Kfar Saba

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Kfar Sava

כְּפַר סָבָא
City (from 1962)
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • ISO 259Kfar Sava
 • Translit.Kfar Sava
תמונה פנורמית של בית אהרונוביץ' ורחבת קניון ערים.jpg
Flag of Kfar Sava
Flag
Official logo of Kfar Sava
Kfar Sava is located in Central Israel
Kfar Sava
Kfar Sava
Kfar Sava is located in Israel
Kfar Sava
Kfar Sava
Coordinates: 32°10′17″N 34°54′30″E / 32.17139°N 34.90833°E / 32.17139; 34.90833Coordinates: 32°10′17″N 34°54′30″E / 32.17139°N 34.90833°E / 32.17139; 34.90833
Country Israel
DistrictCentral
Founded1903
Government
 • MayorRafi Saar
Area
 • Total14,169 dunams (14.169 km2 or 5.471 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)
 • Total110,456
 • Density7,800/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
Websitewww.kfar-saba.muni.il (in Hebrew)

Kfar Saba (Hebrew: כְּפַר סָבָא‎), officially Kefar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Central District of Israel. In 2019 it had a population of 110,456. The population in Kvar Saba is exclusively Jewish[1].

Name[edit]

The origins of the name are not known – in Hebrew and Aramaic it means 'grandfather village'.

Historical background[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Kfar Saba (ancient Capharsaba) was an important settlement during the Second Temple period in ancient Judea,[2][3] and is mentioned for the first time in the writings of Josephus, in his account of the attempt of Alexander Jannaeus to halt an invasion from the north led by Antiochus (Antiquities, book 13, chapter 15). Kfar Saba appears in the Talmud in connection to corn tithing and the Capharsaba sycamore fig tree.[2] Kfar Saba is mentioned in the Mosaic of Rehob, the oldest known Talmudic text, which dates from around the 3rd century CE.

Excavations on the site have revealed the remains of a large Roman bathhouse. In the Byzantine period the ruins of the bathhouse were first converted into fish pools, and later into some form of industrial installation.[4]

Early Muslim period[edit]

Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 7th century, the Palestinian[dubious ] village of Kafr Saba was established[dubious ] in the area. Around 985 CE, Al-Muqaddasi described it as a village with a large mosque on the road to Damascus.[5] In 1047, Nasir-i-Khusraw described it as a town on the road to Ramla rich in fig and olive trees.[citation needed]

History of modern Kfar Saba[edit]

Mausoleum of Nabi Yamin/Benjamin's Tomb

Beginnings (1898-1913)[edit]

In 1898, the Jewish town of Kfar Saba was established as a moshava on 7,500 dunams of land purchased from the Arab village.[6] Despite attractive advertisements in Jerusalem and London, attempts to sell plots to private individuals were unsuccessful, as the land was located in a desolate, neglected area far from any other Jewish settlement.[3] The Ottoman pasha of Nablus, to whose governorate the land belonged, refused to give building permits, therefore the first settlers lived in huts made of clay and straw. They earned their living by growing almonds, grapes and olives. A well was dug in 1906. Most of the manual laborers on the land were peasants from Qalqilya.[3] In 1910, an Arab guard employed by the landowners shot at a group of almond thieves from Qalqilya, killing one. An Arab mob then descended on Kfar Saba, beating residents, breaking and looting equipment, and taking two Jewish guards prisoner.[7][8] The situation was defused when reinforcements from Petah Tikva arrived, and a peace was negotiated. This attack drew widespread public attention among Jews in Palestine and around the world, and it was subsequently decided to turn Kfar Saba into a permanent settlement, even without building permits. In 1912, the construction of twelve single-story permanent houses began along a route that is now Herzl Street. The houses were camouflaged due to the lack of building permits. Construction was finished in 1913.[9]

Kfar Saba 1913

World War I[edit]

