Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani
Hamad Al Thani |
الشيخ خليفة بن حمد آل ثاني
|Emir of Qatar|
|Reign||22 February 1972 – 27 June 1995|
|Predecessor||Ahmad ibn 'Ali Al Thani|
|Successor||Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani|
17 September 1930|
Al Rayyan, Qatar
23 October 2016 (aged 86)|
|Burial||Al Rayyan Cemetery|
|House||House of Thani|
|Father||Hamad bin Abdullah Al Thani|
|Mother||Aisha bint Khalifa Al Suwaidi|
Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad bin Abdullah bin Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani GCB GCMG (17 September 1930 – 23 October 2016; Arabic: خليفة بن حمد آل ثاني) was the Emir of Qatar from 27 February 1972 until he was deposed by his son Hamad bin Khalifa on 27 June 1995. He was the grandfather of the current Emir, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani.
In 1957, Khalifa was appointed as Minister of Education. Then he was appointed as Deputy Emir. He was named as the heir apparent on 24 October 1960. In the 1960s he also served as Prime Minister and Minister of Finance.
On 22 February 1972, Sheikh Khalifa became the Emir of Qatar, seizing power from his cousin, Emir Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani. While many Western news outlets referred to it as an overthrow, the Qatari population merely considered it to be a succession of power. His initial activity was the process of the reorganization of the government. He also limited the financial privileges of members of the ruling family. Next, he appointed a foreign minister and an adviser to himself regarding the day-to-day affairs. On 19 April 1972, he amended the Constitution and expanded the Cabinet by appointing more ministers. Diplomatic relations were also established with a number of foreign countries at the ambassadorial level.
Khalifa's reorganization of the system of government saw a dramatic shift in the hierarchy of authority. He immensely reduced the traditional powers afforded to the heir-apparent while projecting all of the power onto himself.
On 18 July 1989, the cabinet was reshuffled for the first time, replacing most of the previous ministers and making it consist of 15 ministers. The Cabinet was again reshuffled under his premiership on 1 September 1992, expanding it to 17 members.
The state revenue from the oil sector had increased as the result of the rising of a number of production sharing agreements with foreign oil companies. Two production-sharing agreements were signed with the Standard Oil Company of Ohio in January 1985 and Amoco in February 1986. In January 1989, another production sharing agreement was signed between Qatar and the French state-owned oil company Elf Aquitaine. In the middle of 1991, production of gas in the Qatar North Field, the world's largest single field of non-associated gas (proven gas reserves of around 250 trillion cubic feet and probable reserves of 500 trillion cubic feet), commenced. While the search for finding more oil deposits in Qatar continued, Qatar built an industrial base in order to reduce dependence on the oil sector.
Coup and death
While Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani was staying in Geneva, Switzerland, in June 1995, his son Hamad bin Khalifa seized power. Khalifa lived in France until he returned to Qatar in 2004. He died on 23 October 2016 at the age of 86.
Marriages and children
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Sheikh Khalifa had five sons and twelve daughters from four wives.
- Sheikha Amna bint Hassan bin Abdulla Al Thani
- Sheikh Abdelaziz bin Khalifa, Petroleum and finance minister (1973–1991)
- Sheikha Noora bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Hissa bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Jafla bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Moza bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Aisha bint Hamad Al Attiyah
- Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa, Emir of Qatar from 1995 to 2013.
- Sheikha Rudha bint Jassim bin Jabr Al Thani
- Sheikh Abdullah bin Khalifa, Prime Minister (1996–2007)
- Sheikh Muhammed bin Khalifa
- Sheikha Aisha bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Amna bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Shaikha bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Al-Anoud bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Muna bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Amal bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Maryam bint Khalifa
- Sheikha Moza bint Ali bin Saud Al Thani
- Sheikh Jassim bin Khalifa
- Sheikha Nouf bint Khalifa
- "Qatar: The Al-Thani Dynasty". The Royal Ark. p. 7.
- "Thani, Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al-". Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Farlex.
- "Qatar rulers". Rulers. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- "Line of succession: The Al Thani rule in Qatar". Gulf News. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Kamrava, Mehran (Summer 2009). "Royal Factionalism and Political Liberalization in Qatar". The Middle East Journal. 63 (3): 401–420. doi:10.3751/63.3.13. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Helem Chapin Metz, ed. (1993). "The Al Thani". Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress.
- "Qatar PM seizes power from cousin". Ottawa Citizen. Beirut. AP. 23 February 1972. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
- Al-Kubaisi, Mohammed Ali M. (1984). Industrial development in Qatar: a geographical assessment (PDF). Durham E-Theses, Durham University. p. 77.
- "Sheikh Khalifa Bin Hamad Al Thani (1972–1995)". Qatar News Agency. Archived from the original on 3 August 2009.
- "Prince deposes father in Qatar". Deseret News. 27 June 1995. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- "The Late His Highness Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani was the architect of the modern Qatar". Qatar Day. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
- "Qatar: Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani passes away". Al Jazeera. 23 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Qatar's former ruler Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani dies". The Guardian. 23 October 2016.
Khalifa bin Hamad Al ThaniBorn: 17 September 1930 Died: 23 October 2016
Ahmad ibn 'Ali Al Thani
| Emir of Qatar
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani