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Kevin Warwick

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Kevin Warwick
Warwick in 2011
Born (1954-02-09) 9 February 1954 (age 70)[1]
Coventry, England
Other names"Captain Cyborg"[4][5][6][7]
Alma mater
Known forProject Cyborg
Scientific career
ThesisSelf-tuning controllers via the state space (1982)
Doctoral advisorJohn Hugh Westcott[3]
Doctoral studentsMark Gasson[3]

Kevin Warwick (born 9 February 1954) is an English engineer and Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) at Coventry University.[8] He is known for his studies on direct interfaces between computer systems and the human nervous system, and has also done research concerning robotics.[9][10]



Kevin Warwick was born in 1954 in Keresley, Coventry, England,[11] and was raised in the nearby village of Ryton-on-Dunsmore, Warwickshire. His family attended a Methodist church but soon he began doubting the existence of God.[12] He attended Lawrence Sheriff School in Rugby, Warwickshire, where he was a contemporary of actor Arthur Bostrom. He left school at the age of 16 to start an apprenticeship with British Telecom. In 1976, he was granted his first degree at Aston University, followed by a PhD degree and a research job at Imperial College London.

He took up positions at Somerville College in Oxford, Newcastle University, the University of Warwick, and the University of Reading, before relocating to Coventry University in 2014.

Warwick is a Chartered Engineer (CEng), a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (FIET) and a Fellow of the City and Guilds of London Institute (FCGI). He is Visiting Professor at the Czech Technical University in Prague, the University of Strathclyde, Bournemouth University, and the University of Reading, and in 2004 he was Senior Beckman Fellow at the University of Illinois in the United States. He is also on the Advisory Boards of the Instinctive Computing Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University,[13] and the Centre for Intermedia at the University of Exeter.[14]

By the age of 40, Warwick had been awarded a DSc degree by both Imperial College London and the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague, for his research output in two entirely unrelated areas. He has received the IET Achievement Medal, the IET Mountbatten Medal, and in 2011 the Ellison-Cliffe Medal from the Royal Society of Medicine.[15] In 2000, Warwick presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, entitled The Rise of Robots.[16]



Warwick performs research in artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering, control systems and robotics. Much of Warwick's early research was in the area of discrete time adaptive control. He introduced the first state space based self-tuning controller[17] and unified discrete time state space representations of ARMA models.[18] He has also contributed to mathematics,[19] power engineering[20] and manufacturing production machinery.[21]

Artificial intelligence


Warwick directed a research project funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), which investigated the use of machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to suitably stimulate and translate patterns of electrical activity from living cultured neural networks to use the networks for the control of mobile robots.[22] Hence the behaviour process for each robot was effectively provided by a biological brain.

Previously, Warwick helped to develop a genetic algorithm named Gershwyn, which was able to exhibit creativity in producing popular songs, learning what makes a hit record by listening to examples of previous successful songs.[23] Gershwyn appeared on BBC's Tomorrow's World, having been successfully used to mix music for Manus, a group consisting of the four younger brothers of Elvis Costello.

Another of Warwick's projects involving AI was the robot head, Morgui. The head, which contained five "senses" (vision, sound, infrared, ultrasound and radar), was used to investigate sensor data fusion. It was X-rated by the University of Reading Research and Ethics Committee due to its image storage capabilities—anyone under the age of 18 who wished to interact with the robot had to obtain parental approval.[24]

Warwick has very outspoken opinions about the future, particularly with respect to AI and its effect on the human species. He argues that humanity will need to use technology to enhance itself to avoid being overtaken by machines.[25] He states that many human limitations, such as sensorimotor abilities, can be outperformed by machines, and he has said on record that he wants to gain these abilities: "There is no way I want to stay a mere human."[26]



Warwick directed the University of Reading team in a number of European Community projects such as: FIDIS (Future of Identity in the Information Society), researching the future of identity; and ETHICBOTS and RoboLaw, both of which considered the ethical aspects of robots and cyborgs.[27]

Warwick's topics of interest have many ethical implications, some due to his human enhancement experiments.[28] The ethical dilemmas of his research are used by the Institute of Physics as a case study[29] for schoolchildren and science teachers as a part of their formal Advanced level and GCSE studies. His work has also been discussed by the USA President's Council on Bioethics and the USA President's Panel on Forward Engagements.[30] He is a member of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics Working Party on Novel Neurotechnologies.[31]

Deep brain stimulation


Along with Tipu Aziz and his team at John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, and John Stein of the University of Oxford, Warwick is helping to design the next generation of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.[32] Instead of stimulating the brain all the time, the goal is for the device to predict when stimulation is needed and to apply the signals prior to any tremors occurring, thereby stopping tremors before they start.[33] Recent results have also shown that it is possible to identify different types of Parkinson's Disease.[34]

Public awareness


Warwick has directed a number of projects intended to interest schoolchildren in the technology with which he is involved. In 2000, he received the EPSRC Millennium Award for his Schools Robot League. In 2007, 16 school teams were involved in a project to design a humanoid robot to dance and then complete an assault course, with the final competition staged at the Science Museum, London. The project, entitled 'Androids Advance' was funded by EPSRC and was presented as a news item by Chinese television.[35]

Warwick contributes significantly to the public understanding of science by giving regular public lectures, participating with radio programmes, and through popular writing. He has appeared in numerous television documentary programmes on AI, robotics and the role of science fiction in science, such as How William Shatner Changed the World, Future Fantastic and Explorations.[36][37] He also appeared in the Ray Kurzweil-inspired movie Transcendent Man along with William Shatner, Colin Powell, and Stevie Wonder. He has guested on several television talk shows, including Late Night with Conan O'Brien, Først & sist, Sunday Brunch and Richard & Judy.[37] He has appeared on the cover of a number of magazines, for example the February 2000 edition of Wired.[38]

In 2005, Warwick was the subject of an early day motion tabled by members of the UK Parliament, in which he was congratulated for his work in attracting students to science and for teaching "in a way that makes the subject interesting and relevant so that more students will want to develop a career in science."[39]

In 2009, Warwick was interviewed about his work in cybernetics for two documentary features on the DVD release of the 1985 Doctor Who story Attack of the Cybermen.[40] He was also an interview subject for the televised lecture The Science of Doctor Who in 2013.

In 2013, Warwick appeared as a guest on BBC Radio 4's The Museum of Curiosity with Robert Llewellyn and Cleo Rocos.[41] In 2014, he appeared on BBC Radio 4's Midweek with Libby Purves, Roger Bannister and Rachael Stirling.[42]



Warwick's claims that robots can program themselves to avoid each other while operating in a group raise the issue of self-organisation. In particular, the works of Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana, once purely speculative have now become immediately relevant with respect to synthetic intelligence.

Cyborg-type systems, if they are to survive, need to be not only homeostatic (meaning that they are able to preserve stable internal conditions in various environments) but also adaptive. Testing the claims of Varela and Maturana using synthetic devices is the more serious concern in the discussion about Warwick and those involved in similar research. "Pulling the plug" on independent devices cannot be as simple as it appears, because if the device displays sufficient intelligence, and assumes a diagnostic and prognostic stature, we may ultimately one day be forced to decide between what it could be telling us as counterintuitive (but correct) and our impulse to disconnect because of our limited and "intuitive" perceptions.

Warwick's robots seemed to exhibit behaviour not anticipated by the research, one such robot "committing suicide" because it could not cope with its environment.[43] In a more complex setting, it may be asked whether a "natural selection" might be possible, neural networks being the major operative.

The 1999 edition of the Guinness Book of Records recorded that Warwick performed the first robot learning experiment using the Internet.[44] One robot, with an artificial neural network brain at the University of Reading in the UK, learned how to move around without bumping into things. It then taught, via the Internet, another robot at SUNY Buffalo in New York State to behave in the same way.[45] The robot in the US was therefore not taught or programmed by a human, but rather by another robot based on what it had itself learnt.[46]

Hissing Sid was a robot cat that Warwick took on a British Council lecture tour of Russia, where he presented it in lectures at such places as Moscow State University. The robot was put together as a student project; its name came from the noise made by the pneumatic actuators used to drive its legs when walking. Hissing Sid also appeared on BBC TV's Blue Peter but became more well known when it was refused a ticket by British Airways on the grounds that they did not allow animals in the cabin.[47]

Warwick was also responsible for a robotic "magic chair" (based on the SCARA-form UMI RTX arm)[48] used on BBC TV's Jim'll Fix It. The chair provided the show's host Jimmy Savile with tea and stored Jim'll Fix It badges for him to hand out to guests.[49] Warwick appeared on the programme himself for a Fix-it involving robots.[37]

Warwick was also involved in the development of the "Seven Dwarves" robots, a version of which was sold in kit form as "Cybot" on the cover of Real Robots magazine in 2001. The magazine series guided its readers through the stages of building and programming Cybot, an artificially intelligent robot capable of making its own decisions and thinking for itself.[50]

Project Cyborg


Probably the most famous research undertaken by Warwick—and the origin of the nickname "Captain Cyborg"[4][5][6] given to him by The Register—is the set of experiments known as Project Cyborg, in which an array was implanted into his arm, with the goal of him "becoming a cyborg".[51]

The first stage of Project Cyborg, which began on 24 August 1998, involved a simple RFID transmitter being implanted beneath Warwick's skin, which was used to control doors, lights, heaters, and other computer-controlled devices based on his proximity.[52] He explained that the main purpose of this experiment was to test the limits of what the body would accept, and how easy it would be to receive a meaningful signal from the microprocessor.[53]

The second stage of the research involved a more complex neural interface, designed and built especially for the experiment by Dr. Mark Gasson and his team at the University of Reading. This device consisted of a BrainGate sensor, a silicon square about 3mm wide, connected to an external "gauntlet" that housed supporting electronics. It was implanted under local anaesthetic on 14 March 2002 at the Radcliffe Infirmary in Oxford, where it was interfaced directly into Warwick's nervous system via the median nerve in his left wrist. The microelectrode array that was inserted contained 100 electrodes, each the width of a human hair, of which 25 could be accessed at any one time, whereas the nerve that was being monitored carries many times that number of signals. The experiment proved successful, and the output signals were detailed enough to enable a robot arm, developed by Warwick's colleague Dr. Peter Kyberd, to mimic the actions of Warwick's own arm.[51][54]

By means of the implant, Warwick's nervous system was connected to the Internet at Columbia University, New York. From there he was able to control the robot arm at the University of Reading and obtain feedback from sensors in the finger tips. He also successfully connected ultrasonic sensors on a baseball cap and experienced a form of extrasensory input.[55]

In a highly publicised extension to the experiment, a simpler array was implanted into the arm of Warwick's wife, with the ultimate aim of one day creating a form of telepathy or empathy using the Internet to communicate the signal over huge distances. This experiment resulted in the first direct and purely electronic communication between the nervous systems of two humans.[56] Finally, the effect of the implant on Warwick's hand function was measured using the University of Southampton's Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP).[57] There was a fear that directly interfacing with the nervous system might cause some form of damage or interference, but no measurable side effect (nor any sign of rejection) was encountered.



Warwick and his colleagues claim that the Project Cyborg research could result in new medical tools for treating patients with damage to the nervous system, as well as assisting the more ambitious enhancements Warwick advocates. Some transhumanists even speculate that similar technologies could be used for technology-facilitated telepathy.[58]

Tracking device


A controversy began in August 2002, shortly after the Soham murders, when Warwick reportedly offered to implant a tracking device into an 11-year-old girl as an anti-abduction measure. The plan produced a mixed reaction, with endorsement from many worried parents but ethical concerns from children's societies.[59] As a result, the idea did not go ahead.