When World War I broke out in 1914, the Ottoman authorities harassed the residents, confiscating work animals and crops. The 1915 Palestine locust infestation destroyed vegetation in the area. Before Kfar Saba had fully recovered, about a thousand Jewish refugees of the Tel Aviv and Jaffa deportation who were seeking shelter arrived. The town's few houses could not accommodate the large number of refugees, and many died due to the harsh sanitary conditions.[9]

Aerial photograph of Kfar Saba taken by the German Air Force during World War I

In the Palestine Campaign of the war, Kfar Saba was on the front line between British General Edmund Allenby's Egypt Expeditionary Force and the Ottoman Army for almost a year, and by the time of the British victory in September 1918, it had been destroyed.[9]

British Mandate[edit]

Following Kfar Saba's destruction in World War I, residents began rebuilding the town. During the 1921 Jaffa riots, Kfar Saba, then a small and isolated town, was evacuated on orders of the Haganah. It was attacked during the riots. In May 1921 the original residents returned and found their homes had been looted and burned. They began to rebuild the town for a third time, and it slowly recovered. In 1924 additional settlers joined Kfar Saba. In this period the moshava began to redevelop as cultivation of citrus fruit began, replacing almonds. The first elections for the were held.[10][citation needed]

In August 1947, a Jewish man was found shot to death outside the town.[11]

1947-48 war[edit]

In December 1947, as the civil war between the Arab and Jewish communities got underway, leaders of both sides in the area pledged to keep the peace between the local communities.[12] In the following months, Kfar Saba was attacked by local Arab militia from the nearby Arab village of Kafr Saba. The Arab Liberation Army (ALA), an outfit consisting of volunteers from several neighboring Arab countries, sent troops to aid in these attacks.[13] Kfar Saba was also subjected to Arab attacks from other Arab villages in the area. Jewish workers were attacked on their way to work in the fields, and attempts were made to cut its transport links.[citation needed]

On May 13, 1948, one day before Israeli independence was declared, Jewish forces captured the Arab village of Kafr Saba. The Arab population fled ahead of the Jewish forces.[citation needed]

State of Israel[edit]

In May 1948, when Israeli independence was declared, Kfar Saba had a population of approximately 5,500. Following the war, it rapidly expanded as many Jewish immigrants from Arab and Muslim countries settled there, and new housing projects were built to accommodate them. The town expanded over the deserted Arab village of Kafr Saba, the site of which is today located in the Shikun Kaplan area of the city. As it became obvious that agriculture alone could not support the economy, an industrial zone was established. In 1953, the population was about 15,000. Meir Hospital was opened in 1956.[14]

The rapid growth of the town meant that its status as a moshava was outdated, and it was granted city status in 1962, with head of the local council, Mordechai Surkis, becoming its first mayor.[14] The city had a population of 19,000 at the time. After receiving its city status, a court, a police branch, and offices of the National Insurance Institute and the Israel Tax Authority were established in Kfar Saba. Agriculture also continued to decline in importance in the city's economy as new factories were built. Despite this, the city still had thousands of acres of orchards in the late 1960s.[citation needed]

During the Six-Day War in 1967, two neighborhoods in Kfar Saba were shelled by Jordanian artillery, and an attack on a factory by Jordanian warplanes killed four workers. Following the war, the population increased as many people moved to Kfar Saba from the Gush Dan area, and during Soviet-Jewish immigration to Israel in the early 1970s, the city took in many Soviet immigrants and established an immigrant absorption center. In 1977, Kfar Saba had a population of 35,000.[citation needed]

First and Second Intifada[edit]

Kfar Saba is located just across the Green Line from the Palestinian city of Qalqilya. During times of relative peace, residents of Kfar Saba would shop in Qalqilya: this practice ended at the start of the First Intifada in 1987. In the following years, Kfar Saba became a frequent target of terrorist attacks. In May 2001, a Palestinian Arab suicide bomber wearing an explosive belt killed a doctor and wounded 50 at a bus stop in Kfar Saba.[15] In March 2002, a Palestinian terrorist opened fire on passersby at a major intersection, killing an Israeli girl and wounding 16 before being shot dead.[16] In April 2003, a Palestinian suicide bomber blew himself up at the Kfar Saba train station during the morning rush hour, killing a security guard and wounding 10 bystanders.[17]

