Kfar Kama Adyghe dialect

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Kfar Kama dialect
Native to Israel Kfar Kama
Native speakers
3,000  (date missing)[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Kfar Kama dialect (Adyghe: Кфар Камэм ишапсыгъэбзэ) is a subdialect of the Shapsug dialect of Adyghe spoken by the villagers of the village Kfar Kama in Israel.

Phonology[edit]

The Kfar Kama dialect shares a large number of features with other Shapsug dialects such as dropping and not pronouncing н [n], м [m] and р [r] in some cases, and having the consonants сӏ [], гь [ɡʲ], кь [], кӏь [kʲʼ] and чъу [t͡ʃʷ] that correspond to цӏ [t͡sʼ], дж [d͡ʒ], ч [t͡ʃ], кӏ [t͡ʃʼ] and цу [t͡sʷ] in other Adyghe dialects (e.g. Abzakh, Temirgoy and Bzhedug).[1][2][3][4]

The consonant [h][edit]

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
now həgʲ d͡ʒə
right now hədadam d͡ʒədadam

The consonant [l][edit]

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Adyghe Temirgoy Kabardian
seven blə bɮə bɮə
boy / young man t͡ʃʼaːla t͡ʃʼaːɮa ɕʼaːɮa

In some few cases [ɬ] became [l] :

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
man къулфыгъэ qʷəlfəʁa хъулъфыгъэ χʷəɬfəʁa
woamn бзылфыгъэ bzəlfəʁa бзылъфыгъэ bzəɬfəʁa
to put on тэлхьэн talħan тэлъхьэн taɬħan
brother-in-law малхъо maːlχʷa малъхъо maːɬχʷa
lion аслан aːslaːn аслъан aːsɬaːn
to talk псэлыхъон psaləχʷan псэлъыхъон psaɬəχʷan

Uvular consonants[edit]

In some cases [q] and [qʷ] became [χ] and [χʷ] :

Word Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Kfar Kama dialect
IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic
son qʷa къо qʷa къо qʷa къуэ
grave qa къэ χa хъэ q͡χa кхъэ
male χʷə хъу χʷə хъу χʷə хъу
pig qʷa къо χʷa хъо q͡χʷa кхъуэ
cheese q͡ʷaːja къуае χʷaːja хъуае q͡χʷej кхъуей
voice/sound maːqa макъэ maːχa махъэ maːq макъ
ship qʷəħa къухьэ qʷaħ къохь q͡χʷəħ кхъухь
peer qʷəʐə къужъы qʷəʐə къужъы q͡χʷəʑə кхъужьы
man χʷəɬfəʁa хъулъфыгъэ qʷəlfəʁa къулфыгъэ χʷəɬxʷəʁa хъулъхугъэ
ant qaːmzaɡʷ къамзэгу χaːnzaɡʷ хъанзэгу χʷəmpʼat͡sʼad͡ʒ хъумпӏэцӏэдж

Grammar differences[edit]

Nouns[edit]

In the instrumental case the noun has the suffix -мгьэ (-mɡʲa) or -гьэ (-gʲa) unlike other dialects that has the suffix -мкIэ (-mt͡ʃa) or -кIэ (-t͡ʃa).

For example:

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
(using) Adyghe language адыгэбзэгьэ aːdəɣabzagʲa адыгэбзэкӀэ aːdəɣabzat͡ʃa
(using) the leg лъакъомгьэ ɬaːqʷamgʲa лъакъомкIэ ɬaːqʷamt͡ʃa
with (using) the pencil къэлэмгьэ qalamgʲa къэлэмкIэ qalamt͡ʃa

Future tense[edit]

In this dialect the verb has the suffix ~эт (~at) and in some cases ~ыт (~ət) unlike other dialects such as Chemguy that has the Suffix ~щт (~ɕt).