Anti-theft RFID chips are common in jewellery or clothing in some Latin American countries due to a high abduction rate,[60] and the company VeriChip announced plans in 2001 to expand its line of available medical information implants,[61] to be GPS trackable when combined with a separate GPS device.[62][63]

Turing test

Warwick in February 2008
Warwick in June 2011

Warwick participated as a Turing Interrogator on two occasions, judging machines in the 2001 and 2006 Loebner Prize competitions, platforms for an "imitation game" as devised by Alan Turing. The 2001 Prize, held at the London Science Museum, featured Turing's "jury service" or one-to-one Turing tests and was won by A.L.I.C.E. The 2006 contest staged "parallel-paired" Turing tests at University College London and the winner was Rollo Carpenter. Warwick co-organised the 2008 Loebner Prize at the University of Reading, which also featured parallel-paired Turing tests.[64]

In 2012, he co-organised with Huma Shah a series of Turing tests held at Bletchley Park. According to Warwick, the tests strictly adhered to the statements made by Alan Turing in his papers. Warwick himself participated in the tests as a hidden human.[65] Results of the tests were discussed in a number of academic papers.[66][67] One paper, entitled "Human Misidentification in Turing Tests", became one of the top three most-downloaded papers in the Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.

In June 2014, Warwick helped Shah stage a series of Turing tests to mark the 60th anniversary of Alan Turing's death. The event was performed at the Royal Society, London. Warwick regarded the winning chatbot, "Eugene Goostman", as having "passed the Turing test for the first time" by fooling a third of the event's judges into making an incorrect identification, and termed this a "milestone".[68] A paper containing all of the transcripts involving Eugene Goostman entitled "Can Machines Think? A Report on Turing Test Experiments at the Royal Society", has also become one of the top three most-downloaded papers in the Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence.[69]

Warwick was criticised in the context of the 2014 Royal Society event, where he claimed that software program Eugene Goostman had passed the Turing test on the basis of its performance. The software successfully convinced over 30% of the judges who could not identify it as being a machine, on the basis of a five-minute text chat. Critics stated that the software's claim of being a young non-native English speaker weakened the spirit of the test, as any grammatical and semantic inconsistencies could be excused as a consequence of limited proficiency in the English language.[70][71][72][73] Some critics also claimed that the software's performance had been exceeded by other programs in the past.[70][71] However, the 2014 tests were entirely unrestricted in terms of discussion topics, whereas the previous tests referenced by the critics had been limited to very specific subject areas. Additionally, Warwick was criticised by editor and entrepreneur Mike Masnick for exaggerating the significance of the Eugene Goostman program to the press.[71]

Other work


Warwick was a member of the 2001 Higher Education Funding Council for England (unit 29) Research Assessment Exercise panel on Electrical and Electronic Engineering and was Deputy chairman for the same panel (unit 24) in 2008.[74] In March 2009, he was cited as being the inspiration of National Young Scientist of the Year, Peter Hatfield.[75]

Royal Institution Christmas Lectures


Warwick presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures in December 2000, entitled Rise of the Robots. Although the lectures were well received by some,[76] British computer scientist Simon Colton complained about the choice of Warwick prior to his appearance. He claimed that Warwick "is not a spokesman for our subject" (Artificial Intelligence) and "allowing him influence through the Christmas lectures is a danger to the public perception of science".[77] In response to Warwick's claims that computers could be creative, Colton, who is a Professor of Computational Creativity, also said: "the AI community has done real science to reclaim words such as creativity and emotion which they claim computers will never have".[78] Subsequent letters were generally positive; Ralph Rayner wrote: "With my youngest son, I attended all of the lectures and found them balanced and thought-provoking. They were not sensationalist. I applaud Warwick for his lectures".[79]

Awards and recognition


Warwick received the Future Health Technology Award in 2000,[80] and was presented with the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) Achievement Medal in 2004.[81] In 2008, he was awarded the Mountbatten Medal.[82] In 2009 he received the Marcellin Champagnat award from Universidad Marista Guadalajara and the Golden Eurydice Award.[83] In 2011 he received the Ellison-Cliffe Medal from the Royal Society of Medicine.[84] In 2014, he was elected to the membership of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts.[85] In 2018 Warwick was inducted into the International Academy for Systems and Cybernetic Sciences[86] and in 2020 he was awarded an Honorary Fellowship of the Cybernetics Society.[87]

