Key Biscayne, Florida
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Village of Key Biscayne
U.S. Census Bureau map showing village boundaries
|Incorporated||June 18, 1991|
|• Mayor||Michael W. Davey|
|• Vice Mayor||Allison McCormick|
|• Councilmembers||Luis Lauredo, |
Katie Petros, and Ignacio J. Segurola
|• Village Manager||Andrea Agha|
|• Village Clerk||Jennifer Medina|
|• Total||1.71 sq mi (4.42 km2)|
|• Land||1.25 sq mi (3.23 km2)|
|• Water||0.46 sq mi (1.19 km2) 8.63%|
|Elevation||3 ft (1 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||10,301.52/sq mi (3,976.63/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|Area code(s)||305, 786|
|GNIS feature ID||0285075|
Key Biscayne lies south of Miami Beach and east of Miami. The village is connected to Miami via the Rickenbacker Causeway, originally built in 1947. Because of its low elevation and direct exposure to the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually among the first Miami areas to be evacuated before an oncoming hurricane.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.4 square miles (3.6 km2). 1.3 square miles (3.4 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it (8.63%) is water.
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While there had been earlier schemes to develop a town on Key Biscayne, it wasn't until the opening of the four-mile (6 km) long Rickenbacker Causeway from Miami to Virginia Key and on to Key Biscayne in 1947 that the island was opened up to large scale residential development. The northern two-thirds of the island had been operated as the largest coconut plantation in the continental United States during the first half of the 20th century. In 1940 the Matheson family donated over 800 acres (3.2 km2) of their land to Dade County for a public park (Crandon Park) in exchange for a commitment that the county would build a causeway to the island. The remaining Matheson property, stretching across the middle of the island, was then sold off to developers. Starting in 1951, the Mackle Construction Company offered new homes on the island for US$9,540, with just US$500 down. A U.S. Post Office contract branch was opened, the Community Church started holding services in an old coconut-husking shed, and the Key Biscayne Elementary School opened in 1952.
The southern third of Key Biscayne, which included Cape Florida, was owned by James Deering and, after his death, by his brother Charles, for 35 years. In 1948 José Manuel Áleman, a Cuban politician in exile, bought the Cape Florida property from the Deering estate. After Áleman died in 1951, his widow, Elena Santeiro Garcia, added to her Cape Florida property by buying an ocean-to-bay strip that had been part of the Matheson property. This strip included a canal that had been dug by William Matheson in the 1920s, and which extended from the bay across most of the island. The land north of this canal was developed as part of what is now the Village of Key Biscayne. Garcia sold the Cape Florida property in 1966 to the state of Florida. This land became Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park, which opened January 1, 1967.
President Richard Nixon purchased the first of his three waterfront homes, forming a compound known as the Florida White House, in 1969 to be close to his close friend and confidant, Bebe Rebozo and industrialist Robert Abplanalp (inventor of the modern spray can valve). Bebe Rebozo, owner of the Key Biscayne Bank, was indicted for laundering a $100,000 donation from Howard Hughes to the Nixon election campaign. President Kennedy and Nixon met for the first time after the 1960 Election loss by Nixon in an oceanfront villa at the old Key Biscayne Hotel. Plans for the Watergate break-in at Democratic headquarters were discussed at the Key Biscayne Nixon compound and, as the Watergate scandal unfolded, Nixon spent more time in seclusion there. Nixon visited Key Biscayne more than 50 times between 1969 and 1973. The U.S. Department of Defense spent $400,000 constructing a helicopter landing pad in Biscayne Bay adjacent to the Nixon compound and when Nixon sold his property, including the helicopter pad, there were public accusations that he enriched himself at taxpayer expense.
The area was incorporated as a new municipality in 1991 - the first new city in Miami-Dade County in over fifty years. Rafael Conte was elected the first mayor along with members of the founding Village Council including Clifford Brody, Mortimer Fried, Michael Hill, Luis Lauredo, Joe Rasco, and Raymond Sullivan. The municipality's first manager was C. Samuel Kissinger and the first clerk was Guido Inguanzo. The incorporation of the Village provided local control over taxes and future development.
