Kętrzyn

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Kętrzyn

Rastembork
Panorama of Kętrzyn
Saint George Basilica
Former Masonic Lodge
  • From top, left to right: Panorama of the town
  • Saint George Basilica
  • Former Masonic Lodge
Flag of Kętrzyn
Flag
Coat of arms of Kętrzyn
Coat of arms
Kętrzyn is located in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship
Kętrzyn
Kętrzyn
Kętrzyn is located in Poland
Kętrzyn
Kętrzyn
Coordinates: 54°5′N 21°23′E / 54.083°N 21.383°E / 54.083; 21.383Coordinates: 54°5′N 21°23′E / 54.083°N 21.383°E / 54.083; 21.383
Country Poland
Voivodeship Warmian-Masurian
CountyKętrzyn County
GminaKętrzyn (urban gmina)
Established1329
Town rights1357
Government
 • MayorKrzysztof Hećman
Area
 • Total10.34 km2 (3.99 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)
 • Total27,478[1]
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
11-400
Area code(s)+48 89
Car platesNKE
Websiteketrzyn.pl

Kętrzyn (pronounced KENT-shin [ˈkɛntʂɨn] (About this soundlisten), until 1946 Rastembork; German: Rastenburg [ˈʁastn̩bʊʁk] (About this soundlisten)) is a town in northeastern Poland with 27,478 inhabitants (2019). Situated in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship (since 1999), Kętrzyn was previously in Olsztyn Voivodeship (1975–1998). It is the capital of Kętrzyn County. The town was named after historian Wojciech Kętrzyński in 1946, however, both the official Kętrzyn and former Polish name Rastembork are still in use.[2]

The first settlement was established in 1329 and Rastenburg was granted town rights and privileges in 1357. Over the centuries it was part of the Teutonic State, Poland and East Prussia in Germany. The town is known for the surrounding Masurian Lakeland and numerous monuments of historical value such as the Wolf's Lair in nearby Gierłoż, where an assassination attempt against Hitler was made in 1944.

History[edit]

Old gymnasium, attended by Wojciech Kętrzyński between 1855 and 1859

The original inhabitants of the region were the Balt tribe of the Aesti, mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania (AD 98). The town, known in German as Rastenburg and in Polish as Rastembork, was established in 1329 in the State of the Teutonic Knights and was granted town rights in 1357 by Henning Schindekop.

After the Battle of Grunwald, in 1410, the mayor surrendered the town to Poland, however, it fell back to the Teutonic Knights in 1411. In 1440, the town joined the anti-Teutonic Prussian Confederation.[3][4] Upon the request of the Confederation, King Casimir IV Jagiellon incorporated the region and town to the Kingdom of Poland in 1454.[5] The town then recognized the Polish King as the rightful ruler and the townspeople sent their representative to Königsberg to pay homage to the King.[6]

After the Thirteen Years’ War (1454–1466) the town was part of Poland as a fief held by the Teutonic Order's state[7] and, from 1525 to 1701, it was part of the Duchy of Prussia, a Polish fief until 1657. In the second half of the 17th century, Poles constituted around a half of the town's population, the other half being Germans.[3] In 1667, a Polish church school was established.[3]

In 1701 the town became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and subsequently, in 1871, part of Germany. During the Seven Years' War, from 1758 to 1762, the town was occupied by the Russians, in June 1807, throughout the Napoleonic wars, the division of General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski was stationed in the town.

In the late 19th century a Polish Lutheran parish still existed in Rastenburg,[8] despite the policy of Germanisation conducted by the Prussian authorities.[3] In the second half of the 19th century, a sugar factory, brewery and mill were built.

20th century[edit]

A preserved air raid shelter from World War II in Kętrzyn

Rastenburg and the surrounding district was the scene of the First World War's First Battle of the Masurian Lakes and Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes. During the Second World War Adolf Hitler's wartime military headquarters, the Wolfsschanze (Wolf's Lair), was in the forest east of Rastenburg. The bunker was the setting for the failed assassination attempt of the 20 July plot against Hitler. During the war, the Germans operated a forced labour camp for Jews in the town.[9]

In 1945, the area suffered devastation from both the retreating Germans and advancing Soviets during the Vistula-Oder campaign. Some ruins of the Wolfsschanze remain. The town was a Wehrmacht garrison town until it was occupied by the Red Army on January 27, 1945. The largely abandoned town was heavily destroyed by the Soviets.[3]

After the war, the town was transferred to Poland under border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference. Its surviving German residents who had not evacuated were subsequently expelled westward and replaced with Poles, most of whom were themselves expelled from the pre-war Polish Vilnius Region that was annexed by the Soviet Union and given to the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.[3] The town was given the historic Polish name Rastembork in 1945, and in 1946 it was renamed to Kętrzyn after the Polish historian, activist and patriot Wojciech Kętrzyński, who attended the local gymnasium in the years 1855-1859.[10][11]

