Khakas people with musical instruments (2009)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Russia (primarily Khakassia)|
|China (Heilongjiang)||about 1,500|
|Predominantly Orthodox Christianity
(Russian Orthodox Church)
|Related ethnic groups|
The origin of the Khakas people is disputed. Some scholars see them as descendants of the Yenisei Kirghiz, while others believe that, at the behest of the medieval Mongol Khans, the Yenisei Kirghiz migrated to Central Asia. It is believed that the Khakas people and Fuyu Kyrgyz are closer to the ancient Yenisei Kirghiz, who are both Siberian Turkic peoples (Northeastern Turkic), rather than the Kyrgyz people of modern Kyrgyzstan, who are Kipchak Turkic people (Northwestern Turkic).
The Yenisei Kirghiz were made to pay tribute in a treaty concluded between the Dzungars and Russians in 1635.
Some of the Yenisei Kirghiz were relocated into the Dzungar Khanate by the Dzungars, and then the Qing moved them from Dzungaria to northeastern China in 1761, where they became known as the Fuyu Kyrgyz.
In the 17th century, the Khakas formed Khakassia in the middle of the lands of Yenisei Kirghiz, who at the time were vassals of a Mongolian ruler. The Russians arrived shortly after the Kirghiz left, and an inflow of Russian agragian settlers began. In the 1820s, gold mines started to be developed around Minusinsk, which became a regional industrial center.
During the 19th century, many Khakas accepted the Russian ways of life, and most were converted en masse to Russian Orthodox Christianity. Shamanism with Buddhist influences, however, is still common, and many Christians practice Shamanism with Christianity. In Imperial Russia, the Khakas used to be known under other names, used mostly in historic contexts: Minusinsk Tatars (Russian: минуси́нские тата́ры), Abakan Tatars (абака́нские тата́ры), and Yenisei Turks.
During the Revolution of 1905, a movement towards autonomy developed. When Soviets came to power in 1923, the Khakas National District was established, and various ethnic groups (Beltir, Sagai, Kachin, Koibal, and Kyzyl) were artificially "combined" into one—the Khakas. The National District was reorganized into Khakas Autonomous Oblast, a part of Krasnoyarsk Krai, in 1930. The Republic of Khakassia in its present form was established in 1992.
The Khakas people account for only about 12% of the total population of the republic (78,500 as of 1989 Census). The Khakas people traditionally practiced nomadic herding, agriculture, hunting, and fishing. The Beltir people specialized in handicraft as well. Herding sheep and cattle is still common, although the republic became more industrialized over time.
- "Окончательные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года". Archived from the original on 2011-08-24. (All Russian census, 2010)
- State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
- Millward 2007, p. 89.
- Tchoroev (Chorotegin) 2003, p. 110.
- Pozzi & Janhunen & Weiers 2006, p. 113.
- Russia Religion–Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Kira Van Deusen (2003). Singing Story, Healing Drum: Shamans and Storytellers of Turkic Siberia. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-7735-2617-X.
- NUPI - Centre for Asian Studies profile
- The Sleeping Warrior: New Legends in the Rebirth of Khakass Shamanic Culture
- Abakan city streets views
-  Beyaz Arif Akbas, "Khakassia: The Lost Land", Portland State Center for Turkish Studies, 2007.