In 1992, Hurricane Andrew flooded some homes and businesses on Key Biscayne but the eye wall passed over uninhabited Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park which received the brunt of the storm. The storm damage was a blessing for the park because it destroyed all the non-native vegetation that the state had been trying to eradicate. Federal and State funding allowed the replanting with native vegetation making the park a showplace natural area. In recent years, the construction of several large resort hotels, condominium complexes and shopping centers on the island has affected the once bucolic island life, as commercialism has continued to accelerate at a frenetic pace. The Village has its own fire, police and public elementary and middle school. The millage tax rate remains one of the lowest of any municipality in Miami-Dade County. In 2004, the Village completed the construction of a civic center including fire, police and administration buildings and a recreation and community center with indoor multi use courts, outdoor swimming pool and a renowned musical theater program.
Key Biscayne has a tropical savanna climate. Key Biscayne experiences hot, humid summers and warm, dry winters. The island is in USDA plant zone 10b to 11a, and is frost free. Due to its island location, Key Biscayne is subject to cooler highs than Miami year-round. Hurricanes threaten the island occasionally, though landfalls are rare. Precipitation is lower than that of Miami, as the Atlantic Ocean inhibits summer thunderstorm convection.
|Climate data for Cape Florida, 2000-2010 normals, extremes 1895-present|
|Record high °F (°C)||85
|Average high °F (°C)||74.1
|Average low °F (°C)||59.8
|Record low °F (°C)||28
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.60
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.3||6.2||6.6||6.0||9.4||15.9||15.8||15.2||16.1||11.9||8.9||7.5||126.8|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
|Key Biscayne Demographics|
|2010 Census||Key Biscayne||Miami-Dade County||Florida|
|Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010||+17.5%||+10.8%||+17.6%|
|Population density||10,070.7/sq mi||1,315.5/sq mi||350.6/sq mi|
|White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)||96.2%||73.8%||75.0%|
|(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)||36.5%||15.4%||57.9%|
|Black or African-American||0.4%||18.9%||16.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||61.6%||65.0%||22.5%|
|Native American or Native Alaskan||0.1%||0.2%||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian||0.0%||0.0%||0.1%|
|Two or more races (Multiracial)||1.2%||2.4%||2.5%|
|Some Other Race||1.0%||3.2%||3.6%|
As of 2010[update], there were 7,072 households, out of which 33.5% were vacant. In 2000, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.9% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.99.
In 2000, the village population was spread out, with 24.2% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 26.0% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.8 males.
In 2000, the median income for a household in the village was $86,599, and the median income for a family was $107,610. Males had a median income of $86,322 versus $46,765 for females. The per capita income for the village was $54,213.
As of 2000[update], speakers of Spanish as a first language accounted 59.73% of residents, while English made up 30.84%, Portuguese was at 2.83%, French at 2.67%, Italian consisted of 1.67%, and German was the mother tongue of 1.47% of the population.
As of 2000[update], Key Biscayne had the thirty-first highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 15.53% of the populace. It had the eleventh highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 7.07% of the village's population, and the fourteenth highest percentage of Peruvian residents in the US, at 2.48% of its population (tied with Glen Cove, New York.) It also had the fourth most Venezuelans in the US, at 2.36%, while it had the twenty-first highest percentage of Brazilians, at 1.50% of all residents (tied with Sunny Isles Beach and five other areas.) Key Biscayne's Nicaraguan community had the forty-second highest percentage of residents, which was at 1.02% of the US population. Key Biscayne is home to 0.70% of the US' Chilean community, making it the 73rd highest concentration of Chileans in the US.
Controversy over hotels and condominiums on Key Biscayne
As noted above, the construction of several condominium complexes in Key Biscayne caused the population to soar. In 2007, voters approved an amendment to the village charter requiring that future land use changes be approved by voters. In 2008, the village council, saying that requiring community voting on zoning changes infringed on its responsibility, submitted another proposal to revise the charter. But on November 4, 2008, voters overwhelmingly rejected the council's proposed change, defeating the amendment by a more than two-to-one margin.
The controversy over density in the village is related to the fate of the Sonesta hotel property on the eastern side of the island.
There are several large condominium and hotel complexes on Key Biscayne, including
- The Ritz-Carlton Hotel
- The Grand Bay
- The Ocean Club
- The Key Colony complex of four buildings, Botanica, EmeraldBay, Oceansound, and Tidemark. The Botanica building has some units that allow short-term rentals
- The Towers of Key Biscayne
- Casa del Mar is the tallest building—27 floors
- Oceana is the newest building, constructed in the land of old Sonesta Hotel
The Islander News covers news, events and happenings on the island. It is the only newspaper in South Florida catering exclusively to residents of Key Biscayne. They also publish "Island Life" The Official Guide and Directory of the Key Biscayne Chamber of Commerce. Published annually, "Island Life" contains community information and a comprehensive business directory of Chamber members. The Chamber also publishes a bi-weekly e-newsletter with a circulation of over 1,000.