After the war, the town's life was being rebuilt. In 1945, the Municipal Theater was established.[3] Thanks to voluntary contributions, books were purchased for newly organized public libraries.[3] A museum was created in the renovated castle.[3]

Climate[edit]

Although it officially qualifies as an oceanic, defined as Cfb for Köppen classification (−3 °C isotherm), its averages are much closer to a warm-summer humid continental climate, denoted as Dfb, being better defined like that. The climate of the city has a considerable thermal amplitude, but still with some not so pronounced influence of the sea.[12][13]

Climate data for Ketrzyn (Wilamowo Airport), elevation: 110 m or 360 ft, 1980–2012 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
14.8
(58.6)
20.2
(68.4)
27.5
(81.5)
31.0
(87.8)
32.2
(90.0)
35.1
(95.2)
36.1
(97.0)
29.2
(84.6)
23.6
(74.5)
16.5
(61.7)
15.0
(59.0)
36.1
(97.0)
Average high °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
0.1
(32.2)
4.8
(40.6)
11.9
(53.4)
17.7
(63.9)
20.6
(69.1)
22.5
(72.5)
22.2
(72.0)
17.4
(63.3)
11.5
(52.7)
4.8
(40.6)
0.9
(33.6)
11.2
(52.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
1.3
(34.3)
7.3
(45.1)
12.7
(54.9)
15.9
(60.6)
17.9
(64.2)
17.4
(63.3)
13.0
(55.4)
8.1
(46.6)
2.7
(36.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
7.5
(45.5)
Average low °C (°F) −5.2
(22.6)
−5.3
(22.5)
−2.3
(27.9)
2.3
(36.1)
6.9
(44.4)
10.3
(50.5)
12.5
(54.5)
12.2
(54.0)
8.6
(47.5)
4.6
(40.3)
0.4
(32.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
3.5
(38.2)
Record low °C (°F) −32.8
(−27.0)
−32.8
(−27.0)
−24.0
(−11.2)
−8.1
(17.4)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.1
(31.8)
4.8
(40.6)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
−12.2
(10.0)
−21.4
(−6.5)
−25.0
(−13.0)
−32.8
(−27.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.7
(1.25)
22.2
(0.87)
31.6
(1.24)
33.1
(1.30)
48.0
(1.89)
74.7
(2.94)
73.6
(2.90)
57.4
(2.26)
53.7
(2.11)
44.1
(1.74)
43.3
(1.70)
32.8
(1.29)
546.2
(21.49)
Average precipitation days 13.0 11.5 10.8 10.4 10.6 12.5 13.6 11.2 11.6 11.1 13.4 14.0 143.7
Average snowy days 14 12 8 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 9 50
Mean monthly sunshine hours 43.0 59.5 122.5 205.9 262.7 258.8 264.1 236.7 151.5 105.3 41.9 27.7 1,779.6
Mean daily sunshine hours 3 3 5 9 10 9 10 10 8 5 3 3 7
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 2 4 5 5 5 5 3 2 1 1 3
Source 1: Climatebase.ru[14]
Source 2: kiedy-jechac.pl (Snow days, daily sunshine hours and UV index[13] and Infoclimat.fr (monthly sunshine hours)[15]

Sports[edit]

The local football team is Granica Kętrzyn [pl]. It competes in the lower leagues.

People[edit]

Monument to Wojciech Kętrzyński in the town center

Gallery[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Kętrzyn is twinned with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.polskawliczbach.pl/Ketrzyn
  2. ^ "Rastembork, Poland – Geographical Names, map, geographic coordinates". geographic.org. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 21, 2018. Retrieved February 21, 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) dr Jerzy Sikorski, Historia miasta Kętrzyn
  4. ^ Górski, Karol (1949). Związek Pruski i poddanie się Prus Polsce: zbiór tekstów źródłowych (in Polish). Poznań: Instytut Zachodni. p. XXXVII.
  5. ^ Górski, p. 54
  6. ^ Tomasz Darmochwał, Marek Jacek Rumiński, Warmia Mazury. Przewodnik, Agencja TD, Białystok, 1996, p. 123 (in Polish)
  7. ^ Górski, p. 96-97, 214-215
  8. ^ Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom IX, Warsaw, 1888, p. 531 (in Polish)
  9. ^ "Zwangsarbeitslager für Juden Rastenburg". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  10. ^ "Urząd Miasta Kętrzyn – Zainwestuj w Kętrzynie". Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  11. ^ Maria Malec (2002). Słownik etymologiczny nazw geograficznych Polski. Wydawn. Naukowe PWN. p. 122. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  12. ^ "Ketrzyn, Poland Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  13. ^ a b "Klimacie Kętrzyn – Temperatura • Kiedy jechać • Pogoda". Kiedy-jechac.pl (in Polish). Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  14. ^ "Ketrzyn, Poland #12185". Climatebase.ru. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  15. ^ "Normales et records climatologiques 1981–2010 à Ketrzyn – Infoclimat". infoclimat.fr. Retrieved August 5, 2019.

External links[edit]