He is the recipient of ten honorary doctorates, these being from Aston University,[88] Coventry University,[8][89] Robert Gordon University,[90][91][92] Bradford University,[93][94] University of Bedfordshire,[89] Portsmouth University,[95] Kingston University,[96] Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje,[97] Edinburgh Napier University,[98][99][100] and Galgotias University.[101][102]



Warwick has both his critics and endorsers, some of whom describe him as a "maverick".[103] Others see his work as "not very scientific" and more like "entertainment", whereas some regard him as "an extraordinarily creative experimenter", his presentations as "awesome" and his work as "profound".[104][105]



Warwick has written several books, articles and papers. A selection of his books:

  • Kevin Warwick (2001). QI: The Quest for Intelligence. Piatkus Books. ISBN 978-0-7499-2230-6.
  • Kevin Warwick (2004). I, Cyborg. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07215-4.
  • Kevin Warwick (2004). March of the Machines: The Breakthrough in Artificial Intelligence. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07223-9.
  • Kevin Warwick (30 August 2011). Artificial Intelligence: The Basics. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-56483-0. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  • Kevin Warwick and Huma Shah (2016). Turing's Imitation Game. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-05638-1.

Lectures (inaugural and keynote lectures):

Warwick is a regular presenter at the annual Careers Scotland Space School, University of Strathclyde.

He appeared at the 2009 World Science Festival[116] with Mary McDonnell, Nick Bostrom, Faith Salie and Hod Lipson.