Demographics[edit]

Hadarim neighborhood, Kfar Saba

The 1922 census of Palestine listed the population of Kfar Saba as 14 Jews.[18] By the 1931 census it had grown to 1,405 inhabitants, all Jews, in 395 houses.[19]

In the 1945 statistics, the town had a population of 4,320 Jews.[20][21]

According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), in 2001, the ethnic makeup of the city was 99.9% Jewish and 0.1% Others. Additionally, there were 523 immigrant residents. Also according to the CBS, there were 37,000 males and 39,600 females in 2001. The population of the city was spread out, with 31.1% 19 years of age or younger, 16.3% between 20 and 29, 17.7% between 30 and 44, 20.2% from 45 to 59, 3.5% from 60 to 64, and 11.3% 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate was 2.0% for that year.

The city is ranked high on the socio-economic scale (8 out of 10).[22] Kfar Saba has a listed population surpassing 110,000 as of 2019.

Economy[edit]

Arim Mall in downtown Kfar Saba

According to CBS, there were 31,528 salaried workers and 2,648 self-employed in Kfar Saba in 2000. The mean monthly wage in 2000 for a salaried worker was ILS 7,120, a real change of 10.1% over the course of 2000. Salaried males had a mean monthly wage of ILS 9,343 (a real change of 9.9%) versus ILS 5,033 for females (a real change of 9.7%). The mean income for the self-employed was 8,980. 1,015 people received unemployment benefits and 1,682 people received an income guarantee.

In May 2004 the exploration company Givot Olam said that the Meged-4 oil well, located northeast of Kfar Saba, has exceeded original predictions and contains an extremely valuable deposit of oil.[23]

Schools and religious institutions[edit]

Currently, in Kfar Saba ther are 18 elementary schools (5 of them are religion elementary schools)[24], 8 middle schools (2 of them are religion middle schools)[25] and 11 high schools (4 of them are religion high schools)[26]. The high schools in Kfar Saba are divided to 3 groups: urban high schools (5), ORT high schools (2) and religion high schools (4).

The city is served by 105 synagogues.[27]

Health care[edit]

Meir Hospital is located in Kfar Saba.[28] Meir Hospital is a major medical center named for Josef Meir, the first head of the General Sick Fund and the first director of the Israeli Ministry of Health.[29] The hospital accepts all patients, Jews and Arabs, including patients from cities within the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, such as Qalqilyah.[30]

Environmental issues[edit]

Kfar Saba has won multiple awards for environment protection efforts. Kfar Saba is also the site of Israel's first biofilter project.[31]

Landmarks[edit]

Nabi Yamin[edit]

Kdoshei Kahir park in Kfar Saba.
Western Digital's Israel facility

A Mamluk caravanserai complex, including the mausoleum of Nabi Yamin, is located by the Kfar Saba – Qalqilyah road. The site contains an inscription dated to the 14th century.[32] The site has been associated with the tomb of Benjamin, son of Jacob.[33] North of this complex is a smaller tomb whose cupola has been painted green and is being maintained by local Palestinian Muslims, who consider it the "real" tomb. Jews and Muslims venerate Benjamin. Kfar Saba is in the heart of Dan's tribal area, but there are traditions that explain why Benjamin's tomb is located in the land of the tribe of Dan. The traditional burial place of Simeon, son of Jacob, lies close to Kfar Saba. It is a small domed structure that sits in a field not far from kibbutz Eyal. According to Meron Benvenisti, the site was until 1948 only holy to Muslims, and Jews ascribed no holiness to it.[34] Today the dedicated inscriptions from the Mamluk period remain engraved on the stone walls of the tomb but the cloths embroidered with verses from the Qur´an, with which the gravestones were draped, have been replaced by draperies bearing verses from the Hebrew Bible.[35]

First well[edit]

