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Kh-59 Ovod
(NATO reporting name: AS-13 'Kingbolt')
Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo')
Kh-59MK2 maks2009.jpg
Kh-59MK2 at MAKS 2009
TypeCruise missile
Air-launched cruise missile
Air-to-surface missile
Anti-ship missile
Land-attack missile
Place of originSoviet Union/Russia
Service history
In service1980-current
Used byRussia, China, India, Algeria
Production history
DesignerMKB Raduga
ManufacturerTactical Missiles Corporation
Mass930 kg (2,050 lb)[1]
Length570 cm (220 in)[1]
Diameter38.0 cm (15.0 in)[1]
WarheadCluster or shaped-charge fragmentation[1]
Warhead weight320 kg (705 lb)[2]

EngineKh-59: two-stage rocket
Kh-59ME: rocket then turbofan
Wingspan130 cm (51.2 in)[1]
Kh-59ME (export): 115 km (62 nmi)[1]
Kh-59ME: 200 km (110 nmi)
Kh-59MK: 285 km (150 nmi)
Kh-59MK2: 550 km (300 nmi)
SpeedMach 0.72-0.88[1]
inertial guidance (then TV guidance), millimeter wave active radar seeker (Kh-59MK, Kh-59MK2 land attack version)[3]
Kh-59ME: Su-30MK[1]
Kh-59: Su-24M, MiG-27, Su-17M3/22M4, HAL Tejas, Su-25 and Su-30[4]
Kh-59MK2: Su-57[5]

The Kh-59 Ovod (Russian: Х-59 Овод 'Gadfly'; AS-13 'Kingbolt') is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo') is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets ships.[3]


The initial design was based on the Raduga Kh-58 (AS-11 'Kilter'), but it had to be abandoned[citation needed] because the missile speed was too high for visual target acquisition.

Raduga OKB developed the Kh-59 in the 1970s as a longer ranged version of the Kh-25 (AS-10 'Karen'),[6] as a precision stand-off weapon for the Su-24M and late-model MiG-27's.[4] The electro-optical sensors for this and other weapons such as the Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') and KAB-500 Kr bombs were developed by S A Zverev NPO in Krasnogorsk.[6]

It is believed that development of the Kh-59M started in the 1980s.[3] Details of the Kh-59M were first revealed in the early 1990s.[3]


The original Kh-59 is propelled by a solid fuel engine, and incorporates a solid fuel accelerator in the tail. The folding stabilizers are located in the front of the missile, with wings and rudder in the rear. The Kh-59 cruises at an altitude of about 7 meters above water or 100–1,000 metres (330–3,280 ft) above ground with the help of a radar altimeter. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h (370 to 620 mph) at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometres (660 to 36,090 ft) and has a CEP of 2 to 3 meters.[2] It is carried on an AKU-58-1 launch pylon.[4]

The Kh-59ME has an external turbofan engine below the body just forward of the rear wings, but retains the powder-fuel accelerator. It also has a dual guidance system consisting of an inertial guidance system to guide it into the target area and a television system to guide it to the target itself.[1]

The 36MT turbofan engine developed for the Kh-59M class of missiles is manufactured by NPO Saturn of Russia.[7]

Target coordinates are fed into the missile before launch, and the initial flight phase is conducted under inertial guidance. At a distance of 10 km from the target the television guidance system is activated. An operator aboard the aircraft visually identifies the target and locks the missile onto it.

Operational history[edit]

Although the original Kh-59 could be carried by the MiG-27, Su-17M3, Su-22M4, Su-24M, Su-25 and Su-30 family if they carried an APK-9 datalink pod, it was only fielded on the Su-24M in Russian service.[4] From 2008-2015, Russia delivered some 200 Kh-59 missiles to China for use on the Su-30MK2; deliveries may have included both Kh-59MK and Kh-59MK2 versions.[8] The Kh-59MK2 has been test-fired by a Su-57 stealth fighter, during its 2018 Syrian deployment.[5]


  • Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt') - original version with dual solid-fuel rocket engines. First shown in 1991; exported as Kh-59 or Kh-59E.[6]
  • Kh-59M (AS-18 'Kazoo') - adds turbojet engine and larger warhead. Range 115 km.[1]
  • Kh-59ME - 200 km-range variant offered for export in 1999.[3]
  • Kh-59MK - 285 km-range anti-shipping variant with turbofan engine and ARGS-59 active radar seeker.[3]
  • Kh-59MK2 - land attack variant of Kh-59MK (fire-and-forget),[3] equipped with either a 320 kg penetrating or 285 kg (628 lb) pellet warhead.[8]
  • Kh-59M2 - Kh-59M/Kh-59MK with new TV/IIR seekers, reported in 2004.[3]
  • Kh-20 - possible name for nuclear-tipped variant carried by Su-27 family.[3]
  • Kh-59L - laser-guided variant that was developed.[4]
  • Kh-59T - TV guided instead laser guidance variant.
  • Kh-59MK2 (AS-22) - stealth standoff version, with range of 290 km and 300-700 kg warhead. First unveiled at MAKS 2015.[9]

Proposed development options for the Kh-59M/ME have included alternative payloads (including cluster munitions) but their current development status is unclear.[4][10]


Map with Kh-59 operators in blue and former operators in red

Current operators[edit]


Former operators[edit]

 Soviet Union

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rosoboronexport Air Force Department and Media & PR Service, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS export catalogue (PDF), Rosoboronexport State Corporation, p. 124, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2007
  2. ^ a b "Raduga Kh-59 (AS-13 Kingbolt) and Kh-59M (AS-18 Kazoo)". Archived from the original on 1 January 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Kh-59M, Kh-59ME Ovod-M (AS-18 'Kazoo')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 3 December 2010, retrieved 28 April 2011
  4. ^ a b c d e f Kh-59 Ovod (AS-13 'Kingbolt'), 24 October 2007, retrieved 3 February 2009
  5. ^ a b "Russian Su-57 reportedly fired cutting-edge Kh-59Mk2 cruise missile during tests in Syria". 29 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b c "Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt'/Ovod)", Jane's Strategic Weapon Systems, 9 September 2008, retrieved 3 February 2009
  7. ^ "Saturn military engines for unmanned aerial vehicles". NPO Saturn website. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  8. ^ a b China's PLAN Received about 200 Kh-59MK Anti-Ship Missiles for Su-30MK2 by end-2015 -, 21 March 2016
  9. ^ "Russian Stealth Ship Killers Debut at MAKS 2015". 30 August 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  10. ^ Wiebe, Virgil; Titus Peachey (2000). "Clusters of Death". The Mennonite Central Committee Global Report on Cluster Bomb Production and Use. Mennonite Central Committee. Retrieved 28 April 2011. Also known as the Kh-59M Ovod-M, the AS-18 is modernized version of AS-13 Kingbolt ... The warhead can be either a 705-lb high explosive or 617-lb cluster submunitions.
  11. ^
  12. ^ 2011 Annual Report of Tactical Missile Corporation, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 August 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)


  • Gordon, Yefim (2004), Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two, Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing, ISBN 1-85780-188-1