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(NATO reporting name: AS-20 'Kayak')
3M24 Uran (SS-N-25 'Switchblade')
3K60 Bal (SSC-6 'Sennight')
Kh-35E fol maks2009.jpg
Kh-35E in MAKS-2009
Type air-to-surface, surface-to-surface missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 2003
Used by Russian Navy
Indian Navy
Wars No evidence of combat use
Production history
Designer Zvezda
Designed 1983-2003
Manufacturer Tactical Missiles Corporation
Unit cost $500,000 (2010)[1]
Produced 1996 for export, 2003 for Russia
Weight 520 kg (1,150 lb)[2]
610 kg (1,340 lb)[2] (heli version)
Length 385 cm (152 in)[2]
440 cm (173 in)[2] (heli version)
Diameter 42.0 cm (16.5 in)[2]
Warhead HE shaped charge
Warhead weight 145 kg (320 lb)[2]

Engine turbofan
450 kgf
Wingspan 133 cm (52.4 in)[2]
Propellant kerosene
130 km (70 nmi)
300 km (160 nmi) (2015)[3]
Flight altitude 10-15 m en route and about 4 m at terminal area
Speed Mach 0.8
inertial guidance and ARGS-35E X-band terminal active radar homing[4]
Su-24, MiG-29M/K, Su-27SM, Su-30MKI, Su-34, HAL Tejas, Ka-27, Ka-28,[2] also ships and boats, coastal, LACM, TEL variants.
Seeker Kh-35E maks2005.jpg
Kh-35E maq maks2009.jpg
Bal - coastal mobile missile complex

The Zvezda Kh-35U ('Star', Russian: Х-35У, AS-20 'Kayak') is the jet-launched version of a Russian subsonic anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran ('Uranus', SS-N-25 'Switchblade', GRAU 3M24 ) or Bal ('Ball', SSC-6 'Sennight', GRAU 3K60). It is also nicknamed "Harpoonski", because it looks like and functions very similar to the American Harpoon Anti-Ship missile. It is designed to attack vessels up to 5000 tonnes.[2]


Zvezda started work on the Kh-35 in 1983 by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers and the USSR CPSU Central Committee to arm ships of medium tonnage.


The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins[2] and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine.[2] The missile is guided to its target at the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter.[2]

Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or ship or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.

The Kh-35 anti-ship missile can be employed in fair and adverse weather conditions at sea states up to 5-6, by day and night, under enemy fire and electronic countermeasures.

The Kh-35's aerodynamic configuration is optimized for high subsonic-speed sea-skimming flight to ensure stealthy characteristics of the missile. The missile has low signatures thanks to its small dimensions, sea-skimming capability and a special guidance algorithm ensuring highly secure operational modes of the active radar seeker.

Its ARGS-35E active radar seeker operates in both single-and-multiple missile launch modes, acquiring and locking on targets at a maximum range of up to 20 km.[5] A new radar seeker, Gran-KE have been developed by SPE Radar MMS[6] and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker.[7]

Operational history[edit]

The Kh-35 missile entered service in 2003. In July 2003, the system created by the "Tactical Missiles Corporation" successfully passed the state tests and began to come into service of ships of the Russian Navy. Today it is generally accepted that in the criterion of "cost-effectiveness", "Uran-E" is one of the best systems in the world.[8] It has also been acquired by India.[9] The Bal coastal missile system in the fall of 2004 showed excellent results in the state tests and entered service in 2008.[10] From 2001-2015, Russia supplied Vietnam with 198 Kh-35E missiles for sea-based use. By June 2016, Vietnam was planning to start serial production of their indigenous KCT-15 anti-ship missile based on the Kh-35E, covering three types of Kh-35E missiles for sea-launched, air-launched, and coastal defense as part of the 3K60 Bal/SSC-6 Sennight mobile coastal defense system.[11]


  • Kh-35 (3M-24) - Base naval version for Russia (2003). Missile range - up to 130 km, detection range 20 km (as in all versions), length and weight - 4,4 m and 620 kg respectively (as in the land-based version), body diameter - 0,42 m, wing span - 1,33 m, altitude - en route 10–15 m, at terminal area about 4 m, cruise speed - 0,8 Mach, warhead type - HE penetrator, warhead weight - 145 kg (as in all versions).[12]
  • Kh-35E (3M-24E) - Export version of Kh-35 (1996).
  • Kh-35U - Base upgrade unified missile (can be used with any carrier), version for Russia in production (as of July 1, 2015).[13] Range 260 km, with satellite navigation and active-passive radar homing head, protection from spoofing, detection range 50 km.[14]
  • Kh-35UE - Export version of Kh-35U, in production.
  • Kh-35V - Version for Russia, launched from a helicopter.
  • 3M-24EMV - Export version of Kh-35 missile-target without warhead for Vietnam.
  • Kh-35 Uran/Uran-E (SS-N-25 'Switchblade', 3M-24) - Shipborne equipment of the control system with a missile Kh-35/Kh-35E.[15]
  • Bal/Bal-E - Coastal (SSC-6 Sennight) missile complex with Kh-35/Kh-35E missiles (2008).
  • KN-09 - Reported North Korean copy of the Kh-35U.
  • Kh-37 or Kh-39 - possible name for nuclear-tipped variant.
  • KCT-15 - License-produced Kh-35E by Vietnam.[11]


Map with Kh-35 operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

  •  Algeria
  •  Azerbaijan - Bal Coastal missile complex being delivered
  •  India
  •  Iran
  •  Russia - 112 Kh-35 (3M-24) delivered in 2009-2010.[16]
    • The Russian Navy is composed of 4 (16 mobile launch systems) divisions already have a missile complex called "Bal":[17]
    • 1st Division is part of the 11th BSF Brigade Utash, Krasnodar
    • 2nd Division—46th separate division of Caspian Flotilla, Dagestan
    • 3rd Division is part of the 15th Black Sea Fleet Brigade Sevastopol, Crimea
    • 4th Division in the 72nd PF Regiment Smolyaninovo, Primorsky Krai.
  •  Venezuela - Bal Coastal missile complex being delivered.
  •  Vietnam
  •  Myanmar Navy
  •  North Korea - KN-09/Kh-35U surface to surface.

Similar weapons[edit]

  • Harpoon (missile) (USA) - 221 kg warhead, 93–315 km range depending on platform
  • C-802 (China) - 165 kg warhead, 120–180 km range
  • Exocet (France) - 165 kg warhead, 180 km range
  • RBS-15 (Sweden) - 200 kg warhead, 200 km range
  • Sea Eagle (UK) - 230 kg warhead, 110+ km range

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ annual report Tactical Missiles Corporation 2010.p. 92
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rosoboronexport Air Force Department and Media & PR Service, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS export catalogue (PDF), Rosoboronexport State Corporation, p. 123 
  3. ^ "Новая ракета X-35: гроза американских эсминцев". Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  4. ^ Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2011.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC". Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Russia: JSC Tactical Missile Arms Presents New Target Seeker". Naval Today. Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  8. ^ ""Уран-Э": рождение конструкторского замысла". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "Kh-37", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01 [dead link]
  10. ^ "/". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Vietnam to launch Kh-35-based Anti-ship Missile Production -, 12 June 2016
  12. ^ "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  13. ^ "ТАСС: Армия и ОПК - "Тактическое ракетное вооружение" за три года запустило в серию 14 видов ракет". ТАСС. Retrieved 8 October 2015. 
  14. ^ "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC". Retrieved 23 December 2014. 
  15. ^
  16. ^ Annual report Tactical Missiles Corporation 2010.p. 92
  17. ^ "Береговой ракетный комплекс "Бал" поступил на Тихоокеанский флот". Retrieved 8 October 2015.