For example:

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Chemguy dialect
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
he will go мэкIот makʷʼat мэкIощт makʷʼaɕt
he will say иIот jəʔʷat иIощт jəʔʷaɕt

Big suffix[edit]

  • The standard Adyghe's suffix -шхо /-ʃxʷa/ which means big or mighty is -фэ /-fˠa/ in Kfar Kama dialect :
Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
mighty God тхьэфэ tħafˠa тхьэшхо tħaʃxʷa
large house унэфэ wənafˠa унэшхо wənaʃxʷa

Unique words[edit]

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Standard Adyghe Standard Kabardian
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
man къулфыгъэ qʷəlfəʁa хъулъфыгъэ χʷəɬfəʁa хъулъхугъэ χʷəɬxʷəʁa
few, bit тэкӏу takʷʼ тӏэкӏу tʼakʷʼ тӏэкӏу tʼakʷʼ
yard щао ɕaːwa щагу ɕaːɡʷə - -
poor тхьамыщкь yħaməɕkʲ тхьамыкӏ yħamət͡ʃʼ тхьэмыщкӏэ yħaməɕt͡ʃʼa
today нэпэ napa непэ najpa нобэ nawba
day after tomorrow нэущымыщкь nawɕəməɕkʲ неущымыкӏ nawɕəmət͡ʃʼ  ?  ?
big фэ fˠa джадэ d͡ʒaːda  ?  ?
worm хьаблыу ħaːbləw хьамлыу ħaːmɮəw хьэмбылыу ħambəɮəw
to dance угьын wəɡʲən къэшъон qaʃʷan къэфэн qafan
spider багьэ baːɡʲa бэджы bad͡ʒə бэдж bad͡ʒ
ant хъанзэгу χaːnzaɡʷ къамзэгу qːamzaɡʷ хъумпӏэцӏэдж χʷəmpʼat͡sʼad͡ʒ
cheese хъуае χʷaːja къуае qʷaːja кхъуей qχʷej
ship къохь qʷaħ къухьэ qʷəħa кхъухь qχʷəħ
voice, sound махъэ maːχa макъэ maːqa макъ maːq
pig хъо χʷa къо qʷa кхъуэ qχʷa
grave хъэ χa къэ qa кхъэ qχa
dog хьэжъ ħaʐ хьэ ħa хьэ ħa
to believe шӏошӏун ʂʷaʂʷən шӏошъын ʃʷʼaʂəm фӏэщын fʼaɕəm
blue шъухъуатӏэ ʃʷəχʷaːtʼa шхъуантӏэ ʃχʷaːntʼa шхъуантӏэ ʃχʷaːntʼa
pink плъыжьгьэфы pɬəʑɡʲafə тхьэмбылышъу tħambəɮəʃʷ  ?  ?
orange гъожьыплъыжь ʁʷaʑəpɬəʑ гъоплъышъо ʁʷapɬəʃʷa  ?  ?
brown къэхьыуашъу qaħəwaːʃʷ етӏагъо jatʼaːʁʷa  ?  ?
swing кьэрхъон kʲarχʷan хъэрен χarajn  ?  ?
frog хьантыкъуакъу ħaːntəqʷaːqʷ хьантӏаркъу ħaːntʼaːrqʷ хьэндыркъуакъуэ ħandərqʷaːqʷa
turtle хьэнчэмыӏу ħant͡ʃaməʔʷ хьэдэпчэмыӏу ħadapt͡ʃaməʔʷ шылъэгу ʃəɬaɡʷ
right (side) жъабгъо ʐaːbʁʷa джабгъо d͡ʒaːbʁʷa ижь jəʑ
to laugh at шӏыгушӏкьын ʃʼəɡʷəʃʼkʲən дэхьащхын daħaːɕxən  ?  ?
nothing зиӏ ziʔ зыцый zət͡səj  ?  ?
friend гъусэ ʁʷəsa ныбджэгъу nəbd͡ʒaʁʷ ныбжьэгъу nəbʑaʁʷ
king парчъыхь paːrt͡ʂəħ пачъыхь paːt͡ʂəħ пащтыхь paːɕtəħ

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Shapsoug dialect (French)

External links[edit]