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Khaliji is a type of modern contemporary music characteristic of Eastern Arabia (see Arab states of the Persian Gulf). It is characterized by heavy use of the oud and tabl drum. Khaliji incorporates elements of African, Indian, and Iranian music with indigenous Arab music. Kuwait pioneered the Khaliji genre, Kuwaitis were the first commercial recording artists in the Persian Gulf region. Abdallah Al Rowaished, Nawal El Kuwaiti, Abdul Kareem Abdul-Qader, and Nabeel Shoail are among the most prominent contemporary performers.
- Eyre, Banning. "Feature: Africans in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf (interview with Joseph Braude)". Afropop Worldwide. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Mustafa Said. "The History of Recording in the Gulf Area". Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Laith Ulaby. "Performing the Past: Sea Music in the Arab Gulf States". p. 99. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- Mustafa Said. "The History of Recording in the Gulf Area (2)". Retrieved 12 March 2016.
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