The modern development of Kfar Saba started when water was discovered in the early 1920s. The first well was excavated at this time, followed by many others over the next two decades. The Kfar Saba Water Plant was founded to centralize the water supply system. The city's first well is located in the courtyard of Kfar Saba City Hall.[36]

Amrami's dairy farm[edit]

The site of the dairy farm of Baruch Amrami, who transferred the administration of the Kfar Saba settlement from Petah Tikva to a local committee and founded the water company and the first bank of the village in the 1920s, is on the corner of Amrami and Rothschild Streets. The cowshed and Amrami's "office" are still standing.[37]

Nordenstein house[edit]

Due to the lack of security during World War I, the settlement was abandoned. In 1922, the Nordenstein family returned and built the first defensible stone house. It took another two years for other families to return (mostly from Petah Tikva). The Nordenstein House is still standing on HaEmek Street, near the central bus station.[citation needed]

Kibbutz HaKovesh dining hall[edit]

A stone house on Tel Hai Street designed for defense (outlooks and sharp-shooting parapets) served as the communal dining room of Kibbutz HaKovesh. The pioneers themselves lived in tents. In 1948, the kibbutz moved north to secure the Kalkiliya front. The building now houses the Kfar Saba Civil Guard.[citation needed]

City's Park[edit]

Kfar Saba park

Kfar Saba's Park is one of the biggest parks in the Sharon area. It has an area of 250,000 m2. The park includes kids playgrounds, water fountains, roller skate arena, fitness facilities, and shaded dining areas. The park is open daily between 6:30 am and 11:00 pm. There is free parking for city residents in different locations around the park.

Eva Fischer Fund[edit]

Located in the Kfar Saba's Municipality Center is the Eva Fischer's Fund, which displays artworks about the Shoah given to the city by the Italian painter.

Archaeology[edit]

Remnants of an ancient Israelite village were discovered east of the city, and are believed to be the ruins of biblical Capharsaba. The Kfar Saba Archaeology Museum exhibits artifacts found in the region.[38]

Weizmann Street, an example of building porticoes with arches in front of the stores
Tel Hay street. There is considerable use of tiled roofs

Architecture[edit]

Kfar Saba is characterized by residential buildings with red tiled roofs. The use of red tiled roofs is evident in all types of buildings: private homes, high-rise buildings, businesses and industry. Also, there is a widespread use in Porches with arches, especially in front of the stores at Weizmann and Rothschild streets.

In 2014, the Kfar Saba Municipality decided to oblige every contractor who want's to build in the city area to install "green roofs". The meaning of green roofs is that on the roof of every building that Will be placed solar panels to generate electricity from solar energy or a vegetable garden will be planted[39][40].

Industry[edit]

Cafe in Kfar Saba's industrial zone

Kfar Saba has one large industrial zone in the east of the city. It contains hi-tech offices and industrial plants, including Teva Pharmaceuticals' plant.

In popular culture[edit]

Kfar Saba was the primary filming location of FX's 2014-16 drama series Tyrant, which takes place in the fictional Arab country of Baladi.[41]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Kfar Saba is twinned with:[42][43]

