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(NATO reporting name: AS-20 'Kayak')
3M24 Uran (SS-N-25 'Switchblade')
3K60 Bal (SSC-6 'Sennight')
Kh-35E fol maks2009.jpg
Kh-35E in MAKS-2009
Surface-to-surface missile
Cruise missile
Anti-ship missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service2003
Used byRussian Navy
Indian Navy
Vietnam People's Navy
Production history
ManufacturerTactical Missiles Corporation
Unit cost$500,000 (2010)[1]
Produced1996 for export, 2003 for Russia
KN-09 GuemSeong-3
Mass520 kg (1,150 lb)[2] (air version)
610 kg (1,340 lb)[2] (surface & heli version)
Length385 cm (152 in)[2] (air version)
440 cm (173 in)[2] (surface & heli version)
Diameter42.0 cm (16.5 in)[2]
WarheadHE fragmentation shaped charge
Warhead weight145 kg (320 lb)[2]

EngineR95TP-300 Turbojet[3] Kh-35 / Turbofan Kh-35U
360 kgf
Wingspan133 cm (52.4 in)[2]
130 km (70 nmi)
300 km (160 nmi) (upgrade version, 2015)[4]
Flight altitude10-15 m en route and about 4 m at terminal area
Maximum speed Mach 0.8–Mach 0.95 (609–723 mph; 980–1,164 km/h)
inertial guidance and ARGS-35E X-band terminal active radar homing[5]
Tupolev Tu-142, Su-24, MiG-29M/K, Sukhoi Su-35, Su-27SM, Su-30MKI//Su-30SM, Su-34, HAL Tejas, Ka-27, Ka-28,[2][6] Ka-52, Su-57,[citation needed] also ships and boats, coastal, LACM, TEL variants.

The Zvezda Kh-35 (Russian: Х-35 , AS-20 'Kayak') is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise[7] anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran ('Uranus', SS-N-25 'Switchblade', GRAU 3M24) or Bal ('Ball', SSC-6 'Sennight', GRAU 3K60). It is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes.[2]


Zvezda started work on the Kh-35 in 1983 by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers and the USSR CPSU Central Committee to arm ships of medium tonnage.[citation needed]


Seeker Kh-35E maks2005.jpg
Kh-35E maq maks2009.jpg

The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine. The missile is guided to its target at the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter.[2]

Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.[citation needed]

The Kh-35 can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5–6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures. Its aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile. The missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring highly secure operational modes of the active radar seeker.[citation needed]

Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single and multiple missile launch modes, acquiring and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km.[8] A new radar seeker, Gran-KE has been developed by SPE Radar MMS[9] and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker.[10]

[8][11] Kh-35 Kh-35U
Length: Ship/Land/Heliborne
4.4 m (14 ft)
3.85 m (12.6 ft)
0.42 m (17 in)
1.33 m (4.4 ft)
Weight: Ship/Land-based
620 kg (1,370 lb)
520 kg (1,150 lb)
610 kg (1,340 lb)
670 kg (1,480 lb)
550 kg (1,210 lb)
650 kg (1,430 lb)
Guidance Inertial, active radar Inertial, satellite navigation, active/passive radar
Range 130 km (81 mi; 70 nmi) 7–260 km (4–162 mi; 4–140 nmi)
Seeker range 20 km (12 mi; 11 nmi) 50 km (31 mi; 27 nmi)
Speed Mach 0.8 (609 mph; 980 km/h) Mach 0.8–Mach 0.85 (609–647 mph; 980–1,041 km/h)
Cruising altitude
Terminal altitude
10–15 m
4 m
Warhead 145 kg (320 lb) HE penetrator 145 kg (320 lb) penetrating HE frag

Operational history[edit]

The Kh-35 missile entered service in 2003. In July 2003, the system created by the "Tactical Missiles Corporation" passed the state tests and began to come into service of ships of the Russian Navy. Today it is generally accepted[by whom?] that in the criterion of "cost-effectiveness", "Uran-E" is one of the best systems in the world.[12] It has also been acquired by India.[13] The Bal coastal missile system showed excellent results in state tests in the fall of 2004, and entered service in 2008.[14]

A Bal system has four self-propelled launcher vehicles each carrying eight missiles for a total of 32 missiles in a salvo, plus reloads for another wave. The launchers can be up to 10 km from the coast and hit targets at ranges up to 120 km (75 mi; 65 nmi).[15] Currently, the Bal system is equipped with an upgraded version of the Kh-35E increasing the range to 300 km (190 mi; 160 nmi).[16][17] At IMDS 2019, a new version of the Russian Bal-E coastal defence system was presented for the first time. The four-tube Rubezh-ME, dedicated to the export market, is based on a Kamaz 63501 8x8 chassis which is more compact than the MZKT-7930 of the original Bal-E.[18][19]


Bal - coastal mobile missile complex
  • Kh-35 (3M-24) - Base naval version for Russia (2003).[8]
  • Kh-35E (3M-24E) - Export version of Kh-35 (1996).[citation needed]
  • Kh-35U - Base upgrade unified missile (can be used with any carrier), version for Russia in production (as of July 1, 2015).[11][20] Capable of striking land targets.[citation needed]
  • Kh-35UE[21] - Export version of Kh-35U, in production.[citation needed]
  • Kh-35V - Version for Russia, launched from a helicopter.[citation needed]
  • 3M-24EMV - Export version of Kh-35 missile-target without warhead for Vietnam.[citation needed]
  • Kh-35 Uran/Uran-E (SS-N-25 'Switchblade', 3M-24) - Shipborne equipment of the control system with a missile Kh-35/Kh-35E.[22]
  • Bal/Bal-E - Coastal (SSC-6 Sennight) missile complex with Kh-35/Kh-35E missiles (2008).[citation needed]
  • KN-09 Kumsong/GeumSeong-3 (Venus 3 금성3호 金星3号) - KN0v 0x 01, KN19 Reported North Korean copy of the Kh-35U. Kumsong-3 is a North Korean domestic variant/clone of Kh-35 likely based on Kh-35U due to range.[23] Demonstrated range in 2017, June 8 test is 240 km.[24]
  • Kh-37 or Kh-39 - possible name for nuclear-tipped variant.[citation needed]
  • VCM-01 - Vietnamese derivative[25]
  • Neptune - Ukrainian derivative[citation needed]


Map with Kh-35 operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

Mobile coastal defence (anti-ship) system KN-19 on a tracked chassis.
  •  Russia – 112 Kh-35 (3M-24) delivered in 2009–2010.[28]
    • Bal coastal missile brigades deployed by the Russian Navy:
      • 11th Black Sea Fleet Brigade, Utash, Krasnodar
      • 46th Separate Division of the Caspian Flotilla, Dagestan (former)
      • 15th Black Sea Fleet Brigade, Sevastopol, Crimea
      • 72nd Pacific Fleet Regiment, Smolyaninovo, Primorsky Krai
      • At least one more complex was delivered to the Western Military District in mid-2016.[29]
      • Two Bal missile systems delivered in 2017 and one more in November 2018 for the BSF.[30][31][32] Three more systems in 2019 and 2020 for the PF, CFl and BF.[33][34]
      • A deployment was moved[clarification needed] to the Sredny Peninsula in 2019.[35]
    • The Russian Air Force has acquired since 2014 an unknown number of Kh-35U missiles integrated with the Sukhoi Su-35S fighter aircraft and the Sukhoi Su-34 fighter-bombers.[36][37][38]
  •  Venezuela – Bal Coastal missile complex being delivered.
  •  Vietnam – 198 Kh-35E missiles delivered in 2001–2015. A local derivative designated as VCM-01 is being developed by Viettel.[25]
  •  Ukraine – Kh-35 derivative Neptune

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Annual Report", Tactical Missiles Corporation (2010), p.92.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Aerospace Systems Export Catalogue" (PDF). Rosoboronexport. p. 123. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2007.
  3. ^ "About". Aero-Engine Scientific and Technical Complex «Soyuz».
  4. ^ Ponomarev, Vadim (25 May 2015). "Новая ракета X-35: гроза американских эсминцев" [New X-35 missile: the terror of American destroyers]. Expert (in Russian). Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  5. ^ "ARGS-35E (Algeria), Airborne fire-control radars". Jane's. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  6. ^ "Kh-35U ASM enters Su-35S fighter jet weapon package". 24 October 2017.
  7. ^ "Kh-35 (AS-20 "Kayak") Anti-Ship Cruise Missile".
  8. ^ a b c "Tactical Anti-Ship Missile Kh-35E". JSC Tactical Missiles Corporation. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  9. ^ "Радиолокационная Головка АРГС-35Э" [ARGS-35E Radar]. Radar-MMS (in Russian). Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
  10. ^ "Russia: JSC Tactical Missile Arms Presents New Target Seeker". Naval Today. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  11. ^ a b "Tactical Guided Missile Kh-35UE". JSC Tactical Missiles Corporation. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  12. ^ ""Уран-Э": рождение конструкторского замысла" ["Uran-E": the birth of a design concept]. Nezavisimaya Gazeta (in Russian). 20 January 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  13. ^ "Kh-37". Jane's Air-Launched Weapons. 1 August 2008.[dead link]
  14. ^ "«Бал-Э» принят на вооружение" ["Bal-E" is put into service]. National Defence (in Russian). Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  15. ^ "Bal-E coastal missile system with Kh-35 antiship missile to defend Russia coast of Caspian Sea". 5 December 2011.
  16. ^ "Russia's Bal-E coastal defense system to be equipped with upgraded Kh-35 missile". 28 October 2015.
  17. ^ "Для КТРВ 2018 год стал рекордным с точки зрения объемов экспорта" [For KTRV, 2018 became a record year in terms of export volumes]. (in Russian). 15 July 2019.
  18. ^ "IMDS 2019: First public appearance of the Rubezh-ME coastal defence system". 11 July 2019.
  19. ^ Novichkov, Nikolai (15 July 2019). "Russia unveils export-oriented Rubezh-ME coastal defence missile system". Jane's. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019.
  20. ^ ""Тактическое ракетное вооружение" за три года запустило в серию 14 видов ракет" ["Tactical Missile Armament" has launched 14 types of missiles into series in three years]. ТАSS (in Russian). 1 July 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  21. ^ "Kh-35UE". Rosoboronexport.
  22. ^ "Корабельная аппаратура системы управления «Уран Э»" [Ship control system "Uran E"]. JSC Concern Granit-Electron (in Russian). Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  23. ^ "Kumsong-3 (Kh-35 Variant)". Missile Threat.
  24. ^ Panda, Ankit (26 July 2017). "North Korea's New KN19 Coastal Defense Cruise Missile: More Than Meets the Eye". The Diplomat.
  25. ^ a b "Vietnam unveils its new VCM-01 anti-ship cruise missile". Navy Recognition. 28 May 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  26. ^ "«Коммерсантъ» узнал об отказе Москвы поставить ракетные комплексы Баку" ["Kommersant" learned of Moscow's refusal to supply missile systems to Baku]. РБК (in Russian). 5 December 2018.
  27. ^ "Trade Registers". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  28. ^ Annual Report, Tactical Missiles Corporation (2010), p.92.
  29. ^ "Russian Navy received more than 100 Kalibr, Onix missiles in 3rd quarter". TASS. 21 October 2016.
  30. ^ "National Centre for State Defence Control hosts Military Acceptance Day chaired by Russian Minister of Defence". Russian Ministry of Defence. 31 January 2018.
  31. ^ "За последний месяц в войска ЮВО поставлено около 200 ед. новой и модернизированной техники" [Over the past month, about 200 new and modernized equipment units have been delivered to the troops of the Southern Military District]. (in Russian). 6 December 2018.
  32. ^ "Advanced coastal defense missile systems to protect Russia's Caspian Flotilla base". TASS. 22 February 2019.
  33. ^ "Новые береговые ракетные комплексы «Бал» прибыли на Тихоокеанский флот" [New coastal missile systems "Bal" arrived at the Pacific Fleet]. (in Russian). 26 February 2019.
  34. ^ "В 2020 году Балтийский флот пополнился кораблями и новейшей военной техникой" [In 2020, the Baltic Fleet was replenished with ships and the latest military equipment]. (in Russian). 12 January 2021.
  35. ^ Nilsen, Thomas (7 August 2019). "Russia deploys missile system 70 km from Norway's Vardø radar". The Barents Observer. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  36. ^ "Kh-35U ASM enters Su-35S fighter jet weapon package". 24 October 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  37. ^ "Пуски с самолетов Су-34 противокорабельных ракет Х-35У по морским целям" [Launches from Su-34 aircraft of Kh-35U anti-ship missiles at sea targets]. Russian Ministry of Defence (in Russian). 25 September 2018.
  38. ^ "Минобороны показало удары новейших российских противокорабельных ракет" [The Ministry of Defense showed the strikes of the latest Russian anti-ship missiles]. RIA Novosti (in Russian). 25 September 2018.

External sources[edit]

  • KH-35 at CSIS Missile Threat