- Independent non-executive directors: Y. Bhg Dato' Sri Zakaria bin Hj Bahari, Y. Brs Haji Rosli bin Abdullah, Y. Brs Encik Harun bin Hj Johari, Y. Bhg Datuk Haji Kamaruzaman bin Hj Mohd Noor, Y. Bhg Dato' Sr Ahmad Zainuddin bin Hj Jamaluddin.
- Heads of strategic business units (headed by general managers):
- Commuter services: Azshidah Shah Shahari.
- Intercity and ETS services: Justine Jude.
- Freight: Mohd Zain Mat Taha.
- P. Vijian (13 February 2009). "Five Locomotives For KTM From India". Bernama. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- Kng Zheng Guan (15 May 2009). "KTMB running hybrid trains to deal with congestion". The Star.
- Stanley White (26 October 2008). "Marubeni Gets $67 Million Malaysia Train-Car Order, Nikkei Says". Bloomberg Japan.
- "KL-Ipoh train service likely to see 20,000 more passengers per month". The Star. 16 December 2009.
- Nathan, Darshini M (6 October 2007). "Back on track: KTMB upgrades to be competitive". Bizweek, The Star.
- "KTM Distribution Company Info". KTM Berhad.
- "Multimodal Freight Sdn. Bhd. Company Info". KTM berhad.
- "KTMB Car Park Company Info". KTM Berhad.
- "KTM projects introduction". Archived from the original on 26 August 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- "Electrified Double Track Project Between Rawang and Ipoh". Archived from the original on 15 September 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- "Commuter line for suburbs". The Star. Retrieved 17 April 2008.
- Keretapi Tanah Melayu Official Website
- Keretapi.com - Railway Fan website
- Ipoh-Padang Besar Electrified Double Tracking Project website