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "קובץ הרשויות המקומיות בישראל - 2018". www.cbs.gov.il (in Hebrew). Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  2. ^ a b The Origin of the Name Capharsaba Kfar Sava Municipal Council
  3. ^ a b c Vilnai, Ze'ev (1976). "Kefar-Sava". Ariel Encyclopedia (in Hebrew). Volume 4. Israel: Am Oved. pp. 3790–96.
  4. ^ According to Ayalon, 1982. Cited in Petersen, 2002, p.233
  5. ^ Strange, le, Guy (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems: A Description of Syria and the Holy Land from A.D. 650 to 1500. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
  6. ^ Hoffman, Carl (June 17, 2009). "Pride and preservation". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  7. ^ Kashran, Tzvi (August 12, 1910). מכתב מפתח תקוה [Letter from Petah Tikvah]. Hapoel Hatzair (in Hebrew). Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  8. ^ Ben-Yishai, Ron (March 21, 1983). לזכרו של ברוך פריבר [Remembering Baruch Freever] (in Hebrew). Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c "היסטוריה".
  10. ^ History Kfar Saba Municipal Council (in Hebrew)
  11. ^ Haganah Kills 11 in Palestine Hunt for Arab Gunmen NY Times, August 16, 1947
  12. ^ 6 Dead, 26 Injured in Haifa Fighting NY Times, December 25, 1947
  13. ^ Morris, Benny (2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 164. ISBN 9780300126969.
  14. ^ a b Mordechai Surkis: Public Activities Knesset website
  15. ^ Jessica Steinberg (2001-05-04). "Israeli yuppie town of Kfar Saba now finding itself on the front line of the battle with the Palesti". JWeekly.com. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  16. ^ "security: Suicide attacks in Kfar Saba and Jerusalem kill one Israeli". israelinsider. 2002-03-17. Archived from the original on 2010-11-25. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
  17. ^ "Guard killed and 10 hurt in Israel suicide attack". The Independent. Associated Press. April 24, 2003. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  18. ^ Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jaffa, p. 20
  19. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 14
  20. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 27
  21. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 52
  22. ^ "Local councils and municipalities, by socio-economic index, ranking and cluster membership" (PDF). 2003. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  23. ^ Welcome to Givot Olam Oil Archived 2005-12-20 at the Wayback Machine Givot Olam
  24. ^ "בתי ספר יסודיים". www.kfar-saba.muni.il. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  25. ^ "חטיבות ביניים". www.kfar-saba.muni.il. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  26. ^ "תיכונים". www.kfar-saba.muni.il. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  27. ^ "Kfar Saba community guide". Nbn.org.il. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  28. ^ Horowitz, Ayala (May 7, 2007). שיבא - בית החולים הגדול בישראל [Sheba - Largest Hospital in Israel]. Makor Rishon (in Hebrew). Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  29. ^ Meir Medical Center history Archived June 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  30. ^ Meir Maternity Ward Staff Save 20 Year-Old Arab Mother[permanent dead link]
  31. ^ Leader, Avraham; Bar-Lev, Ahuva (May 15, 2011). "Kfar Sava biofilter successfully concludes first winter". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  32. ^ (in Hebrew)Yoav Regev (יואב רגב), ed., The New Israel Guide (מדריך ישראל החדש), vol. 8, p. 94, 2001.
  33. ^ Vermeulen, Urbain; Steenbergen, J. van (2001). Egypt and Syria in the Fatimid, Ayyubid, and Mamluk Eras III: Proceedings of the 6th, 7th and 8th International Colloquium Organized at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in May 1997, 1998, and 1999. Peeters Publishers. pp. 366–. ISBN 9789042909700. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  34. ^ Benvenisti, 2002, p. 276
  35. ^ Benvenisti, 2002, p. 277
  36. ^ "The Kfar Saba water tower". Water-tower.co.il. 2011-11-29. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  37. ^ Deutch, Gloria (2008-01-03). "Streetwise: Rehov Amrami, Kfar Saba". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 2013-07-06. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
  38. ^ "המוזיאון הארכיאולוגי לתולדות כפר-סבא". cms.education.gov.il. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  39. ^ "גגות ירוקים". www.kfar-saba.muni.il. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  40. ^ לוי, דותן (2014-01-29). "רוצים היתר בנייה בכפר סבא? גדלו גינת ירק על הגג". כלכליסט - www.calcalist.co.il. Retrieved 2020-11-19.
  41. ^ Press, Viva Sarah (2014-01-23). "FX's New TV Series 'Tyrant' About Syrian Leader is made in Israel". Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  42. ^ "ערים תאומות". kfar-saba.muni.il (in Hebrew). Kfar Saba. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  43. ^ "Kfar Saba/Qalqilya". gnvsistercities.org. Gainesville Sister Cities International. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  44. ^ "Veteran journalist and broadcaster Nakdimon Rogel dies". Jerusalem Post. 2011-12-08. Retrieved 2011-12-12.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Official website (in Hebrew)