Key Biscayne Magazine is a lifestyle magazine based on the island. The magazine's tagline is, "Island Living at Its Finest."
Miami-Dade County Public Schools serves Key Biscayne. The Key Biscayne K-8 Center serves Key Biscayne. Middle school students may attend Ponce de Leon Middle School in Coral Gables instead of the Key Biscayne School. High school students are zoned to Coral Gables High School.
St. Agnes Academy is a Catholic private school on the island located at 122 Harbor Drive. It serves pre-k3 to eighth grade.
- Jaime Bayly, writer
- Raul Boesel, race car driver
- Mary Joe Fernandez, tennis star
- Emerson Fittipaldi, ex-F1 and Indianapolis 500 winner, Indycar driver
- Richard Nixon, location of former President Nixon's Florida White House
- Isabel Pérez Farfante, carcinologist
- "Bebe" Rebozo, banker and confidante of Richard Nixon
- Eddie Rickenbacker and his wife Adelaide
- Andy Garcia, Actor
- Juanes, Colombian Singer
- Arthur Hanlon, American pianist
- Cher, actress and singer
- Martin Margulies, billionaire art collector and fixture of Miami's high society
- Brad Pitt, actor, once owned a home in Key Biscayne
- Timothy Ferris, author, went to Key Biscayne Elementary School
- Juan Pablo Montoya, Colombian Race car driver.
- Fonseca (singer), Colombian Singer.
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- Key Biscayne also hosts the Tennis Center at Crandon Park, former home to the Miami Open Tennis Tournament, and a golf course, along with many amenities for water sports and fishing.
- Key Biscayne has a Visitors Center, open 24/7, 365 days a year, located in the Village Hall, 88 West McIntyre Street #100, adjacent to the Police Station. Staffed M-F from 9am to 5pm
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 1, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
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- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "MLA Data Center Results of Key Biscayne, FL". Modern Language Association. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Ancestry Map of Colombian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Ancestry Map of Peruvian Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Ancestry Map of Venezuelan Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Ancestry Map of Brazilian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Ancestry Map of Nicaraguan Communities". Epodunk.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved November 1, 2007.
- "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in Chile". City-Data.com. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Key Biscayne Ordinance setting referendum Archived July 21, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2008-11-01
- The Miami Herald, 2008-11-05
- http://www.islandernews.com/ accessed June 13, 2018
- http://www.keybiscaynechamber.org/ accessed June 13, 2018
- http://keybiscaynemag.com/ accessed June 13, 2018
- http://keybiscayne.dadeschools.net/ accessed June 13, 2018.
- "KEY BISCAYNE K-8 CENTER School Legal Boundaries Description." Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Retrieved on April 25, 2013.
- "PONCE DE LEON MS School Legal Boundaries Description." Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Retrieved on April 25, 2013.
- "Coral Gables SHS School Legal Boundaries Description." Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Retrieved on April 25, 2013.
- "MAST Academy about to be expanded for Key Biscayne students." Miami Herald. June 13, 2013. Retrieved on April 26, 2013.
- Josephson, Kelly (May 12, 2017). "School district adds 22 6th-grade seats at MAST Academy". The Islander News. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
- "Key Biscayne Branch." Miami-Dade Public Library System. Retrieved on April 27, 2013.
- Cubilla, Rachel (November 29, 2018). "Fittipaldi Family". Key Biscayne Magazine. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Press, Associated. "Nixon presidential retreat in Key Biscayne torn down". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Pearson, Richard (May 10, 1998). "Charles `Bebe' Rebozo, 85, Dies". www.washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2000. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Wadler, Joyce (April 27, 2006). "The Soul of Havana on Biscayne Bay". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Coffee, Rod. "Key Biscayne music man headlines Coconut Grove's festival this weekend". IslanderNews.com. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- "THE CHER HOUSE". Key Biscayne Magazine. July 13, 2018. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Pogrebin, Robin (December 6, 2015). "In a Red-Hot Art Market, the Collector Martin Margulies Stays Cool". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 13, 2019.
- Curtiss, Muriel (1989). "Key Biscayne - An isle of palms" (PDF). South Florida History Magazine (1). pp. 6–9 – via HistoryMiami.
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