See also



  1. ^ a b "WARWICK, Prof. Kevin". Who's Who 2014, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2014; online edn, Oxford University Press.(subscription required)
  2. ^ Kevin Warwick publications indexed by Google Scholar
  3. ^ a b Kevin Warwick at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  4. ^ a b Captain Cyborg accepts another degree from puny humans Archived 20 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Register, 26 July 2012
  5. ^ a b "Captain Cyborg Is Back! Kevin Warwick Predicts the Future". Slashdot. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014.
  6. ^ a b The Return of Captain Cyborg Archived 24 May 2021 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 29 April 2004
  7. ^ List of articles mentioning "Captain Cyborg" Archived 18 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine at The Register
  8. ^ a b "New Deputy Vice-Chancellor for Research at Coventry University". Coventry University. 20 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 June 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  9. ^ Delgado, A.; Kambhampati, C.; Warwick, K. (1995). "Dynamic recurrent neural network for system identification and control". IEE Proceedings - Control Theory and Applications. 142 (4): 307. doi:10.1049/ip-cta:19951873.
  10. ^ Zhu, Q. M.; Warwick, K.; Douce, J. L. (1991). "Adaptive general predictive controller for nonlinear systems". IEE Proceedings D - Control Theory and Applications. 138: 33. doi:10.1049/ip-d.1991.0005.
  11. ^ "A History of Keresley, Coventry". 14 March 2021. Archived from the original on 2 August 2020. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  12. ^ Warwick, Kevin (2004). I, Cyborg. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252072154.
  13. ^ "Ambient Intelligence Lab (AIL) – Ambient Intelligence". Cmu.edu. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2009.
  14. ^ "English – Centre for Intermedia – Advisory Board". University of Exeter College of Humanities. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  15. ^ "The Pinkerton Lecture 2012". The Institution of Engineering and Technology. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  16. ^ Complete list of CHRISTMAS LECTURES. The Royal Institution
  17. ^ Warwick, K. (1981). "Self-tuning regulators—a state space approach". International Journal of Control. 33 (5): 839. doi:10.1080/00207178108922958.
  18. ^ Warwick, K. (1990). "Relationship between åström control and the kalman linear regulator—caines revisited". Optimal Control Applications and Methods. 11 (3): 223. doi:10.1002/oca.4660110304.
  19. ^ Warwick, K. (1983). "Using the Cayley-Hamilton theorem with N-partitioned matrices". IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. 28 (12): 1127. doi:10.1109/TAC.1983.1103193.
  20. ^ Warwick, K, Ekwue, A and Aggarwal, R (eds). "Artificial intelligence techniques in power systems", Institution of Electrical Engineers Press, 1997
  21. ^ Sutanto, E.L.; Warwick, K. (1995). "Multivariable cluster analysis for high-speed industrial machinery". IEE Proceedings - Science, Measurement and Technology. 142 (5): 417–423. doi:10.1049/ip-smt:19952161.
  22. ^ Marks, Paul (13 August 2008). "Rise of the rat-brained robots". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 26 September 2009.
  23. ^ "Entertainment: To the beat of the byte". BBC News. 1 July 1998. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
  24. ^ Radford, Tim (17 July 2003). "University robot ruled too scary". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  25. ^ "Kevin Warwick, Professor of Cybernetics". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
  26. ^ "Professor Kevin Warwick – Frequently Asked Questions". University of Reading. Archived from the original on 28 February 2009. (see final question)
  27. ^ Warwick, K. (2010). "Implications and consequences of robots with biological brains". Ethics and Information Technology. 12 (3): 223. doi:10.1007/s10676-010-9218-6. S2CID 1263639.
  28. ^ Human Enhancement--The way ahead Archived 1 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Ubiquity.acm.org (15 March 2012). Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  29. ^ PEEP Physics Ethics Education Project: People Archived 11 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Peep.ac.uk. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  30. ^ Report on Forward Engagement and The Office of Technological and Strategic Assessment. THE PRESIDENT'S PANEL ON FORWARD ENGAGEMENT (2003)
  31. ^ "Neurotechnology – About the Working Party | Nuffield Council on Bioethics". Nuffieldbioethics.org. Archived from the original on 13 June 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  32. ^ HuntGrubbe, Charlotte (22 July 2007). "The blade runner generation". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  33. ^ Wu, D; Warwick, K; Ma, Z; Gasson, M. N.; Burgess, J. G.; Pan, S; Aziz, T. Z. (2010). "Prediction of Parkinson's disease tremor onset using a radial basis function neural network based on particle swarm optimization". International Journal of Neural Systems. 20 (2): 109–16. doi:10.1142/S0129065710002292. PMID 20411594.
  34. ^ Cámara, C, Isasi, P, Warwick, K, Ruiz, V, Aziz, T, Stein, J and Bakštein, E: "Resting Tremor Classification and Detection in Parkinson's Disease Patients", Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Vol.16, pp.88–97, February 2015.
  35. ^ "英国类人机器人大赛 寓教于乐两相宜" [British humanoid robot competition is fun and educational]. 6 July 2007. Archived from the original on 23 March 2008.
  36. ^ Kevin Warwick at IMDb
  37. ^ a b c Kevin Warwick Archived 13 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine. IMDb
  38. ^ "Cover Browser". Wired. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014.
  39. ^ "Reading University Cybernetics EDM #964". edm.parliament.uk. 21 March 2005. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  40. ^ "Doctor Who Restoration Team website - Attack of the Cybermen". Archived from the original on 2 March 2009.
  41. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - the Museum of Curiosity, Series 6, Llewellyn, Rocos, Warwick". Archived from the original on 2 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  42. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - Midweek, Sir Roger Bannister, Prof Kevin Warwick, Rachael Stirling, Diana Darke". Archived from the original on 27 November 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  43. ^ Warwick, K: "I, Cyborg", University of Illinois Press, 2004, p 66
  44. ^ Bushko, Renata G., ed. (2000). Future of Health Technology (Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, V. 80). IOS Press. p. 283. ISBN 978-158603091-9.
  45. ^ "Happy, a Reading University robot". BBC. 2014. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  46. ^ Warwick, K: "I, Cyborg", University of Illinois Press, 2004
  47. ^ "-BA criticised over denying boarding to robotic cat". Airline Industry Information. 22 October 1999. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.
  48. ^ UMI. "Inside the UMI RTX Robot Arm" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  49. ^ Delaney, Sam (31 March 2007). "Now then, now then". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  50. ^ "Make your own robot at home". Berkshire Live. 29 August 2001. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  51. ^ a b Warwick, K.; Gasson, M.; Hutt, B.; Goodhew, I.; Kyberd, P.; Andrews, B.; Teddy, P.; Shad, A. (2003). "The Application of Implant Technology for Cybernetic Systems". Archives of Neurology. 60 (10): 1369–73. doi:10.1001/archneur.60.10.1369. PMID 14568806.
  52. ^ "Professor has world's first silicon chip implant". Independent.co.uk. 25 August 1998. Archived from the original on 15 October 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  53. ^ Wired Magazine 8.02 (February 2000), 'Cyborg 1.0: Interview with Kevin Warwick' Archived 27 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 25 December 2006.
  54. ^ "Professor becomes world's first cyborg". Ananova. 22 March 2002. Archived from the original on 23 March 2002. Retrieved 17 October 2019.
  55. ^ Warwick, K, Hutt, B, Gasson, M and Goodhew, I. "An attempt to extend human sensory capabilities by means of implant technology", Proceedings IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Hawaii, pp.1663–1668, October 2005
  56. ^ Warwick, K.; Gasson, M.; Hutt, B.; Goodhew, I.; Kyberd, P.; Schulzrinne, H.; Wu, X. (2004). "Thought Communication and Control: A First Step using Radiotelegraphy". IEE Proceedings - Communications. 151 (3): 185. doi:10.1049/ip-com:20040409.
  57. ^ Kyberd, P. J.; Murgia, A.; Gasson, M.; Tjerks, T.; Metcalf, C.; Chappell, P. H.; Warwick, K.; Lawson, S. E. M.; Barnhill, T. (2009). "Case studies to demonstrate the range of applications of the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure". British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 72 (5): 212. doi:10.1177/030802260907200506. S2CID 3293666.
  58. ^ Dvorsky, George (26 April 2004). "Evolving Towards Telepathy". Betterhumans. Archived from the original on 6 July 2007.
  59. ^ Tracking device implant criticised | Community Care Archived 19 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, 5 September 2002
  60. ^ Weissert, Will (15 July 2004). "Mexico implants microchips for ID". Arizona Daily Star. Archived from the original on 13 August 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2015.[failed verification]
  61. ^ VeriChip. "Implantable Verification Solution for SE Asia". Inforlexus. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006.
  62. ^ Scheeres, Julia (25 January 2002). "Kidnapped? GPS to the Rescue". Wired News. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008.
  63. ^ Scheeres, Julia (15 February 2002). "Politician Wants to 'Get Chipped'". Wired News. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008.
  64. ^ "Can a machine think? – Results from the 18th Loebner Prize contest". University of Reading. Archived from the original on 14 October 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  65. ^ Warwick, K, Shah, H and Moor, J (2013). "Some Implications of a Sample of Practical Turing Tests". Minds and Machines. 23 (2): 163–177. doi:10.1007/s11023-013-9301-y. S2CID 13933358.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  66. ^ Warwick, K; Shah, H (2014). "Good Machine Performance in Turing's Imitation Game". IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games. 6 (3): 289. doi:10.1109/TCIAIG.2013.2283538. S2CID 16283359. Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  67. ^ Warwick, K; Shah, H (2014). "Effects of Lying in Practical Turing Tests". AI & Society. 31: 5–15. doi:10.1007/s00146-013-0534-3. S2CID 18207951.
  68. ^ "Turing Test success marks milestone in computing history". University of Reading. 8 June 2014. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  69. ^ Warwick, K. and Shah, H., Can Machines Think? A Report on Turing Test Experiments at the Royal Society, Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, DOI:10.1080/0952813X.2015.1055826, 2015
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